School English Grammar

(A Choice of Millions)

 

By

Menonim Menonimus

 

Edited By

Growhills Writers Board

 

 

 

 

 

Internet Edition 

www.menonimus.com

 

School English Grammar for High & Higher Classes  Written by Menonim Menonimus & Edited by Growhills Publishing Editorial Board.

 

All rights reserved.

No part of the ‘School English Grammar’ may be reproduced in any other  form. 

 

 

First Edition: 2019

 

 

  

  

 

 

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Introductory

(1)

By the term ‘Grammar’ we generally mean a book studying which we can learn to read, speak and write a language correctly. Etymologically the term ‘Grammar’ has come from the Greek word Grammatike where gram means ‘something written’ and the part tike means ‘art’. Hence the etymological meaning of ‘Grammar’ is the art of writing. Since its birth as a branch of linguistics in ancient Greece, the term has undergone some considerable modifications through the ages. 

As far as it is known the first grammar was written by a Greek Philosopher called Dionysius Thrax (c. 100 B.C.) Thrax distinguished two basic units of descriptions: sentence and words. He considered ‘Sentence’ to be the upper limit of grammatical description and the ‘word’ to be the minimal unit of grammatical description. He defined Sentence as ”group of words expressing a complete thought.” The constituents of a sentence were called ‘Parts of Speech’. He distinguished Noun, Verb, Participles, Articles, Pronoun, Preposition, Adverb and Conjunction. He made no distinction between Common Nouns and Proper Nouns but he separated the Participle from the Verb. The Adjective was classed with the Noun. Thus Dionysian Thrax introduced the tradition of analyzing Sentence as the parts of speech with which the study of a language (grammar) begins. 

After the model of a grammatical study initiated by the Greeks especially by Dionysius Thrax, the Romans took to practising this branch of knowledge. The first Latin grammar was written by Varro (116-27 B. C.) under the title De Lingua Latina which was comprised of twenty-five books. After him, some others also practised the art of writing grammar. But the Roman linguistics was largely the application of Greek thought and model to the Latin language. 

The first grammar of the English language was written in 1585 by William Bullokar under the title Brief Grammar for English. This grammar of Bullokar was an imitation of the Greek model. Before Bullokar there was no grammar of the English language because until the end of the 16th century Latin grammar was the only grammar taught in school. In English, the first Latin grammar was written by William Lily which was published in the first half of the 16th century. It was an aid to learning Latin and it severely followed Latin models. 

The grammars written by the Greek and Roman linguists may be termed as the Grammars of Ancient Tradition which were bold initiatives, though unscientific, approach to the analysis of language.

After about one hundred and eighty years of William Bullokar’s grammar, another linguistic R. Lowth wrote a grammar of the English language entitled Short Introduction to English Grammar which made a turning point in the tradition of writing grammar. This grammar was Prescriptive as it prescribed what was judged to be correct rather than to describe actual usages. Till the end of the 19th century, all the grammar of the English language were prescriptive. The best one of this genre of grammar was C. P. Mason’s English Grammar published in 1858.

The Prescriptive Grammars have the following features:

1. They were based on Latin grammars both in matter and treatment.

2. The prescriptivists relayed on meaning and function in the definition.

3. They emphasized on writing form of language rather than speaking.

In 1863 A. Bain wrote The Higher English Grammar that paved the way for the appearance of a new type of grammar which is termed as  Descriptive or Scientific Grammar. This type of grammar i.e. descriptive or scientific grammar adopted the inductive method. Among the grammarians of this type, mention may be made of Poutsman, Kruisinga, Curme and Otto Jesperson. The main features of this type of grammar were as follows:

1. Descriptive Grammarians focused their attention on the actual usage without trying to settle the relative correctness of divergent usages.

2. They relayed on the English of the best authors of their age as well as the English of the past. 

3. They used meaning and function in their description of parts of speech.

4. This type of grammar was descriptive no doubt but they did little attempt to structural analysis.

During the fourth decade of the twentieth century, an American linguist named Leonard Bloomfield initiated a new approach to grammar which is called Structural Descriptive Grammar. He and his followers sought to study the structure of language as objectively as possible, without reference to meaning and other languages i.e. Latin and Greek. They regarded English as a language having a specific structure. The structural grammarians have pointed out four devices used in English to indicate structural meaning: word form, word function, word order and intonation and accent pattern.

The grammars written after the first half of the twentieth century are objectively structural. The structural grammarians aim at analyzing the structure of standard language and find out the rules of the formation behind them. And almost all the grammars written after the second half of the twentieth century are intended to prescribe to the school curriculum.

(2)

 The present work of mine entitled School English Grammar is a grammatical work of the structural kind. (Initially, I named the book as New Millennium English Grammar. But later on, it is named as Reader English Grammar after the suggestion of my friends and students. Eventually, it is renamed as School English Grammar by the Growhills Publishing Editorial Board). It is especially meant for the student community of High and Higher Classes. In this book, I have dealt with the structure of the English language in the inductive method. 

While preparing this book, I have consulted some standard works of this kind written previous to me among which mention may be made of John Eastwood’s ‘Oxford Guide to English Grammar’,  M. Valeika’s An Introductory Course in Theoretical English Grammar, A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet’s A Practical English Grammar, A. S. Hornby’s A Guide to Pattern and Usages in English, C. E. Eckersly’s A Concise English Grammar, W.S. Allen’s Living English Grammar, P.K. De Sarkar’s A Text Book of Higher English Grammar, R. P. Gosh’s Good English and some others. In matters of subject matter, I claim no originality but in treating the matter I have applied my own method to render easy comprehensiveness of the matters of English grammar. I attempted my best to bring all the topics of grammar under the purview of this single work in order that the student community may meet their needs from this work in an easily graspable way. I think the student and the teacher communities would find the book easier to grasp all the topics of grammar as no stone is left unturned to make the book exhaustive.

The book is divided into two sections. In Section-A, I have dealt with the grammatical rules with description and analysis and in Section-B, I have dealt with word formations.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication i.e ‘School English Grammar’ may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without prior permission from the author. 

 Santi Kanan

Menonim Menonimus

January, 2019

 

 

Contents

 

 

Section-A 

Grammatical Rules

 

Chap.     Titles

1. Parts of Speech 

2. Sentence: Classification According to Purpose

3. Phrase and Clause 

4. Subject and Predicate

5. Clauses: Their Classification

6. Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

7. Clause Analysis of Complex &Compound Sentence

8. Classification of Sentence: According to Pattern

9. Classification of Nouns

10. Determiners

11. Classification of Adjectives

12. Classification of Verbs

13. List of Verbs

14.The Auxiliary Verbs

15. More About Verbs

16. More Functions of Auxiliary Verbs

17. The Finite Verbs  and the Non-finite Verbs

18. Tag Question and Question Words

19. Adverbs and Adverbials

20. Tense of Verbs

21. The Conditionals

22. Voice Change

23. Narration

24. Preposition

25. Appropriate Preposition

26. Group Verbs

27. Correlatives

28. Relatives and Conjunctives

29. Synthesis of Sentences

30. Syntax: Laws of Agreement

31. Conjunctions and Sentence Connectors

32. Phrases & Idioms

33. Punctuation

34.Common Errors

35. Sentence Pattern

36. Kinds of Phrase

37. Transformation of Sentence

 

Section-B 

Word Study

 

Chap.Titles 

1. Synonyms

2. Homonyms and Paronyms

3. Antonyms

4. One-Word Substitution

5. Diminutives

6. Some Foreign Words and Phrases

7. Distinction Between Groups of Synonyms

8. Formation of Parts of speech

9. Formation of Compound Words

10. Word Order

11. The Same Word Used as Different Parts of Speech

12. Use of Prefixes & Suffixes

13. Spelling Direction

14. List of Collective Nouns

15. Some commonly used Similes (Comparison)

 

Section -A

Grammatical Rules

 

Chapter-1

PARTS OF SPEECH

 

Mind the following sentence:

George is a good boy.

In the above sentence, there are five words as George, is, a, good and boy. These words are the parts of the sentence. 

Words with which a sentence is made are called Parts of Speech.

Now mind the bold words of the following sentences:

1. Merina is a girl.

2. She reads the Bible.

3. Eliza plays cricket.

4. Diana is a good dancer.

5. She dances nicely.

6. The pen is on the table.

7. Robert and William are cousins.

8. Alas! Henry is dead.

In the above sentence no.1, the bold word ‘Meirna’ refers to the name of a girl. In the sentence no. 2 the underlined word ‘She’ refers to the girl (Merina)  who is already mentioned in the first sentence. In the sentence no. 3 the word ‘play’ describes the action of the subject (Eliza). In the sentence no. 4 the underlined word good says something about the quality of Diana as a dancer. In the fifth sentence, the word ‘nicely’ tells about how Diana dances. Thus each word used in a sentence has its own function.  In the English language, the words according to their nature and function in a sentence are divided into eight classes (parts of speech) as Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection.

Let us tell about these Parts of Speech in detail as below:

 1. NOUN

Mind the bold words in the following sentences:

1. Albert was a scientist.

2. London is a city.

3. Gold is a precious metal.

4. Kindness is a great virtue.

5. Your presence gives me pleasure.

6. Meredith ran a race.

In the above sentence no. 1 the bold word ‘Albert’ refers to the name of a scientist. In the sentence no. 2 the word ‘London’ refers to the name of a city (place). In the sentence, no 3. the word ‘Gold’ indicates the name of a metal and in the sentence no. 4 the word ‘Kindness’ refers to the name of a virtue. The word ‘pleasure’ in sentence no. 5 is the name of a feeling and the word ‘race’ in the sentence no.6 is the name of action. These words are Nouns.

A noun is a naming word. It may be the name of a person, place, thing, quality, feeling, action etc. 

Some Examples of Noun: man, book, crow, vulture, bird, Earth, March, school, Mohan, Tajmahal, Delhi,  Iran, gold, honesty, courage etc.

Note: By thing we mean (i) something which we can see,  touch, hear, smell or (ii) something which we can feel or think of but can not see or touch.

 2. PRONOUN

Mind the bold words in the following sentences:

1. Henry says that he likes sweatmeats.

2. Susmita is fine: she has left the place just now.

3. Oliver, Tom and Jim are friends: all belong to Paris.

In the above sentence no.1 the bold word ‘he’ stands for Herny (a person). In the sentence no. 2 the word ‘she’ stands for Susmita (a girl). Likewise, the word ‘all’ in the sentence no.3 stands for Oliver, Tom and Jim. These are Pronouns.

A word which is used instead of a Noun is called Pronoun.

A Pronoun is used to avoid repetition of a name. 

Some examples of Pronoun: I,  he, she,  her, our,  we, me, my, us, you, your, his, they, their etc.

 3. ADJECTIVE

Mind the bold words in the following sentences:

1. There are five mangoes in the basket.

2. Sabrina is an intelligent girl.

3. Ronaldo gave me a new pen.

4. Many guests have turned up.

5. Lilima is wise.

6. Today is hot.

The bold words in the above sentences tell us something about the number, quality, state, etc. of the persons or things mentioned. They have qualified certain Nouns which follow or precede them. These are called Adjectives. 

An Adjective is a word which qualifies a Noun and adds something to its meaning.

Some examples of Adjective: small, long, big, deep, black, white, some, many, short, good, one, sweet, bitter, red, green, fat, strong etc. 

 4. VERB

Notice the bold words in the following sentences:

1. We drink tea.

2. Rakesh runs a race.

3. They play cricket.

4. Mrs Patricia is my sister.

5. The Earth moves round the Sun.

Each of the bold words in the above sentences describes the action of the subject i.e. what the subject does, what happens to it or what it is. These are called Verbs.

A Verb is a word used for saying something about a person, place or thing.

Some examples of Verb: learn, is, are, have, teach, has,  drink, run, go, eat, read, write, come, sit, play, swim etc.

 5. ADVERB

Notice the bold words in the following sentences: 

1. Pearson laughs loudly.

2. Rebeca is very intelligent.

3. Raphel walks so slowly.

In the above sentences, the bold words have modified or added something to the meaning of a Verb (laughs), an Adjective (intelligent), or an adverb (slowly). These are called Adverb.

An Adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an Adjective or another Adverb.

Some examples of Adverb: now, soon, so, very, here, there, often, then etc. 

Most Adverbs are made by adding-ly to Adjectives as:

Adjective       Adverb

Sudden          suddenly

Slow              slowly

Loud              loudly

Bright            brightly

Easy               easily

Strong           strongly

Clear           clearly

Nice             Nicely

King            kindly

Light            lightly

Soft             softly

 6. PREPOSITION

Notice the bold words in the following sentences: 

1. Pritam kept the pen on the table.

2. Thomas hid behind the tree.

3. Amrita is afraid of the dark.

4. They jumped over the bridge.

In the above sentences, the bold words have shown how the Nouns ‘table’, ‘tree’, ‘dark’ and ‘bridge’ are related to other words (Nouns) in the sentences. These are Prepositions.

A Preposition is a word which is used with a Noun to show its relation to some other words (Nouns) in the sentence.

Some examples of  Preposition: in, under, from,  on,  by, for,  with,  into, to,  at,  unto, till, up, behind etc.

7. CONJUNCTION

Notice the bold words in the following sentences:

1. Medona and Ophelia are two sisters.

2. Raman is poor but honest.

3. Make hay while the Sun shines.

4. You must do or die.

In the above sentences, the bold words link together words (in the first sentence), phrases (in the second sentence), clauses (in the third sentence) or sentences (in the fourth sentence). These are called Conjunctions.

A Conjunction is a word used to join together words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Some examples of Conjunction: or, though, if, yet, that, as, but, till etc.

 8. INTERJECTION

Notice the bold words in the following sentences:

1. Hurrah! We have won the match.

2. Alas! the old man is no more.

3. Bravo! go ahead.

4. O God! help us.

5. Oh! what a wonderful fort it is.

The bold words in the above sentences express sudden feeling or emotion of joy, sorrow or wonder. These are called Interjection.

An Interjection is a word which expresses a sudden feeling or emotion.

Some examples of Interjection: hello, O, Oh, alas, hurrah, bravo etc.

Note: The above-discussed classification of words is based on the function of words in a sentence. In the English language  the same word may have a different function in different sentences: For example:

We have the right to vote. (Noun)

Do it in the right way. (Adverb)

Right the wrong. (Verb)

I am right. (Adjective)

 EXERCISE

1. What do you mean by  Parts of Speech? How many classes are the English words divided into according to their function in a sentence?

2. Name the parts of speech of the underlined words in the following sentences:

(i) All that glitters is not gold.

(ii) Whom do you praise most?

(iii) Rejina is an industrious woman

(iv) Though Ravan is bold yet he is unhappy.

(v) How many friends do you have?

(vi) She is not enough beautiful.

(vii) We are brothers and sisters.

(viii) God loves His creations.

(ix) Mahatma Gandhi was the votary of Non-violence.

(x) Having done this he left the place.

(xi)  Seema sings hymns nicely.

(xii) It is very hot today.

(xiii) Rita and Sita are class-friends.

(xiv) Alas! Our leader is dead.

(xv) Hark! the crickets sing.

(xvi) God helps them who help themselves.

(xvii) We are fond of pet dogs.

(xviii) Nouman is our best Friend.

(xix) Still water runs deep.

(xx) The mangoes are in the tree.

3. Underline the verbs in the following sentences:

(i) I am a boy.

(ii) You are drinking tea.

(iii) They have been doing this since Sunday.

(iv) Listen to: he is speaking.

(v) Long live the king.

4. Underline the Prepositions of the following sentences:

(i) The cat is under the chair.

(ii) Climb up the wall.

(iii) Look at the sky.

(iv) She kept the towel on the table.

(v) He came soon from the market.

5. Underline the Conjunctions of the following sentences:

(i) He is my classmate who wears a white dress.

(ii) Priya and Deepika are good dancers.

(iii) Nalini is short but charming.

(iv) Though he is honest yet he is rich.

(v) Wait till I return.

6. Underline the Adverbs in the following sentences:

(i) She walks fast.

(ii) He goes there soon.

(iii) Tom visits India often.

(iv) They are so much tired.

(v) The Sun shines brightly.

7. Underline the Adjectives in the following sentences:

(i) I am hungry.

(ii) Rajen is wise.

(iii) Margaret is a reputed social worker.

(iv) I have some books.

(v) He is very intelligent.

8. Underline the Interjections in the following sentences:

(i) Alas! We have lost our Captain.

(ii) Bravo! March ahead.

(iii) O God! bless us.,

(iv) Oh! he has lost his red pencil.

(v) Hark! the wind is blowing.    0 0 0

 

Chapter-2

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE ACCORDING TO PURPOSE

 

We know that a group of words which makes a complete sense is called a Sentence. Now mind the following sentences:

1. Priti is my cousin.

2. What does Rekha do?

3. Do it soon.

4. Hurrah! we have won the match.

5. May God bless us.

If we mind the meaning or purpose of the above sentences we find that the first sentence gives a statement or information, the second sentence makes a question, the third sentence refers to an order, the Fourth sentence expresses a sudden emotion and the fifth sentence expresses a wish. Thus according to the purpose or meaning the English sentences are divided into five classes as:

I. Assertive Sentence.

II. Interrogative Sentence.

III. Imperative Sentence.

IV. Optative Sentence and

V. Exclamatory Sentence.

Now let us discuss all these kinds of sentence in detail as under:

 I. ASSERTIVE SENTENCE

 Mind the expressions of the following sentences:

1. Gopi is an Indian girl.

2. Renan is not coming.

3. It may rain tonight.

4. It may not hot today.

4. God helps those who help themselves.

Each of the above sentences makes a statement either in the positive or negative. These are Assertive Sentences.

A Sentence which makes a statement either in the positive or negative is called an Assertive Sentence. 

An Assertive sentence is used to state a fact or to convey a piece of information. It is also called a Declarative Sentence or Statement. It may also state possibility, probability or impossibility. It is the most frequently used form of sentence in any language.

The general Formation of an Assertive Sentence is:

Subject + Verb + Object (Complement)

An Assertive Sentence have the following characteristics:

1. It always takes full stop (.) at the end, as:

Tom is my best friend.

Hitler was a dictator.

2. The subject word of an Assertive Sentence comes before the verb, as:

Kamal likes Russian vodka.

Hari plays well.

3. If an Assertive sentence begins with here, there or it then the Subject word is placed after the verb, as:

Here is your book.

It is our playground.

There are many cows in the field.

4. Sometimes the Subject word is placed after the verb if the emphasis is given on the Finite Verb, Adjective or Adverb, as:

Must you do your duty on time. (Finite verb ‘must’)

Ripe was the mango. (Adjective ‘ripe’)

Never was Tapan a bad boy. (Adverb ‘never’)

Thus when a Finite Verb, Adjective or Adverb is placed at the beginning of an Assertive Sentence and shows its dominance in the sentence then the sentence is called Emphatic Assertive Sentence and the dominant word is called Emphatic Word. 

II. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

Mind the expressions of the following sentences:

1. Why is Peter so late?

2. How are you?

3. Where do you live?

4. What is your name?

5. When the guest will come?

6. Is Charles a student?

7. Does she speak Greek?

Each of the above sentences asks a question. These are Interrogative Sentences.

A  sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative Sentence.

An Interrogative Sentence bears the following characteristics:

1. An Interrogative Sentence takes Interrogative Mark (?) at the end as in the above-mentioned sentences.

2. An Interrogative Sentence generally begins with interrogative Pronouns like– how, why, when, where, what etc. as in example nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

3. An Interrogative Sentence is also introduced with Auxiliary Verbs as in example nos. 6 and 7.

Every Assertive Sentence can be transformed into an Interrogative Sentence and likewise, every Interrogative Sentence can be transformed into an Assertive Sentence.  The rules of transforming an Assertive Sentence into an Interrogative sentence and vice versa will be discussed in another chapter.

III. IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

Mind the following expressions.

1. Shut the door.

2. Take the left turning to reach the place.

3. Be kind to the poor.

4. Please bring me a glass of water.

5. Let us play now.

Each of the above sentences expresses an order (sentence no. 1), direction (sentence no. 2), advice (sentence no. 3) or request (sentence no. 4), propose (sentence no.6). These are Imperative Sentences.

An Imperative Sentence is a sentence with which an order, direction, command, request etc. are issued.

There are some features of Imperative Sentences such as:

1. An Imperative sentence takes a full stop at the end. as:

come here soon.

Stand up instantly.

2. Generally, the subject of an Imperative Sentence remains silent, as:

(You) do the sum.

(You) post the letter.

Note: Though the subject of an Imperative sentence remains silent yet to express displeasure or to point out somebody from a group the subject word is explicitly used as in the following expressions:

You, be silent.

Henan, come to the blackboard and solve the puzzle.

3. An Imperative Sentence is written in the Present tense.

Don’t smoke a cigarette.

Drink coffee now.

4. Some Imperative sentence may be introduced with ‘Let’ verb, as:

Let us read a novel.

Let them go there.

Let us do whatever we like.

Note: If an Imperative sentence begins with the ‘Let’ verb then the subject word is placed after the ‘Let’ verb and the main verb is placed after the subject word.

5. Emphatic ‘do’ is used in Imperative Sentence to refer to more serious request, as:

Do give him some more lemon juice.

IV. OPTATIVE SENTENCE

Mind the following expressions:

May God bless us all.

May you be happy.

May your soul rest in peace.

God bless them all.

Long live the king.

The above sentences express a wish, bless, or pray. These are Optative Sentences. An Optative Sentence takes full stop (.) at the end.

An Optative Sentence is a sentence with which the wish, bliss or prayer of a speaker is expressed.

Note: Though an Optative Sentence generally begins with ‘May’ yet some Optative sentence may be formed without using ‘may’ as in sentence no.4 and 5.

V. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

What beautiful scenery this is! (wonder)

What a fool he is! (pity)

Alas, our leader is dead! (sorrow)

How poor they are! (sympathy)

Each of the above sentences expresses wonder (in sentence no.1), pity (in sentence no.2), sorrow (in sentence no.3), sympathy (in sentence no.4). These are Exclamatory sentences.

An Exclamatory Sentence is a sentence with which some sudden or strong feelings like wonder, pity, sympathy or sorrow of the speaker is expressed.

Note (i): An exclamatory sentence is generally introduced with–‘what’ or ‘how’. It may also be begun with ‘alas’, ‘oh’ etc. 

Note (ii): An exclamatory sentence takes Exclamatory Mark(!) at the end. 

 

 EXERCISE

1. How many classes are the English words divided into according to their meaning?  

2. Classify the following sentences according to their meanings:

May God help the poor children. 

Deepika is an Assamese girl. 

Who are you? 

Kanak is our classmate. 

Hurrah! we have become victorious. 

Sushmita dances well. 

Come here without delay. 

I am a student of Class X. 

May Oliver pass the examination. 

What a joy! 

Make hay while the Sun shines.

Kamal is our cousin. 

Can you tell me the story? 

We visited Ireland last year. 

They are playing badminton. 

Did you attend the seminar? 

Ram, have a glass of tea. 

It is getting dark soon. 

The Moon is a satellite. 

Henry Ford was a big industrialist. 

Have you ever seen the Red Fort? 

The Qutub Minar is in Old Delhi. 

How fool she is! 

Mother Teresa was a great humanitarian woman. 

Never deviate from the straight path.  

My child, do your duty regularly.

Harsha was a great businessman. 

Never be late at work. 

You must do your duty. 

Here is a pen. 

How noble my brother is!

3. Make five Assertive Sentences of your own.

4. Make five Optative sentences of your own.

5. Turn the following sentences into Interrogative sentences:

(i) Kalyani was a school teacher.

(ii) Purnima is my aunt.

(iii) He will come soon.

(iv) Albert and his friend are on the way to Dubai.

(v) They are swimming in the river.

 0 0 0

 

Chapter-3

PHRASE AND CLAUSE

A. PHRASE 

Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. Our Principal is a man of few words.

2. Napoleon was a man of fortune.

3. Go there as soon as possible.

4. He sat on a chair.

5. We met George Bose on the way to London.

6. We belong to a nation of unique heritage.

7. Keep the book on the table. 

In the above sentences the italicized words as: of few words, of fortune, as soon as possible, on a chair, on the way, unique heritage, on the table are made of more than one word (a group of words). Each of them has expressed a meaning but not a complete meaning. These group of words have neither Subjects nor Finite verbs. These are called Phrase.

A Phrase is a group of words having neither a subject nor a Finite verb but expresses a sense though not a complete sense.

B. CLAUSE

Mind the parts of the following sentences:

Vaskar is a boy who is a college student.

This is the book which she bought yesterday.

This is the house where they live.

We will not go there if it rains.

Listen to what the teacher says.

Tell me where you are.

If we mind the above sentences we find that each of these sentences bears two parts. Each part have a subject and a finite verb of its own and makes a sense though not a complete sense. These are called Clause. For illustration: the two parts of the first sentence are: (i) Vaskar is a boy and (ii) who is a college student. 

A Clause is a group of words having a Subject and  Finite verb of its own with a sense which forms a part of a bigger sentence. 

Though Phrase and Clause are made of a group of words yet there are some distinctions between the two as:

A phrase has neither a Subject nor a Finite verb. It makes a sense but not a complete sense.

On the other hand, a Clause has a Subject and a Finite Verb. It makes a sense but depends on the rest of the sentence to make a complete sense. A clause forms a part of a bigger sentence. A clause in a sentence is connected with the best part of the sentence by a connective word like: that, what, where, which, and, it, but, if etc.

Note: Clauses are divided into Principal Clause, Co-ordinate Clause and Sub-ordinate Clause. Sub-ordinate Clauses are again divided into Noun Clause, Adjective Clause and Adverbial Clause according to their functions in a sentence. A detailed account will be undertaken about Clauses in another chapter.

 EXERCISE

1. What do you mean by Phrase? Point out the phrases in the following sentences:

Rome was not built in a day. The table is made of teak wood. Ram was a man of great virtue. They are playing ball in the school field. This chain is made of gold. Karishma is a woman of high birth.  He drives the car at full speed. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the First Prime Minister of Independent India. Hari was a man of courage. Ganga is a meritorious student. He left India for good. My uncle bought me a white shirt. A barking dog seldom bites. Charity begins at home. Harish is a white elephant of his parents. Manisha is an actress of an excellent career.

2. What do you mean by Clause? Underline the clauses in the following sentences:

He who neglects his duty must suffer in life. If you hope to progress in life work harder.  A good student is he who studies regularly. Do it or die. Act upon what your teacher told you. All that glitters is not gold.  Wait here till he returns. A sinner is he who commits sin. God helps them who help themselves. I can not go there if you don’t send the car.  He went to college inspite of his illness.  He who is idle can never shine in life. We don’t know well where they live.

3. Find out which of the italicized group of words in the following sentences are phrases and which are clauses:

Ask him if he goes to school. Make hay while the Sun shines. Do not play in the courtyard. He is my brother who wears a white shirt. Kanak is the boy whom everybody loves. Though Thomas is poor yet he is virtuous. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-4

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

 

We know that our speech is made up of sentences. Sentences are made up of words arranged in an agreed way. A sentence gives a complete sense. Every sentence can be divided into two parts, as- Subject and  Predicate. For example:

1. Dogs bark.

2. Birds fly.

In the above sentences, the words Dogs and Birds are subjects and the words bark and fly are Predicates. Let us discuss them in detail as below:

A. THE SUBJECT

The subject of a sentence may be only one word, or it may be made up of a number of words. The main word in the subject is called Head-word and the words which come before the Head-word are called Qualifiers. The Qualifiers are further divided into Determiners and Adjectives. The words which come after the Head-word are called Adjectival Phrase because they qualify the noun. For instance mind the following table:

Subject                     Predicate

A pious lady with long hair delivered a speech

In the above example, the Subject is divided into (1) Qualifiers (2) Head-word and (3) Adjectival Phrase. The Qualifiers are further divided into two parts as (i) Determiner and (ii) Adjective.

The chief Determiners are :

1. Articles: A, An and The

2. Demonstratives: This, That, These and Those.

3. Possessive Forms: my, our, your, her, his, their, its, Ram’s.

4. Limiting Adjectives: Some, all, many, few, much etc.

The Adjective is placed between the Head-word and the Determiner, the Adjectival Phrase is placed after the Head-word.

The Head-word of a subject is either a noun or a pronoun or any other word which has the same function or relation in a sentence as a noun. Such words are: (i) Gerund and (ii) Infinitives. For examples:

Swimming is a good exercise.

To swim is a good exercise.

In the first sentence, the word Swimming is the Subject (Head-word) and it is a Gerund. In the second sentence To swim is the Head-word and it is an Infinitive.

In some sentences the Head-word may be either ‘It’ or ‘Ther’ as in the following sentences:

It is raining heavily.

There is some problem.

In the above sentences, the words ‘It’ and ‘There’ have no particular meaning. They have been used simply to begin the sentence. In such use, the word It is called Neutral It and the word There is called Introductory There.

B. THE PREDICATE

The Predicate of a sentence, like the Subject, may be formed only of one word or of a number of words. When it is formed only of one word then that word is always a verb. For example: 

Ram runs.

Here the Predicate is formed only of one word and that word is runs which is a verb.

When the Predicate is formed of a number of words it is divided into two parts as -(1) the Verb (Head -word) and (2) the Object.

The Object may be a noun, pronoun, noun-phrase, infinitives or gerund.

As is the case with the subject, the Object may also have a Determiner, an Adjective and an Adjectival Phrase. For example:

Robert reads a new book.

In the above sentence, the Predicate is made up of four words as: read, a, new and book. Here the Headword is read and it is a verb, a is a determiner new is an adjective and book is a noun (object).

In some sentences when the Verb in the Predicate is a Transitive verb it takes two objects to complete its sense. For example:

Manab gives me a pen.

In the above sentence, there are two objects as– me and a pen. 

Here  ‘me’ is an animate (living)  object and pen is an inanimate (lifeless)  object. The Animate Object is called Indirect Object and the Inanimate Object is called Direct Object. In a sentence, the Animate or Indirect Object generally comes after the verb and the Inanimate or Direct Object comes after it. 

In some sentence, the Direct Object comes first and the Indirect Object comes after it. In such cases prepositions as: for or to is used before the Indirect Object as in the following sentence:

Jadav teaches us Hindi. 

Jadav teaches Hindi to us.

In the first sentence, us is the Indirect Object and Hindi is the Direct Object. In the second sentence the Direct Object Hindi is placed first and the preposition to is used before us (indirect object).

In some sentences, the Object is not complete by itself, and it needs some word or group of words to complete the sense. Such words or group of words are called Object Complements. For example:

We made him the President.

We named our horse Chaitak.

In these sentences the President and Chaitak are Object Complements as they complete the objects him and horse. In these examples, the object complements are Nouns and Noun Phrases. But Adjectives, Adjectival Phrases, Present Participles and past Participles may also be used as Object Complements as in the following sentences:

He saw him sitting (Present Participle)

They made me bored. (Past Participle)

We found him happy. (Adjective)

When the verb in the Predicate is an Intransitive verb it does not require any object to complete the sense. For example: 

Baby cries.

In the above sentence cries is an Intransitive verb and no object is used after the verb, but still, the sense is complete.

Some sentence made up of Intransitive verb does not make complete sense and require some Noun, Pronoun or Adjective to complete the sense. Such Noun, Pronoun or Adjective are called Subject Complements. For examples:

The lady seems happier.

The night becomes dark.

Here ‘happier’ and ‘dark’ are subject complements for they complete the information of the subjects  Lady and night. The verbs seem and become are called Liking Verbs for they link the subject with its complement.

When the verb in the Predicate is a ‘to be’ verb (am, is, are, was, were) then the word or words coming after it is subject complements. Such words may be Nouns, Pronouns, Noun Phrases, Infinitives, Adjectives, Adjective Phrases, Adverbs, Present Participles and Adverbials as in the following sentences:

1. The pen is here. (Adverb)

2. He is happy. (Adjective)

3. The bag is on the table. (Adverbial)

4. This godown is to let. (Infinitives)

5. It is a tree. (Noun)

7. This book is his. (Pronoun)

EXERCISE

1. Analyse the following sentences into Subject and Predicate. Also, break up the Subjects into its separate parts:

a. Kalidas had been a  great poet.

b. They are peasants.

c. The pretty girl with a round face is a lyricist.

d.Your uncle is our Science teacher.

e. The baby cried continuously.

f. The man sitting in the front row is my cousin.

g. The peasants generally work in the field.

h. Children like to play all day long.

2. Analyse the following sentences into Subject and Predicate. Also, break the Predicate into separate parts.

a. The cow is very shrewd.

b. My daughter enjoys cycling.

c. They want to play.

d. He sent me a box full of books.

e. Our grandfather tells us strange tales.

f. The captain of the team decided to play in the Royal Field.

g. The Rhinos of Assam are one-horned.

3. Find out the Indirect Objects in the following sentences:

a. We presented the guests with some pens.

b. He gives me a cotton shirt.

c. The boy sent a telegram to us.

d. Karim and Rahim greeted us.

e. Hari is giving us shelter.

4. Find out the Subjects and Objects of the following sentences:

a. Walking is good exercise.

b. Swimming is good for health.

c. To smoke is injurious to health.

d. A barking dog does not bite.

e. He made me worried.

5. Find out the Object Complements of the following sentences:

a. We made him the spokesman.

b. He named his home White Building.

c. He kept us waiting.

d. I found him sad.

e. They made me worried.

f. We made him busy.

g. The teacher made us learn the lesson.  0 0 0

 

Chapter-5

CLAUSES: THEIR CLASSIFICATION

We know that a Clause is a part of a sentence having a subject and a finite verb of its own and makes a sense though not always a complete sense. Now mind the following sentences:

I know where she lives.

In the above sentence, there are two parts as: (i) I know and (ii) she lives. Here the subject of the first part is ‘I’ and the finite verb is ‘know’ and in the second part the subject is she and the finite verb is lives. These two parts being connected by the connective word ‘where’ have made the complete sentence. Each of the two parts of the sentence is a Clause. 

Now mind the following sentence:

She must weep or she will die.

There are two parts in the sentence: (i) She must weep and (ii) she will die. The subject of the first part is ‘she’ and the finite verb is ‘weep’. In the second part, the subject is ‘she’ and the finite verb is ‘die’. The two parts are connected by the connective word or. Each part of the sentence is a clause. In the sentence both parts are independent. No part of the sentence is dependent on the other to make a complete sense.

Thus according to the manner of expressing meaning the clauses are divided into three classes, as: 

1. Principal Clause

2. Sub-ordinate or Dependent Clause and

3. Co-ordinate or Independent Clause.

Let us make a detailed account of all these clauses as below:

1. Principal Clause

Mind the following expressions:

2. This is the kite which I bought yesterday.

3. She will not come if it rains.

In the above sentence no.1, there are two parts as: (i) This is the kite and (ii) which I bought yesterday. The first part of the sentence is independent as it is not dependent on the other part of the sentence to express its meaning. This part of the sentence is called Principal Clause. 

A Principal Clause is a part of a sentence with a subject and a finite verb of its own and can express a complete meaning without depending on the other part of the sentence.

Bear in mind that every Principal clause is a simple sentence.

2. Subordinate or Dependent Clause

Mind the following expressions:

1. This is the lady who spoke to me yesterday.

2. Raja asked me where I lived.

3. This is the boy who did it.

In the above sentence no 1. there are two parts as: (i) This is the lady and (ii) who spoke to me yesterday. The second part of the sentence depends on the first part to complete its meaning. This part of the sentence is Sub-ordinate or Dependent Clause.

A Sub-ordinate (Dependent) Clause is a part of a sentence that can not express its meaning independently without depending on the principal clause.

The Sub-ordinate clauses generally begin with connectives like that, which, what, whom, whose, however, whichever, whenever, whoever etc.

Sub-ordinate clauses are divided into Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause and Sub-ordinate Adverbial Clause. (All these kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause will be taken into account in another chapter).

3. Co-ordinate or Independent Clause

Mind the following expressions:

Charles is a boy and Diana is a girl.

The dogs bark and the babies cry.

Man proposes: God disposes.

Each of the above sentences is made up of two parts. The two parts of the first sentence are : (i) Charles is a boy and (ii) Diana is a girl. These two parts are connected by the connective word and. Both parts are independent to each other. Each part can express its meaning without depending on the other. These are Co-ordnate or Independent Clause.

The Co-ordinate (Independent) Clauses are the parts of a sentence which are independent of each other in expressing their meaning.

Mind that if there are two principal clauses in a sentence then both the clauses are co-ordinated (of equal status) clauses to each other.

 EXERCISE

1. Analyse the clauses of the following sentences:

(a) A gun destroys but a pen creates something.

(b) Kalidas wrote in Sanskrit and Keats wrote in English.

(c) I know when his uncle will go there.

(d) The girl who is reading the Bible is my sister.

(e) It is news that the boy bites a dog.

(f) That Renin will shine in life is known to us.

(g) It is a fact that she died of hunger.

(h) Lalita is as intelligent as she is studious.

(i) The little boy who sold newspaper became a great scientist.

(j) Go there whenever you find the time.

(k) The beggar is so weak that he can not walk.

(l) The thief who stole the watch was arrested.

(m) Jack said that he was not well.

(n) We should be mindful to what the teachers say.

(o) He could not get the visa as he was unable to pay the fee.

(p) We should be satisfied with what we have.

(q) We must start now because we must progress.

(r) The boy is poor still he is happy.

(s) He is honest but his friend is dishonest.

(t) I am sick so I can not attend the meeting.

(u) Work hard otherwise, you will fail.

(v) She is lazy therefore she will not succeed.

(w) This is the house that Mac built.

(x) Tell me when you will meet me next time.

(y) We know the reason why he is late.

(z) I asked him how he did the work.

2. Underline  the Principal  clauses of the following sentences:

(a) They came when it was raining.

(b) She must weep or she will fall ill.

(c) I know that he will pass.

(d) He says that he is happy.

(e) I shall not go if it is dark.

(f) This is what happened.

3.  Underline the Sub-ordinate   clauses of the following sentences:

(a) Today is so hot that nobody can go to the playground.

(b) He is not so wise as you think.

(c) Ram goes there in order to meet his friend.

(d) We eat that we may live.

(e) I shall help you if you are honest. 0 0 0 

 

Chapter-6

KINDS OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

 

You have learnt that a clause is a part of a sentence having a subject and a finite verb of its own that makes a sense though not always a complete sense. According to the manner of expressing meaning the clauses are divided into three classes as- Principal Clause, Co-ordinate Clause and Sub-ordinate Clause. A general account of these clauses have been given in the previous chapter. In this present chapter, we have taken the Sub-ordinate Clause under special consideration.

A Sub-ordinate (Dependent) Clause is a part of a sentence that can not express its meaning independently without depending on the principal clause.

Sub-ordinate clauses, according to their functions, are divided into three classes as: Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause and Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause. Let us discuss them in detail as below:

I. Sub-ordinate Noun Clause

The function of a Sub-ordinate Noun Clause in a sentence is similar to the function of a Noun. A Sub-ordinate Noun Clause acts in a sentence as under:

(a) Subject to a Verb: 

(i) That Tom is honest is known to all.

(ii) Why Ram was absent remained a mystery.

(iii) What he had done was correct.

In the above sentences, the italicized words make the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause and act as Subjects to the verbs in the Principal Clauses.

(b) Object to a Verb:

(i) I know when Saxena will return.

(ii) Ramesh can say that he did it.

(iii) They know when their opportunity will come.

(iv) Please tell us whether we shall get your help.

In the above sentences, the italicized words form the Sub-ordinate Noun Clauses and they act as Objects to the Verbs in the Principal Clauses.

(c) Complement to a Verb:

(i) That was what happened that day. 

(ii) It is true that the news can never be denied.

(iii) That was what we really hoped.

(iv) The problem is how the patient can be sent to the hospital.

In the above sentences, the italicized words act as Complement to the Verb in the Principal Clause. They also form the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause.

(d) Object to a Preposition:

(i) I don’t bother about what you say.

(ii)Please listen to what your elders say.

(iii) All things will depend on how you react to the affair.

(iv) We can not rely on your remark.

In the above sentences, the italicized group of words are Sub-ordinate Noun Clauses. They act as Objects to the respective prepositions.

(e) In Apposition to a Noun:

(i) The news that he was guilty was not true.

(ii) Their decision that a general meeting will be called is accepted by all.

In the above sentences, the italicized words extend the meaning of the Nouns preceding them. This is called Apposition. The italicized words form the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause.

Note: Sometimes the connective word that before the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause is omitted. This is generally done while speaking. Mind the following sentences:

(i) They say (that) they will never go there.

(ii) I hope (that) they will soon meet me in the club.

(c) We say (that) we are not in the wrong.

II. Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause

An Adjective Clause qualifies (as an Adjective does) the Noun or Pronoun in the Principal Clause. The Noun or Pronoun placed immediately before the Adjective Clause is called Antecedent. The Adjective Clause generally begins after the Antecedent. An Adjective Clause begins with Relative Pronoun like who, which, whom,  whose, that or Relative Adverb like where, when, why, how etc.

(a) Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause Beginning with Relative  Pronoun:

(i)This is the boy whom I know for years.

(ii) This is the car that we sold last year.

(iii) This is the lady who gave me a ring.

(b) Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause Beginning with Relative Adverb:

(i) Would you tell me the time when the bus arrives?

(ii) This is the spot where we met our new President. (iii) Can you tell the place where your son lives?

Note 1: Sometimes the Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb may remain understood (omitted) as in the following sentences:

(i) The boy (whom) you met yesterday is my son.

(ii) She found the bag (that) I had lost that day.

Note 2: Sometimes an Adjective Clause may begin with ‘but’ or ‘such’ as in the following sentences:

(i) You should lend me such an amount of money that I can buy a car.

(ii)There is none in the club but will assist him.

Note 3: Sometimes an Adjective Clause beginning with which or whom may be preceded by a Preposition as in the following sentences:

(i) Bhupen Hazarika is a singer whom the Assamese are proud of.

(ii) The man was Manish whose help they abandoned the place of.

Words like who, whose, which, whom, when, that, where, why etc. establish the relationship between the Adjective Clause and the Antecedent. Adjective Clauses beginning with such Relative words are called Relative Clauses. 

Relative Clauses are divided into (1) Defining or Restrictive Relative Clause and (2) Non-defining or Non-restrictive Relative Clause. Let us tell about them as below:

1. Defining or Restrictive Relative Clause:

The relationship between the Antecedent and the Relative Clause is so close and inseparable that without this clause the Antecedent loses its relevance in the sentence as:

A student who studies hard generally secures more mark than others.

In the above sentence without the Relative Clause who studies hard, the antecedent ‘A student’ will lose its relevance and the meaning of the sentence will not be clear.

In place of whom, which etc. the that can be used as in the following sentences:

(i) The pen which you bought is fine. 

or  The pen that you bought is fine.

(ii) The lad who is standing under the tree is my brother.

or

The lad that is standing under the tree is my brother.

2. Non-defining or Non Restrictive Clause:

In a Non-defining Clause, the relation between the clause and the antecedent is not as close or as inseparable as in the Defining Clause. A Non-defining Clause provides additional information and even when it is omitted the meaning of the sentence will remain clear as in the following example:

The Deputy Commissioner who is a man of few words is really honest.

In the above sentence, the relative clause who is a man of few words provides only additional information and its omission will not much affect the meaning of the sentence.

Sometimes a sentence with Non-defining Clause can be transformed into a Compound sentence as in the following examples:

The bus, we hired, reached the place at 11 A. M.

We hired the bus and it reached the place at 11 A. M.

III. Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause

An Adverb Clause in a sentence acts like an Adverb and modifies a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb. An Adverb Clause indicates, like an Adverb, how, when or where the action of a verb takes place. Adverb Clauses according to their functions  in sentence are divided into 9 classes, as: (1) Adverb Clause of Time (2) Adverb Clause of Place (3) Adverb Clause of Manner (4) Adverb Clause of Comparison (5) Adverb Clause of Reason (or Cause) (6) Adverb Clause of Purpose (7) Adverb Clause of Result (8) Adverb Clause of Condition and (9) Adverb Clause of Contrast. Let us discuss them in detail as below:

1. Adverb Clause of Time:

Adverb Clause of Time refers to the time of an action (verb). It begins with such Adverbs as: when, whenever, before, after, till, as, while, since, now, once, that, until, as soon as etc. Examples:

(i) The sun shines when the night is over.

(ii) It has passed a month since we met them.

(iii) As soon as he saw the lion he ran off.

(iv) Look before you leap.

(v) Strike while the iron is hot.

(vi) Renin lamented while his father died.

(vii) You should earn much money before you go to marry.

(ix) He left the place while the police came.

(x) When he won the lottery he was in Delhi.

2. Adverb Clause of Place:

Adverb Clause of Place indicates the place of the action of a verb in the Principal Clause. Adverb Clause of Place begins with where, wherever, everywhere etc. They modify the verb. Examples:

(i) William makes a friend wherever he goes.

(ii) He sees everything beautiful where he visits.

(iii) Where there is a will, there is a way.

(iv) Everywhere we go, we meet people in the street.

(v) In our India a citizen may live, wherever he likes.

(vi) You may go where you choose.

3. Adverb Clause of Manner:

Adverb Clause of Manner refers to the manner of the action of a verb in the Principal Clause. Adverb Clause of Manner begins with as, as if, as though, like, in that etc. Adverb Clause answers the question of ‘how’ put to a verb in the Principal Clause. Examples:

(i) As you sow, so will you reap.

(ii) He will act as I advised him.

(iii) Do as you like.

(iv) It appears as though it might rain again.

(v) He behaves as if he is the master of all things.

(vi) She can’t sing like her cousin.

Note: Sometimes the Subject in an Adverb Clause beginning with as may remain understood. For examples:

(i)The news reads as (it) follows.

(ii) The matter is as (it) narrated below.

4. Adverb Clause of Comparison:

Adverb Clause of Comparison is used to compare things. Adverb Clause of Comparison is made up of words like as, as…. as, so…. as, than etc. Examples:

(i) Ronaldo was not as good as his father was.

(ii) You are wiser than I am.

(iii) He is not so wise as you think.

(iv) Lalita was younger than her friend.

(v) He is as wise as Buddha.

Note: Adverb Clause of Comparison may also be composed of using the…… the. Examples:

(i) The more you read, the more you learn.

(ii)The higher you soar, the cooler you feel.

(iii) The more you earn, the more you crave for.

5. Adverb Clause of Reason (Cause):

Adverb Clauses of Reason (Cause) are used to mean some cause. It begins with words like because, as, since, in as much as, that etc. Examples:

(i) As he is ill, he can’t walk.

(ii) I am pleased that you have come back.

(iii) How can I rely on you since you keep away from me.

(iv) I am unable to help you as I have little means.

(v) Lewis could not attend the meeting because he was sick.

(vi) I was fortunate that I did not go there.

Note: In the Adverb Clause of Reason beginning with that generally that is omitted. Examples:

(i) He was fortunate (that) he passed the examination.

(ii) She was angry (that) her friend committed the sin.

6. Adverb Clause of Purpose:

Adverb Clause of Purpose explains the purpose mentioned in the Principal Clause. An Adverb Clause of Purpose begins with so that, in order that, that, lest etc. Examples:

(i)We read that we may learn.

(ii) We eat that we may live.

(iii) Walk fast lest you would miss the train.

(iv) Nabin goes there in order to meet his friend.

(v) He worked hard so that he could progress.

(vi) The rich should spare some money in order that the poor may live.

7. Adverb Clause of Result:

Adverb Clause of Result tells of the result (consequence) of the work mentioned in the Principal Clause. Adverb Clause of Result begins with words like so…..that, such ….. that, so that, such that etc. Examples:

(i) Michael was so tired that he could not speak.

(ii) Today is so hot that nobody goes to the playground.

(iii) I am so busy that I can not meet you.

(iv) Kanak was away from the town for thirty years so that people took him for dead.

(v) The impact of the earthquake was such that no homes and houses remained intact.

8. Adverb Clause of Condition:

Adverb Clause of Condition indicates in what state or circumstance the action mentioned in the Principal Clause will happen. Adverb Clause of Condition begins with if, unless, whether, on condition that, provided that, so long as etc. They modify the verb. Examples:

(i) I may help you if you help your brother.

(ii)They must fail unless they study hard.

(iii)You may find him there if you go soon.

(iv) So long one remains silent there is no chance of quarrel.

(v) Whether he helps me or not, I must do my duty.

(vi) Be more industrious if you want peace.

(vii) If you deceive me, I shall be in trouble.

Note: The sentence like this (in example no.vii written above) can be written without using if as under:

Should you deceive me, I shall be in trouble.

9. Adverb Clause of Contrast (or Concession):

Adverb Clause of Contrast (Concession)refers to a contrast between two things or ideas. Adverb Clause of Contrast begins with although, even, whereas, even if etc. Examples:

(i)Though he was poor, he was happy.

(ii)Though he is rich, he is dishonest.

(iii) I am not afraid of him, though he is strong.

(iv) Even if you are late, please don’t miss the meeting.

(v) Although Renin is rich he is a miser.

(vi)Though we are striving for development, we are in the first stage.

(vii) Even if I fail, I would try again.

(viii) I shall go there even if it rains again.

EXERCISE

1. Point out the Noun Clause in each of the following sentences:

(a) There is no meaning in what he says.

(b) Life is what we make it.

(c) This is what I expected.

(d) That he is honest is known to me.

(e) This is the place where they work.

(f) Pay heed to what your teacher says.

(g) I don’t believe in what he speaks.

(h) It is true that she has gone there.

(i) Ask Ram if he is ready to do it.

(j) Tell me who is wrong.

(k) The news that he is dead is false.

2. Point out the Adjective Clause in each of the following sentences:

(a) Take care lest you should fail.

(b) The girl you see is my daughter.

(c)This is the land we live in.

(d) They never fail who die in a great cause.

(e) This is the book that he wanted.

(f) He who lives fast shall die young.

(g) Tell me the reason why he has failed.

(h) Her son who is a professor is my friend.

(i) There is no man but loves his country.

(j) He laughs best who laughs last.

(k) I lost the umbrella that you gave me.

(l) This is the way I solved the problem.

(m) This is the village where I was born.

3.  Define the clauses of the following sentences:

(a) Everybody knows that ours is an independent country.

(b) People say that the war must come to an end.

(c) Do whatever you like.

(d) Whatever may happen I must leave the country.

(e) You may come again whenever you can make time.

(f) We are happy that our school team wins the first prize.

(g) It is a tragedy that he died young.

(h) Man proposes but God disposes.

(i) I know when his father will return.

(j) This is the place where Shakespeare was born.

(k) Our success depends on how we work.   0 0 0

 

Chapter-7

CLAUSE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCE

 

In this chapter, you will learn about how to analyse clauses of complex and compound sentences. 

Clause Analysis means breaking a sentence up into component clauses and showing their relationship with each other.

While going to Analyse the clauses of a sentence the following steps should be followed:

1. Find out the Finite Verb. (There are as many clauses as there are Finite Verbs. If the Finite Verb is understood (not expressed) supply it in the proper place. Find out the Subject to each Finite Verb. If the Subject of any Finite Verb is understood supply it.) After finding out the Finite Verb determine the Principal Clause. 

2. Find out the Sub-ordinate Clause or clauses.

3. After finding out the Sub-ordinate Clause classify the Sub-ordinate Clause and tell whether it is a Noun Clause, Adjective Clause or Adverb Clause.

4. Show the relationship between the Principal Clause and the Sub-ordinate Clause.

5. Find out the Connective that establishes the relationship between the Principal Clause and the Sub-ordinate Clause.

Some Specimen of Analysing the Clauses of Complex and Compound sentences are given below:

A. Clause Analysis of Complex Sentence

1. Whatever may happen he must leave the land.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) He must leave the land — Principal Clause.

(b) Whatever may happen — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying the verb ‘leave’.

Connective word: Whatever.

2. This is the season when the Cuckoos are heard singing.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) This is the season — Principal Clause.

(b)When the cuckoos are heard singing—– Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause qualifying the ‘season’ in (a)

Connective: ‘when’.

3. He may come again whenever he can make time.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) He may come again — Principal Clause.

(b) Whenever he can make time — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying the verb ‘may come’ in (a).

Connective: ‘Whenever’.

4. They never fail who die in a great cause.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) They never fail — Principal Clause.

(b)Who die in a great cause — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘They’ in Clause. (a)

Connective: ‘who’.

5. It is a tragedy that he died young.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) It is a tragedy — Principal Clause

(b) That he died young — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause in Apposition to ‘it’ in (a).

Connective: ‘that’.

6. He told me that he killed the lion while it was asleep.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) They told me — Principal Clause.

(b) That he killed the lion — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Object to the Verb ‘told’. in (a)

(c) While it was asleep — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying the verb ‘had killed’ in (a)

Connective: ‘that’ and ‘while’.

7. This is the fort that Shahjahan built.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) This is the fort — Principal Clause

(b) That Shahjahan built — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘fort’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

8. That he is honest is known to me.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (It) is known to me — Principal Clause

(b) That he is honest — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause used as subject to the verb ‘is known’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

9. Everybody knows that ours is an independent country.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) Everybody knows — Principal Clause

(b) That ours is an independent country — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Object to the verb ‘knows’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

10. We are happy that our club team won the first prize.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) We are happy — Principal Clause

(b) That our club team won the first prize — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying the verb ‘happy’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

11. What she said was not true.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (It) was not true — Principal Clause

(b) What she said — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Subject to the verb ‘was’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘what’.

12. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) Uneasy lies the head — Principal Clause

(b) That wears the crown — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘the head’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

13. How the prisoner escaped from the prison is a mystery.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (It) is a mystery — Principal Clause

(b) How the prisoner escaped from the prison — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause used as Subject to ‘is’ in clause (a).

Connective: ‘how’.

14. Do whatever you like

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (You) do — Principal Clause

(b) Whatever you like — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying the verb ‘do’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘whatever’.

15. I know who he is.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) I know — Principal Clause

(b) Who he is — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause used as Object to the verb ‘know’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘who’.

16. The boy who is sitting there is known to me.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) The boy is known to me — Principal Clause

(b) Who is sitting there — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘the boy’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘who’.

17. Tell me when he will come.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (You) tell me — Principal Clause

(b) When he will come — Sub-ordinate Noun  Clause used as Object to ‘tell’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘when’.

18. This is what we wanted.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) This is — Principal Clause

(b) What we wanted — Sub-ordinate Noun  Clause used as a Complement to ‘is’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘what’.

19. This is the purse I lost

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) This is the purse — Principal Clause

(b) (Which) I lost — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘purse’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘which’.

20. I know the boy who came yesterday.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) I know the boy — Principal Clause

(b) who came yesterday — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘boy’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘who’.

22. I am the monarch of all I survey.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) I am the monarch of all — Principal Clause

(b) (Which) I survey — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘all’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘which’.

23. What is done can not be undone.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (It) cannot be undone — Principal Clause

(b) What is done — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause used as Subject to ‘be undone’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘what’.

24. Go as you like.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) (You) go — Principal Clause

(b) As you like — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying ‘go’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘as’.

25. God helps those who help themselves. 

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) God helps those — Principal Clause

(b) who help themselves — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘those’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘who’.

26. The moon shines when it is night.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) The moon shines — Principal Clause

(b) When it is night — Sub-ordinate Adverb  Clause modifying ‘shines’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘when’.

27. All that glitters is not gold.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) All is not gold — Principal Clause

(b) That glitters — Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause qualifying ‘all’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

28. If it rains I shall not go.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) I shall not go — Principal Clause

(b) If it rains — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause modifying ‘go’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘if’.

29. I think he will come.

This is a complex sentence  consisting of the following clauses:

(a) I think — Principal Clause

(b) (That) he will come — Sub-ordinate Noun Clause used as Object to the verb ‘think’ in clause (a)

Connective: ‘that’.

B. Clause Analysis of Compound Sentence

1. Man proposes, God disposes.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) Man proposes — Principal Clause.

(b) (But) God disposes — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

Connective: ‘but’ (understood).

2. Waste not, want not.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) Waste not — Principal Clause.

(b) Want not — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

Connective: ‘and’ (understood).

3. He is Mrinal and he works in the industry.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) He is Mrinal — Principal Clause.

(b) He works in the industry — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

Connective: ‘and’.

4. Trees grow upward whereas the roots spread underground.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) Trees grow upward — Principal Clause.

(b) the roots spread underground — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

Connective: ‘whereas’.

5. This is neither too long nor too short.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) This is too long — Principal Clause.

(b) This is too short — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

Connective: ‘neither … nor’.

6. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, some have greatness thrust upon them.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) Some are born great — Principal Clause.

(b) Some achieve greatness — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

(c) Some have greatness thrust upon them — Principal Clause, co-ordinate to clauses (b) and (a)

Connective: ‘and’ (understood).

7. I came, I saw, I conquered.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) I came — Principal Clause.

(b) I saw — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

(c) I conquered — Principal Clause, co-ordinate to clause (a) and (b)

Connective: ‘and’ (understood).

8. The night is dark and I am far from home.

This is a compound sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(a) The night is dark — Principal Clause.

(b) I am far from home — Principal Clause, Co-ordinate to clause (a)

Connective: ‘and’.

EXERCISE

1. Give the clause analysis of the following sentences:

a. The boy acted as if he were mad.

(b) Can you tell me where Mr Barbara lives?

(c) There is no meaning in what he says.

(d)That the earth is round is known to all.

(e) The evil that men do lives after them.

(f) Nobody knows when he will come.

(g) Unless you read regularly you will fail.

(h) Come whenever you can make time.

(i) Jack said that he was not feeling well.

(j) I know when his father will arrive.

(k) I do not know what he wants.

(l) This is what he wanted.

(m) Listen to what I say.

(n) This is the reason why he failed in the examination.

(o) The house where we live is new.

(p) This is the man whom we all respect.

(q) Do you hear what he says?

(r) That he will pass is certain.

(s) This is what we wanted.

(t) It is true that he will pass.

(u) This is the country where we live.

(v) Take care lest you will fail.

(w) What he said is true.

(x) I hope you are quite well now.

(y) I think you will vote for me.

(z) We know that honesty is the best policy. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-8

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE ACCORDING TO PATTERN

 

You have already learnt that English sentences, according to their purpose and meaning, are divided into five classes, as- Assertive sentence, Interrogative Sentence, Imperative Sentence, Exclamatory Sentence and Optative sentence.

Again English Sentences, according to the pattern (grammatical construction), are divided into three classes, as- Simple Sentence, Compound Sentence and Complex Sentence. Let us discuss them in detail as under:

I. SIMPLE SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

Dogs bark.

Birds fly.

The horse runs.

The rivers flow.

God is omnipotent.

Milk is white.

What a lovely scenery it is!

Have you performed your duty?

May God bless you.

Each of the above sentences have only one Subject and one Finite Verb. These are Simple Sentences.

A Simple Sentence is one that is made up of only one Subject and one Finite Verb.

A Simple Sentence may have four distinct parts, as:

(i) The Subject,

(ii) The Adjunct of the Subject (if any).

(iii)The Predicate

(iv) The Adjunct of the Predicate (if any).

The Subject of a Simple sentence must be a Noun or something that functions as a Noun.

The Adjuncts of the Subject, if any, must be Adjective or some words that function as an adjective.

The Predicate must have a Finite Verb.

The Adjunct to the Predicate, if any, must be an Adverb or words that functions as an Adverb.

Mind the following table:

Subject     Adjunct Predicate   Adjunct 

      to Subject              to Predicate

A boy with white hair was running in the field.

The tiger in a cage was carried there.

The Subject of a Simple Sentence may be of different types as shown below:

(i)A Noun: Birds fly.

(ii)A Pronoun: She is reading a book.

(iii)A Gerund: Swimming is good exercise.

(iv) A Noun-Infinitive: To walk is good for health.

(v) A Phrase: What to do is not known to him.

(vi) A Clause: Whatever you say I am going to leave the land.

The Predicate of a Simple Sentence must be a Finite verb. If the verb itself cannot complete a sense then it may take some word or words to complete its meaning. Such word or words form the part of the Predicate of a Simple sentence. For example:

The police caught the runaway thief in the jungle.

Word or words which modify the action of the verb by way of saying something about the time, place, manner, purpose, instrument etc. form the Adjunct to the Predicate.

The followings are the main types of Adverbial Adjuncts to the Verb of Predicate:

(i) Adverb: (a) The boys are playing quietly. (b)The girls are singing silently.

(ii) Adverbial Phrase: (a) They are walking hand in hand. (b) They are practising swimming throughout the day.

(iii) Adjective: (A) He stood there alone. (B) He came here sad.

(iv) Gerundial Infinitives: We went to meet the President.

 II. COMPOUND SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

Radha is a boy and Rita is a girl.

He is rich but unhappy.

They are laborious therefore they will shine in life.

You must weep or you will die.

God made the country and man made the town.

You may come in or go away.

I came, I saw, I conquered.

Each of the above sentences consists of two or more Principal (co-ordinate) clauses connected by coordinating conjunction or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb. These are Compound Sentences.

A Compound sentence is a sentence made up of two or more Co-ordinating Clauses connected by conjunction or Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb.

A Compound Sentence is also called Multiple Sentence or Double Sentence. Mind the Following examples:

(i) She came, she ate, she departed.

(ii) David came to India, saw the Tajmahal and returned to England.

(iii) Man may come and man may go, but I go forever.

(iv) The Sun rose and the day began.

Bear in mind that a Compound sentence is often two or more simple sentences connected by a conjunction.

The clauses with which a Compound sentence is made up of are often Principal clauses.

Sometimes in a compound sentence, some words mentioned in the first clause are not mentioned in the second clause. This is done to avoid repetition. Such dropping of words is called Ellipsis. For examples mind the following sentences:

(i) Robert went to Ireland where (and there) he married Lavita.

(ii) You do or (you) go.

(iii) He is poor but (he is) happy.

(vi) The cow grazed here and (the cow) ran home.

(v) Edward, as well as William, is honest. (Edward is honest and William is honest.)

 III. COMPLEX SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

1. If it rains we shall not go there.

2. Buddha is a man whom everybody respects.

3. They smoked when it was evening.

4. This is the pen which I bought yesterday.

5. As he is ill he can not attend the meeting.

Each of the above sentences is made up of a Principal Clause and a Sub-ordinate Clause. These are Complex Sentences.

A Complex Sentence is one that consists of a Principal Clause and one or more Subordinate Clauses.

There are some sentences which contain two complex sentences or one Simple sentence and one Complex sentence or one Compound sentence and one Complex sentence. Such type of complex sentence is called Mixed Sentence. Mind the following sentences:

1. While we were working in the orchard a beggar come in and demanded some fruits.

If we analyse the above sentence we find the following clauses, as:

(i)  While we were working in the orchard — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause.

(ii) A beggar came in — Principal Clause.

(iii) (A beggar) demanded some fruits — Principal Clause in coordination to the clause (ii)

2. Play while you play, read while you read.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(i) (You) play — Principal Clause.

(ii) While you play — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause.

(iii) You read — Principal Clause.

(iv) While you read — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause.

Connective: ‘and’ (not expressed).

EXERCISE

1. Say which of the following sentences are simple, compound or complex.

a. Tell me where my cousin is.

b. A man of courage can do what I do.

c. Shila does the work every day.

d. We know that he is an honest man.

e. He is a boy and she is a girl.

g. You should work hard otherwise you will fail.

h. Love your country and countrymen.

i. It is known that Rakesh has passed the examination.

j. Honesty pays in the long run.

k. As you sow so will you reap.

l. Blessed are those who are merciful.

m. Come in and sit down.

n. This is the house we live in.

o. Cut your coat according to your cloth.

p. United we stand, divided we fall.

q. He can read but can not write.

r. While we were enjoying the match a stranger came in and asked for some bread. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-9

CLASSIFICATION OF NOUN

 

We know that a Noun is the name of anything. It denotes the name of a person, place, thing or idea.  Now mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. Kalidas is a great poet.

2. London is a big city.

3. Gold is a precious metal.

4. Honesty is the best policy.

5. Kindness is a great virtue.

6. We enjoy natural liberty.

The italicized words in the above sentences are nouns as they refer to the names of a person, a place, a thing, a virtue etc. respectively. But if we mind the nouns i.e Kalidas, London, Gold in the first three sentences respectively we find that they refer to such things which have physical(material) existence and that can be touched or seen. These are called Concrete Nouns.

A Concrete Noun is a noun which exists physically or materially and can be touched, tasted or seen.

On the other hand the nouns (names) i.e. Honesty, Kindness, liberty in the above sentence nos. 4, 5 and 6 we find that they refer to the name of things (ideas) which we can not touch nor can we see but can only feel. They have no physical existence. They are called Abstract Nouns.

An Abstract Noun refers to the name of something that we can think of but can’t touch or see. It may express a quality, a state, a feeling, an idea or a system of thought.

Thus the nouns, according to their nature, are broadly divided into above mentioned two classes. i.e Concrete Noun and Abstract Noun.

Again the Concrete Nouns are sub-divided into four classes, as– Proper Noun, Common Noun, Collective Noun and Material Noun.

Let us discuss these classes of Noun in detail as below:

1. PROPER NOUN

Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. Tom is a college student.

2. Delhi is a big city.

3. The Ganga is a sacred river.

4. The Himalayas stand on the north of India.

5. He will go to Paris in May.

6. Today is Monday.

The italicized words in the above sentences refer to the name of a boy (Tom), to the name of a place (Delhi), to the name of a river (the Ganga), to the name of a range of mountains (the Himalayas), to the name of a month (May) and to the name of a day (Monday) respectively. These are Proper Nouns.

A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing.

A proper noun always begins with a capital letter as shown in the sentences given above.

Generally, the articles (the, a, an) are not used before a proper noun. But if a proper noun is used as a common noun then the article is used. For examples:

Nazrul was a great poet. (Proper Noun)

He is a Nazrul. (Common Noun)

In the first sentence, the word Nazrul is a proper noun as it refers to a particular Bengali poet. But in the second sentence, the same word is used as a common noun. It refers to a poet who is as great as Nazrul is.

If there is more than two or more persons of the same name then the name (word) can be used as a common noun, as:

There are three Roberts in our class.

There are three Yadavs in our village.

2. COMMON NOUN OR CLASS NOUN

Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. The dog is a faithful animal.

2. A crow is black.

3. Man is mortal.

4. The boys are playing,

5. The girls are dancing.

The italicized words in the above sentences are nouns. They refer to the respective classes, not to a particular thing. They are Common nouns. Here, in the first example the dog refers to a class of animals, the word a crow in the second sentence refers to a kind or class of birds. Thus ‘man’ in the third sentence refers not to a particular person but to mankind.

A Common Noun (or Class Noun) is the name used to refer to any one of a class or kind of animals, birds, persons or things. 

A common noun stands for all of its kind or class.

Bear in mind that Common Nouns can be used in both persons i.e. Singular and plural.

A donkey is an animal of burden.

The Donkeys are animals of burden.

Hari is a boy.

There are four boys in the class.

Again the Common Nouns are classified as: Countable Noun and Uncountable Noun. Look at the following sentences:

1. There are five mangoes in the basket.

2. There are four boys in the class.

3. There is little milk in the jug.

4. Give me some sugar.

5. There are three litres of honey in the pot.

In the above sentences, the italicized nouns are common nouns. The noun mangoes in sentence no.1 and boys in sentence no.2 are countable nouns as they can be counted as one mango, two mangoes, three mangoes or a boy, two boys, three boys etc. They are Countable Nouns.

A noun which can be counted as one, two, three etc. is called Countable Noun.

The Determiners like a, an, the, every, each, these, those, that, this, few, a few, the few, many, a large number of, one, two, three etc. can be used before a Countable Nouns. For examples:

(i) There are many books on the table.

(ii) A few boys were present in the class.

(iii)  A large number of audience were present at the meeting.

On the other hand the italicized words milk, sugar, honey in sentence nos. 3. 4 and 5. respectively are Uncountable Nouns as they can not be counted as one milk, two milk etc. 

A noun that can not be counted as one, two, three etc. but can be measured as one litre, two litres, five kilograms etc. is called Uncountable Noun.

An Uncountable Noun has no plural form. 

The Determiners like some, little, a little, the little, much, a good deal of,  a large quantity of etc. can be used before an Uncountable Noun. For examples:

(i) There is much water in the pond.

(ii) Give me some sugar.

To refer to a definite quantity of countable noun we can use countable phrases  as in the following sentences:

(i) Ram gave me a bag of sugar.

(ii) He donated four trucks of rice to the flood victims.

(iii) A shower of rain is enough for the paddy field.

(iv) It was an act of kindness.

Sometimes by using a kind of or a sort of we can use an uncountable noun as a countable noun. For examples:

(i) There is a new kind of maze.

(ii) There are many sorts of rice.

(iii) There are several kinds of Bengal wheat available.

Some nouns can be used both as Countable and Uncountable, as :

(i) Sita was a beauty in her youth. (Countable)

Sita had beauty in her youth. (Uncountable)

(ii) Going there they faced a lot of hardships. (Countable)

Going there they faced much hardship. (Uncountable)

The articles ‘a’ and ‘an’  are generally used before a countable noun but sometimes they can be used before an Uncountable Noun also, as:

(i) He is a shame to his parents.

(ii) The old man takes a fancy to the children.

(iii) It is refreshing to have a good sleep at noon.

3. COLLECTIVE NOUN

Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. The army is marching.

2. The class is in full swing.

3. The cattle are grazing.

4. We saw a fleet of ships in the river.

5. There is a shoal of fishes.

The Italicized nouns in the above sentences refer to a group of things of the same kind, as: the army refers to a group of soldiers, the class refers to a group of students, the cattle refers to a group of cows, sheep etc., a fleet refers to a group of ships, a shoal refers to a group of fishes swimming together respectively.

A Collective Noun is the name that denotes a group of persons or things as a unit of the same kind. 

Collective Nouns are generally used in the singular but there are some Collective Nouns which are used always in the plural. Such words are– cattle, poultry, police, clergy, people, public etc.

4. MATERIAL NOUN

Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. Gold is a precious metal.

2. Water is called life.

3. Sugar is sweet.

4. Iron is heavy.

5. Milk is white.

6. Silver is bright.

7. Petroleum is costly.

The italicized words in the above sentences refer to a material or substance. These are Material Nouns.

A Material Noun is the name that refers to a material or substance out of which a thing is made.

A Material noun is taken as Uncountable. It is not generally used in the plural form.

EXERCISE

1. Find out the nouns in the following sentences and classify them:

a. Health is wealth.

b. Walking is good exercise.

c. Kindness is a virtue.

d. Happiness does not come after money.

f. Milk is a very nutritious food.

g. There is much salt in the pot.

h. The gold of this ring is pure.

i. Harihar is my friend.

j. Coal is black.

k. The cattle belong to the Radha Firm.

l. Democracy is praised by all.

m.  Give me the little honey in the jug.

n. Do your duty.

o. Steel is made from iron.

p. Silver is light.

q. It is a pity that you can not swim.

r. What a surprise!

s. They had a lot of difficulties.

t. Delhi is the capital of India.

u. Today is Sunday.

v. A herd of cows are grazing in the field.

w. India is our motherland.

x. He lives in Bombay.

y. Man is mortal.

z. Haren is a boy.

2. Find out the abstract nouns in the following sentences:

a. He shows much courage.

b. Health is wealth.

c. Generosity is a virtue.

d. Honesty is the best policy.

e. We want freedom.

f. What a pity!

g.  He has much skill. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-10

DETERMINERS 

 

Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. I have a cow.

2. It gives much milk.

The word ‘a’ in the first sentence, qualifies the noun ‘cow’ and indicates its number. In the second sentence, the word ‘much’ indicates the quantity of the uncountable noun ‘milk’. The words like these, which qualify the noun are Determiners.

The Adjective-like words such as: a, this, these, that, some, much, many, few, little, a lot of, etc. which are put before a noun to determine whether the noun is singular, plural, countable, uncountable, definite or indefinite are called Determiners.

Determiners are many in number. Some are used only before countable nouns, some are used before both countable and uncountable nouns.

On the basis of their uses, the determiners are divided into 6 classes as:

A. Articles: a, an, the.

B. Quantitative: little, few, much, many, several, some, any etc.

C. Demonstratives: this, these, that, those.

D. Ordinals: first, second, third, fourth, fifth etc.

E. Cardinals: one, two, three, four, five etc.

F. Possessives: my, mine, your, our, his, their, Ram’s, Rahim’s etc.

The Uses of these Determiners are being discussed in detail as below:

A. THE USES OF ARTICLES

Articles are three in number as-  ‘A’,  ‘An’ and ‘The’. They are put before a noun like adjectives.

Generally, ‘A’ and ‘An’ is put before a singular noun and ‘The’ is put before singular and plural noun to indicate the noun definitely. 

On the basis of their uses- Articles are divided into two types as: (a) Indefinite Article:  ‘A’ and ‘An’ and (b) Definite Article: ‘The’.

Their uses are shown below:

(a) The Uses of Indefinite Articles. (‘A’ and ‘An’)

1.‘A’ is generally used before a noun the first letter of which is a consonant. For examples: a pen, a book, a cow, a dog, a fan, a tree, a lion, a tiger, a table, a box etc.

2. ‘An’ is generally used before a word the first letter of which is a vowel. For examples: an ox, an eye, an apple, an Indian etc.

These are two general uses of ‘A’ and ‘An’ as articles. But there are some exceptions of the rules of their uses. These Exceptional Rules of the Uses of the Indefinite Articles ‘A’ are shown below:

(i) ‘A’ is used before a vowel having the sound ‘yu’ or ‘yoo’ as:

A university, a union, a unit, a unicorn, a ewe, a European, a useful thing etc.

In those words, ‘a’ is used though the first letter of these words are vowels. It is because the vowels are pronounced in these words as ‘yu’ or ‘yoo’.

(ii)‘A’ is used before the vowel ‘o’ when it is sounded as ‘wa’. For example-

A one-eyed man, a one-act play, a one-rupee note etc.

In these words, ‘a’ is used though the first letter of the words contains the vowel ‘o’. It is because ‘o’ is sounded as ‘wa’.

(iii) ‘A’ is used before a singular countable noun to indicate a class. For example:

A dog is a faithful animal.  

A lion is a ferocious animal.

(iv) ‘A’ is used before a Proper Noun to mean one of the same names, as-

There was a Karishma in our school. A Talukdar invited us.

(v) Before a Proper Noun or Common Noun to mean a person or object having the same qualities. For example:

He is a Mohammad (as religious as Mohammad). 

He is a Homer of India. (as great as Homer).

Ramen is a tiger of the village (as ferocious as a tiger). 

(vi) ‘A’ is used before an Uncountable Noun to give a particular instance or kind of a material or quality. For example: 

Milk is food. Silver is a metal. 

Menon showed me a sign of courage.

(vii) ‘A’ is used to mean one, the same, certain, as:

Thirty days make a month. (one)

Birds of a feather flock together. (the same)

A collection of many books make a library. (one)

Twelve inches make a foot. (one)

(viii) ‘A’ is used before Plural Countable Nouns such as: dozen, hundred, thousand etc. as:

Kanak lent her brother a hundred rupee.

Give me a dozen pencils.

He borrowed a thousand books from the library.

(ix) ‘A’ is used before an adjective in the superlative degree to denote an excessiveness, as:

‘The Gone with the Wind’ is a most interesting novel.

Iron is a most useful metal.

(x) ‘A’ is used after the word ‘what’ to make an exclamatory sentence, as:

What a beautiful flower it is! 

What a nonesense!

(xi)‘A’ is used as a shortened form of the preposition ‘on’, as-

Ramen visits us once a day. (a = on)

He earns a thousand rupee a month. (a=on)

Kerosine sells here fifteen rupees a litre. (a = per litre)

(xii)‘A’ is used with such words and expression as: a good many, quite a, such a etc. For example:

I have a good many books.

They had quite a happy hours there.

I met there such a wise man like you.

(xiii) ‘A’ is used when ‘so’ is used before an Adjectives, such as:

Sita is so nice a girl.

Narayana is so wise a man.

(xiv)‘A’ is used before telling about a profession or occupation, as-

Abul Kalam is a scientist.

I want to be a writer.

The Exceptional Uses of Article ‘An’

(i)‘An’ is used before a noun which though begins with ‘h’, yet the ‘h’ sound remains silent. For example– an hour, an honest man, an heiress, an honorary secretary.

(ii) ‘An’ is used before a single consonant (abbreviation) having a vowel sound in the beginning. For Example: 

An M.A.,  An M.P.,  An M.L.A.,  An R.C.C. Building,  An M.B.B.S.,  An H.S. School, An N.C.C. etc.

b.The Uses of Definite Article ‘The’

(i) ‘The’ is used to denote a particular person or thing known already, as:

I like the book. (known already)

The pen is red which was given to me. 

Let us go to the theatre.

(ii)‘The’ is used before a singular common noun to denote the entire class or group.

The cow is a useful animal.

The lion is a ferocious animal.

The rose is a lovely flower.

Note: The noun ‘man’ and ‘woman’ don’t take an article, when they are used in general sense to denote the whole class, as:

Man is mortal. Man is the best creation of Nature. Woman is man’s mate.

(iii) ‘The’ is used before a singular noun referring to a thing of which only one exists, that is before a unique thing that has no plural form as: sun, earth, north, east, west etc. For example:

The sun rises in the east.

The moon shines at night.

The sky is blue.

The Venus is hotter than the earth.

(iv) ‘The’ is used to point out a noun defined by a qualifying word or phrase. For example:

The pen which you gave me is very smooth.

The boy is he whom I trust.

The book he borrowed was valuable.

(v) ‘The’ is used before an Adverb used in the comparison, as:

The more you read, the more you learn.

The more you get, the more you want.

The sooner, the better.

(vi) ‘The’ is used before an Adjective in the plural sense to indicate a class, as:

The poor are often innocent.

The virtuous are not happy.

We should not look down upon the poor.

(vii) ‘The’ is used before an Adjective in the superlative degree, as-

Manmohan is the tallest boy in our school.

This is the loveliest drawing.

He is the best student in our class.

Kanak is the finest footballer in our team.

Note: When the superlative is formed with most to mean ‘very’ then ‘the’ is not used, as-

This is a most interesting novel.

That was a most enjoyable match.

(viii) ‘The’ is used before a noun to give the force of a superlative, as-

Ramanan is the leader of the gang.

He is the worker of the farm.

(ix)‘The’ is used before a Noun to indicate a profession, as-

He joined the church. (became a clergyman) 

He joined the bar. (became a lawyer)

(x) ‘The’ is used before a proper noun to denote a type or to indicate likeness, as:

Rajnikanta Bordoloi is the Scott of Assam.

Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

(xi)‘The’ is used before an Ordinal Number when written in letter (not in Roman number), as-

Richard the Second (not Richard the II)

Louis the Fourteenth (not Louis the XIV)

(xii) ‘The’ is used before some Adjectives or Nouns denoting title, as:

Alexander the Great.

Peter the conqueror.

Napoleon the warrior.

(xiii) ‘The’ is used before a Common Noun in the singular number to denote an abstract idea, as:

The mother in her arose soon (the motherly qualities)

The fool in him played the best (the foolish manner)

(xiv) ‘The’ is used before the Dates of Months, as-

The 26th January 1950.

The 21st April.

The 1st of July.

(xv) ‘The’ is used before the Adjective of a proper noun, as-

The sonneteer Shakespeare.

The late Dr Johnson.

(xvi) ‘The’ is used before the names of rivers, gulfs, seas, oceans, aeroplanes, ships, newspapers, straits, desert etc. as:

The Brahmaputra. (river)

The Persian Gulf. (gulf)

The North Sea. (sea)

The Pacific Ocean. (ocean) 

The Palk Straits. (straits)

The Sahara Desert. (desert)

The Queen Elizabeth. (ship)

The Bayudoot. (aeroplane)

The Hindustan Times. (newspaper)

(xvii) ‘The’ is used before the names of a mountain range, as:

The Alps, The Himalayas, The Bindos.

Note: ‘The’ is not used before the name of a single mountain and mountain top. As-

Baghbar Hill. (not the Baghbar Hill)

Mount Everest. (not the Mount Everest)

(xviii) ‘The’ is used before the name  of islands, as:

The Andamans.

The Philipines.

The West Indies.

Note: ‘The’ is not used before the name of a single island, as-

Ireland (not the Ireland, as it is a single island)

Sumatra (not the Sumatra)

(xix) ‘The’ is used before the name of a famous  historical building, as:

The Tajmahal, The Red Fort, The Rabindra Bhawan, The Supreme Court etc.

(xx) ‘The’ is used before the names of historical events, as:

The battle of Haldighat.

The Russian Revolution.

The Glorious Revolution.

The Treaty of Versailles.

(xxi) ‘The’ is used before the names of Hotel, Cinema and Theatre, as:

The Hotel Emperor.

The Hotel Mayur.

The New-Star Theatre.

The Rupayan.

The Nataraj

(xxii) ‘The’ is used before the name of a Nation or a community of people, as:

The Assamese, The French, The Muslims, The Sikhs etc.

(xxiii) ‘The’ is used before the name of sacred books, as:

The Quran, The Bible, The Kirtan Gosha, The Ramayana, The Mahabharata, The Paradise Lost etc.

(xxiv) ‘The’ is used before the descriptive name of a place, country and association, as:

The Punjab. (The land of five rivers)

The Netherland.

The U.N.O.

The U.K.

The A. A. S. U.

The F. B. A. B.

Note: ‘The’ is not used before the name of Abbreviation which is pronounced as a single word, as-

UNESCO,  NATO, WHO etc.

(xxv) ‘The’ is used before a particular means of Vehicle or Conveyance, as-

We shall go to Delhi by the Rajdhani Express.

We shall return by the Assam Express.

(xxvi) ‘The’ is used before Abstract Nouns and Material Nouns if they are particularized, as-

The gold of this ring is pure.

The tea of Assam is famous.

The beauty of Tajmahal is unique.

Note: In an ordinary sense, no article is used before Abstract and Material Noun, as-

Gold is a precious metal.

The ring is made of gold.

(xxvii) ‘The’ is used before the name of Municipal or Government departments and name of banks, shops etc., as:

The Municipal Committee of Howly.

The Education Department of Assam.

The State Bank of India.

The Kalpataro (shop).

Note: ‘The’ is not used if any bank or shop is named after the name of a person, as-

William’s Bank. (not The William’s Bank)

Tarali Store. (not The Tarali Store)

(xxviii) ‘The’ is used before Adverbial expression denoting a division of time, as-

He had worked all the evening.

It had been raining all the day.

They were dancing all the night.

The uses of Articles have been discussed above in detail. There are some nouns before which ‘no’ article is used as shown under:

(i) ‘No’ article is used before the names of lake and cape, as-

Lake Baikal.

Cape of Good Hope.

Cape of Comorin.

(ii) ‘No’ article is used before the names of street, road, school or college if they are named after a proper noun as-

The house stands at Gauhati Road.

He came along Indira Gandhi Road.

I was a student of Barpeta Road Howly College.

He stays at Bodoa Street.

(iii) ‘No’ article is used before the Collective nouns as: people, cattle, government, mankind, parliament as-

People see it everyday.

Government can not do it alone.

The proper study of mankind is man.

Cattle are grazing.

Rajesh is a member of Parliament.

(iv) ‘No’ article is used before nouns used as complements, as-

We made Ram our president.

(v) ‘No’ article is used before the word ‘God’ or any word that means ‘God’, as-

God is good.

Allah is Omnipresent.

(vi) ‘No’ article is used before Proper Nouns, Material Nouns and Abstract Nouns, as-

Proper Noun: Ram, Rahim, Kabita etc.

Material Noun: Gold, Silver, Water, Salt etc.

Abstract Nouns: Kindness, honesty, falsehood etc.

(vii) ‘No’ article is used before the word ‘Man’ and ‘Woman’ when they are used in general sense, as-

Man is mortal.

Woman is man’s mate.

(viii) ‘No’ article is used before the Common Nouns as father, mother, baby, when they relate a particular one of them, as: 

Father gave me the advice.

Mother is giving milk.

Baby is sleeping now.

(ix) ‘No’ article is used before a Common Noun descriptive of rank, title and used in apposition to a proper noun as-

Akbar, emperor of Delhi, was a noble king.

President, A. P. J. Abul Kalam visited Assam.

(x)  ‘No’ article is used before the words as- dinner, lunch, super, breakfast. For example-

I had taken my dinner at your hotel.

He likes tea as his breakfast.

After lunch, he takes rest.

It was time for supper.

(xi)‘No’ article is used before the name of certain diseases, as-

fever, dysentery, cholera.

Note: But ‘the’ is used before such diseases as: the gout, the mumps, the measles.

(xii) ‘No’ article is used before the name of a university, as-

I was a student of Gauhati University.

Ramen was an M.A. from Kerala University.

Note: But article ‘the’ is used when written as: the University of Gauhati.

(xiii) ‘No’ article is used before the name of a language,as-

I can speak Urdu fluently.

Note: But article ‘the’ is used if the word ‘language’ is used after the name of a particular language, as-

I can write the Urdu language.

Already, we have discussed all about the uses of articles. But there are some occasions where we can repeat the use of the same article to make a difference in meaning. Mark the difference of the following sentences:

1. I have a black and a white cat.

2. I have a black and blue pen.

In the sentence No. 1, there are double uses of ‘a’, one before the word ‘black’ and the other before the word ‘white’. The double use of ‘a’ indicates that I have two cats – one is black and the other is white.

Now, notice the sentence No.2. In this sentence, the article ‘a’ is used once before black and blue. It indicates that I have one pen which is partly black and partly blue.

Thus the repetition of articles or determiners differentiates the meaning of a sentence.

B.THE  USES  OF  QUANTITATIVE  DETERMINERS

There are some Determiners put before a noun to mean quantity i.e. the amount, measure or number of the nouns which are called Quantitative Determiners. Their numbers are many, as: many, much, some, any, few, little, each, every, plenty of, a large number of etc.

Some of these Quantitative Determiners are used for Countable Nouns, some are for Uncountable Nouns and some are used for both the Countable and Uncountable Nouns. Their usages are shown below.

1. The Use of  ‘Many’ and ‘Much’

‘Many’ is used for Countable Noun and it means numbers. It is plural in sense. On the other hand ‘Much’ is used for Uncountable Noun to mean amount. For example-

I have many books. (countable noun)

He has many friends. (countable noun)

There is much water in the pot. (uncountable noun)

He faced much trouble to win the prize. (uncountable noun)

 There are many more other words used in place ‘many’ and ‘much’, as- 

To express the meaning of ‘many’ there are such phrases as: a large number of, a lot of, lots of, heaps of etc. For example-

Rehan had a large number of books.

There was a large number of leaders in the meeting.

To express the meaning of ‘much’ there are such phrases as- a good deal of, a large quantity of, a lot of, lots of, plenty of etc. For example-

Karim did a good deal of work.

I have a lot of work to perform.

Lachit borrowed a large quantity of sugar from Luhit’s shop.

2. The  Use of  ‘Any’  and  ‘Some’

These two Determiners are used for both Countable and Uncountable Noun to express number and amount.

Generally ‘Some’ is used in Affirmative Sentence and ‘Any’ is used in Negative and Interrogative Sentence. Both are used to mean indefinite number or amount of both Countable and Uncountable Nouns. For example-

I have some apples. (Affirmative, Countable noun)

He did not meet any friend there. (Negative, Countable noun)

You gave him some sugar. (Uncountable noun)

Would you like to have some soup? (Uncountable noun)

Have you any work to do now? (Uncountable noun)

Note: In a Negative Sentence ‘any’ may be preceded by ‘not’ or ‘n’t’ but not by ‘no’. For example-

There is not any water in the jug. (but not- There is no any water in the jug)

3. The Use of  ‘Each’ and  Every’

‘Each’ is used for two or more. ‘Every’ is used for more than two. Both are used to mean singular countable noun. For example-

Each boy will get a prize. (Here the number of boys are two or more than two)

Every boy was present in the class. (Here it means that the number of boys was more than two)

4.  The Use of  ‘Either’  and  ‘Neither’

‘Either’ and ‘Neither’ are used before a singular countable noun. ‘Either’ refers to one between two or both of the two nouns. On the other hand ‘Neither’ refers to none of the two. For example-

He may join either party. (It means that- he may join any party of two parties)

The village is situated on either side of the street. (Here it means that- the village is situated on both sides of the street)

Neither boy is innocent. (Here neither means none of two boys)

Kamala joined neither party.

5. The Use of  ‘Few’, ‘A few’ and ‘The Few’

These Determiners are used for plural countable nouns. ‘Few’ has a negative force and denotes ‘almost none’. For example-

Few students were present in the meeting. (Here it denotes that- almost none of the students were present)

‘A Few’ bears a positive meaning and it denotes ‘some’. For example-

A few students were present in the class. (Here it means that some students were present)

A few books were bought by Tapas.

‘The Few’ denotes ‘all, though not many.’ For example-

I lent him the few books that I had.

 Give me the few pens that you have.

I can not part with the few rupees I have.

6. The Uses of  ‘Little’, A little’ and ‘The little’

These determiners are used before Uncountable Noun to mean amount.

Little has a negative meaning and denotes ‘almost nothing’. For example-

There is little milk in the cup. (Here it means that- there is almost no milk in the cup)

A Little bears a positive meaning and it denotes ‘some, though not much’. For example-

He has little money. 

She has a little courage.

Give me a little milk to quench my thirst.

The Little denotes ‘all, though not much’. For example-

Give me the little milk of the cup.

The little honey of the bottle is drunk out by Peter and John.

7. The Use of  ‘No’, ‘Not’ and ‘Not any’

All of these determiners are used in a negative sense.

‘No’ denotes ‘nothing or none at all’. It is used as an adjective, as-

I have no pencil.

Ram has no money. 

‘Not’ is used before a singular countable noun in place of ‘no’. as-

I have not a pencil.

Sabina has not a book.

‘Not any’ is used with Singular Countable Noun, Plural Countable Noun and Uncountable Noun. For example-

He has not any pencil. (Singular Countable Noun)

He has not any pencils. (Plural Countable Noun)

Rashmi had not any time to do the work.

8. The Uses of ‘Both’

It is used before the Plural Countable Noun to denote all of the two nouns. as-

Both Ram and Rahim are good students.

C. THE USES OF DEMONSTRATIVE DETERMINERS

‘This’, ‘these’, ‘that’, ‘those’ are called Demonstrative Determiners. ‘This’ and ‘That’ are generally used to denote Singular Countable Nouns. The plural forms of ‘this’ and ‘that’ are ‘these’ and ‘those’ successively. They are used before Plural Countable Nouns. For example-

This is my laboratory.

That is your library.

These are my books.

Those are your books.

D. CARDINAL DETERMINERS

The words which are used for counting numbers are called Cardinal Determiners. as- one, two, three, four etc. For example-

I have four red pencils.

They have five pens.

Ramen had six shirts.

E.  ORDINAL  DETERMINERS

The words which are used for denoting the order of numbers are called Ordinal Determiners, as- first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth etc. For example-

Rana is the first boy in our class.

He is my second friend.

They are the third party who come here.

F.  POSSESSIVE  DETERMINERS.

Possessive Determiners are- my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, their, theirs, our, ours, Ram’s etc. They are used to mean ownership of something. For example-

This is my pen.

That is your pen.

This pencil is yours.

That school is ours.

EXERCISE

Q.1. Insert appropriate determiners (the, much, an, many, enough, few, both) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i)……….. Taj is a historical building.

(ii) Give me ……….. umbrella.

(iii) How …….. money will you need?

(iv)………. people were present there.

(v) I want …….. book that I lent you the other day.

(vi) The class was cancelled because ………. students were present.

(vii) There is ………. milk in the pot, you can take some.

(viii) ………. Ram and Hari were good friends.

Q.2. Insert appropriate determiners (a, an, some, no, any, this) in the blanks of the following sentences.

Arun: I have ____ essay to write. But my pen has _____ ink in it. Can you lend me ____ ink?

Neela: I’m sorry, I have ____ ink.

Arun: Don’t you have ____ ink at all?

Neela: I don’t have ____.

Arun: Well, can you lend me ____ pen?

Neela: You can borrow _____  pen from me but you must return it soon.

Arun: I’ll buy ____ ink and then return your pen.

Neela: I’ll need my pen  _____ afternoon. I have to write a letter.

Q.3. Insert appropriate determiners (much, some, all, the, any, either, one) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) Mary is not at ____ office, I think she has gone home.

(ii) They stood on ____ side of the bed.

(iii)You can stop at ____ time you like.

(iv) Could you give me ____ examples?

(v)Do you watch ____ television?

(vi)I know ____ household where that happened.

(vii) I shall miss ____ my friends.

Q.4. Insert appropriate determiners (own, the, this, these, his, a, some, little etc.) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) We have very ____ information.

(ii) I remember ____ name now.

(iii) I heard it with my ____ eyes.

(iv) I got ____ postcard from Sushan.

(v) I am going to walk up ____ steps towards you.

(vi) Good evening, in ____ programme we are going to look at the way in which Indian music has developed in recent years.

(vii) We went to see ____ Pyramids.

(viii) I had ____ good ideas.

Q.5. Use appropriate determiners (own, the, a, any, few, a few, the few, our) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) He stopped ____ car in front of the house.

(ii)They would be welcome to use ____ library.

(iii)Make your ____ decision.

(iv)His younger sister was ____ sensitive child.

(v) You can stop at ____ time you like.

(vi)We have made ____ progress.

(vii) They went to London for ____ days.

Q.6. Insert appropriate determiners (the, a, the little, a few, some, any, much, many) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) There is not ____ oil in the bottle.

(ii)  Are there ____ women there?

(iii) I spent ____ money I had.

(iv) I have read ____ books.

(v) He is ____ Union Secretary of our school.

(vi) We have ____ books in the almirah.

(vii) Only ____ students are likely to fail.

Q.7. Insert appropriate determiners (much, either, both, any, each, some, few, the) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) Kalidas is ____ Shakespeare of India.

(ii)He has not ____ money to buy this picture.

(iii)He has found ____ trouble to finish the work.

(iv) The class was cancelled because ____ students were present.

(v)____ Sita and Gita are good friends.

(vi) Could you give me ____ examples?

(vii) They stood on ____ side of the bed.

Q.8. Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners.

(i)He is ____ European.

(ii) How ____ land does a man need?

(iii)We reached there ____ 10th December.

(iv)____ little learning is a dangerous thing.

(v) Will you give ____ sugar?

(vi)I don’t have ____ pen.

(vii) Mr Baruah is ____ honourable man.

Q.9. Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners.

(i) This is ____ one rupee note.

(ii)There is ___ water in the glass, you can take some.

(iii)Gita is ____ European girl.

(iv)The man is ____ honourable man.

(v)He has ____ books.

(vi)Will you lend me ____ pen?

(vii)  He is ____ B.Sc., but his brother is ____ M.Sc. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-11

CLASSIFICATION OF ADJECTIVE

 

Mind the bold words in the following sentences:

1. Ramanan is a good boy.

2. Sabina is a clever girl.

3. He gave me five mangoes.

In the sentence No.1 and 2, the bold words describe the nouns ‘boy’ and ‘girl’ or the words tell about the quality of the nouns. In the sentence No.3, the word ‘five’ denotes the number of the noun ‘mangoes’. Such words which tell something about the noun are called Adjectives. 

An adjective is a word which is generally used before a noun to add something to the meaning of the noun by indicating its quality, kind, quantity, number etc. In brief, to say, Adjectives are words which qualify the nouns.

In this chapter almost all about adjectives as- (A) The Kinds of Adjectives. (B) Position of Adjectives. (C) Formation of Adjectives. (D) Comparison of Adjectives etc. are going to be discussed one by one in detail.

A. THE KINDS OF ADJECTIVE.

There are many words in English which are used as Adjectives. They may be divided into five classes, as-

1. Adjectives of Quality. (or Descriptive Adjectives)

2. Adjectives of Quantity. 

3. Adjectives of Numbers. (or Numerical Adjectives)

4. Demonstrative Adjectives.

5. Interrogative Adjectives.

Let us discuss them as below:

1. Adjectives of Quality or Descriptive Adjectives:

This kind of Adjectives qualify or describe a noun by telling us of their quality, kind or condition. For example-

Ramesh is a good student.

Hari is an honest boy.

Ramisha is a foolish girl.

Ronaldo is an English man.

The italicized words of the above sentences tell us of the quality, kind or condition of the nouns after them. The word ‘good’ in the first sentence tells about Ramesh as a student. Thus the words ‘honest’, ‘foolish’, ‘English’, and ‘blue’ are Adjectives, as they tell something about the nouns after them.

2. Adjectives of Quantity:

The Adjectives of Quantity show how much of a thing (noun) is meant. For example-

Give me some sugar.

He drank the little milk of the cup.

He needed enough exercise.

You have no sense at all.

He regained all his fortunes.

We get the Adjective of Quantity if we question the noun: how much.

3. Adjectives of Number or Numerical Adjectives:

This kind of Adjectives denotes the number of persons or things or show in what order they stand. For example-

We have twenty fingers.

There are several mistakes in that book.

Many members were present there.

Adjectives of Number or Numerical Adjectives are of three kinds, as- 

(i) Definite Numerical Adjectives: This kind of Adjectives denote an exact number, as- one, two, three, four, five etc. (Cardinals) and first, second, third, fourth (Ordinals).

Note: A Cardinal denotes how many and an Ordinal denotes the order of things in a series. For example-

I have one and a thousand books.

Ram is the first boy in our class.

(ii) Indefinite Numerical Adjectives: This kind of Adjectives denote the number of some kind but don’t indicate the exact number. All, many, few, any, several are some of the Indefinite Numerical Adjectives.

(iii) Distributive Numerical Adjectives: They refer to each one of a number, as-

Every boy will get a book.

Either book will do.

Each labour must get his due.

4. Demonstrative Adjectives:

This kind of Adjectives point out which person or thing is meant, as-

This is my book.

That book is yours.

Such men are industrious.

These are my pens.

Those pens are yours.

Demonstrative Adjectives answer the question:  ‘which’.

5. Interrogative Adjectives:

What, which, whose and how many are called Interrogative Adjectives when they are used with nouns to ask questions. For example-

What kind of man is he?

Which books are yours?

Whose pen is this?

How many books have you?

Note: The words ‘own’ and ‘very’ are used as Adjectives to put emphasis on an object, such as-

I have seen him with my own eyes.

This is the very book I need.

These two words are called Emphasizing Adjectives.

Sometimes the word ‘what’ is used as an Exclamatory Adjectives, as-

What a plan!

What an idea!

What a genius!

B. POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

Generally, Adjectives are placed before the nouns they qualify. But sometimes they are used after the nouns they qualify. For example-

The honest boy was rewarded. (Placed before noun)

The boy was honest. (Placed after the noun)

In the first sentence, the Adjective honest is used along with the noun boy as an epithet or attribute. It is said to be used Attributively.

In the second sentence, the Adjective honest is used along with the verb was and forms a part of the predicate. It is, therefore, said to be used predicatively.

So, the Adjectives used Attributively are placed just before the Nouns they qualify and the Adjectives used predicatively are placed after the verb which becomes a part of the predicate.

When several Adjectives are attached to one noun they are generally placed after for emphasis as-

William Shakespeare had a great genius: original, sagacious and inventive.

Here stays my friend bold and strong.

In some phrases, the Adjective always comes after the noun it qualifies, as-

Time immemorial, Heir apparent, Notary public, God Almighty, the Body politic.

When some words or phrases are joined to the Adjective to explain its meaning, then the Adjective is placed after the noun, as-

Vivekananda was a man wise in an argument.

The girl, better than her fellow maids, came to invite me.

In poetry, sometimes, though not often, the Adjective is placed after the noun, as-

“Oh! come on darling dear

Look at the sky, look how the moon

Makes sports with clouds.”

C. THE FORMATION OF  ADJECTIVES

In the English language, Adjectives are many because, in English, Adjectives may be formed from Nouns, Verbs, Past Participles and from other Adjectives. Some specimens of the Formation of Adjectives are shown below:

1. Some Adjectives formed from Nouns:

Noun —————   Adjectives

Aborigin ———— aboriginal.

Boy —————– boyish

Care —————- careful

Dirt —————-  dirty

Fool —————–foolish

Hope —————- hopeful

Envy —————- envious

Play —————- playful

Shame ————- shameless

Sense ————– senseless

Storm ————– stormy

Silk —————– silken

Gift —————– gifted

Gold ————— golden

Glory ————— glorious

Pardon ————–pardonable

Laugh ————– laughable

Courage ———– courageous

Man —————- manly

King ————— kingly

Queen ————– queenly

2. Some Adjectives formed from Verbs:

Verb ————Adjectives

Cease ———— ceaseless

Create ———— creative

Tire ————– tiresome

Talk ————  talkative

More ———— moveable.

3. Some Past Participles of verbs used as Adjectives, as:

broken, given, departed, closed etc.

4. Some Adjectives are formed from other Adjectives:

Adjective ———— Adjective

Tragic ———— tragical

Two ————– twofold

Black ———— blackish

White ———— whitish

Whole ———— wholesome

Sick ———— sickly. etc.

D.  COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Notice the following sentences:

1. Nilima is a lazy girl.

2. Sabita is lazier than Nilima.

3. Kabita is the laziest of all.

In sentence 1, the adjective lazy tells us the quality of Nilima without saying how much of this quality Nilima has.

In sentence 2, the adjective lazier tells us that Sabita has more of the quality of laziness than Nilima has. Here Sabita’s ‘laziness’ is compared with that of Nilima.

In sentence 3, the adjective laziest tells us that of all these girls Kabita has the greatest amount or highest degree of the quality of laziness.

From the above three sentences, we have known that Adjectives change in form to show comparison. Thus Adjectives have three Degrees of Comparison.

The Adjective lazy is said to be in the Positive Degree. The Positive Degree of an Adjective is the Adjective in its simple form. It is used when no comparison is made.

The Adjective lazier is said to be in the Comparative Degree. The Comparative Degree of an Adjective denotes a higher degree of quality than the positive. The comparative form of an adjective is used when two things of the same kind are compared.

The Adjective laziest is said to be in the Superlative Degree. The Superlative Degree of an Adjective denotes the highest degree of quality. It is used when more than two things are compared.

There are two general ways of forming Degrees of Comparision by adding -er and -est to the Adjectives or by using more and most before the Adjectives.

The Rules for the Formation of Comparative and Superlative Degrees are shown below:

1. Most Adjectives of one syllable and a few Adjectives of two syllables form the comparative by adding ‘-er’ and the superlative by adding ‘-est’ to the Adjectives in the Positive Degree, as-

Positive —- Comparative —- Superlative

Bold ——– bolder ——– boldest

Clever ——– cleverer ——– cleverest

High ——– higher ——– highest

Short ——– shorter ——– shortest

Tall ——– taller ——– tallest

Young ——– younger ——– youngest

2. When the positive ends in ‘-e’ only ‘-r’ and ‘-st’ are added to form comparative and superlative, as-

Positive —– Comparative —– Superlative

Able ——– abler ——– ablest

Brave ——– braver ——– bravest

Dense ——– denser ——– densest

Large ——– larger ——– largest

Noble ——– nobler ——– noblest

Fine ——– finer ——– finest

Wise ——– wiser ——– wisest.

3. When the Positive is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant (d, t, m or w) preceded by a short vowel, the final consonant becomes double before adding ‘-er’ or ‘-est’, e.g.

Positive —- Comparative —– Superlative

Fat ——– fatter ——– fattest

Hot ——– hotter ——– hottest

Sad ——– sadder ——– saddest

Red ——– redder ——– reddest

Slim ——– slimmer ——– slimmest

Wet ——– wetter ——– wettest

4. If the Adjectives end in ‘y’ and the ‘y’ is preceded by a consonant, then the  ‘y’ is changed into ‘i’ and then ‘-er’ and ‘-est’ are added to form comparative and superlative successively, as-

Positive ——– Comparative ——– Superlative

Dry ——– drier ——– driest

Happy ——– happier ——– happiest

Heavy ——– heavier ——– heaviest

Holy ——– holier ——– holiest

Merry ——– merrier ——– merriest

Wealthy ——– wealthier ——– wealthiest

Note: If the ‘y’ is preceded by a vowel then, it is not changed into ‘i’, as- Gay- gayer- gayest; Grey- greyer- greyest.

5. Most Adjectives of two syllables and all Adjectives of more than two syllables take more and most before them to form the Comparative Degree and the Superlative Degree successively e.g.

Positive ———– Comparative ———– Superlative

Beautiful ——– more beautiful ——– most beautiful

Courageous ——– more courageous ——– most courageous

Difficult ——– more difficult ——– most difficult

Faithful ——– more faithful ——– most faithful

Splendid ——– more splendid ——– most splendid

Intelligent ——– more intelligent ——– most intelligent

Industriousmore industrious    most industrious

Useful ——– more useful ——– most useful

6. There are some Adjectives which form their Comparative and Superlative in an irregular way, as-

Positive ——– Comparative ——– Superlative

Good ——– better ——– best

Bad ——– worse ——– worst

Evil ——– worse ——– worst

Ill ——– worse ——– worst

Little ——– less ——– lest

Late ——– later ——– latest

Much ——– more ——– most

Many ——– more ——– most

Old ——– older ——– oldest

————– elder ——– eldest

Further ——– furtherer ——– furtherest, furthermost

Far ——– farther ——– farthest

Near ——– nearer ——– nearest

Note: (i) ‘Than’ is used after the Comparative and ‘the’ is used before the Superlative.

(ii) There are some Latin Comparatives as- Interior, Superior, Junior, Senior, Prior etc. which are followed by ‘to’ and not by ‘than’.

(iii) Many of the irregular Comparatives and Superlatives have different meanings.

(iv) Sometimes the Superlatives with most is used where there is no idea of comparison, but implies the possession of quality in a very high degree, as-

It was a most beautiful scenery.

He was a most fortunate.

Such usage of Superlative without having an idea of comparison is called The Superlative of Eminence or Absolute Superlative.

E. USE OF COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF SOME ADJECTIVES

The use of Comparative and Superlative of some Adjectives are discussed below-

1. The Use of ‘Elder’ and ‘Older’:

‘Elder’ is used to indicate a person of the same family. It is never followed by ‘than’, as-

Shahin is my elder brother.

Gobind is Arabinda’s elder son.

‘Older’ is applied to person and thing in general and is followed by ‘than’. as-

Rahim is older than Shah Alam.

Your house is older than that of mine.

2. The Use of ‘Eldest’ and ‘Oldest’:

‘Eldest’ refers to the first born child, as-

Hari’s eldest son is an engineer.

Jarifa is the eldest daughter of her parents.

‘Oldest’ is applied to persons and things in general, e.g.

This is the oldest building of the town.

That was the oldest chair of the library.

Ramanna was the oldest man in the village.

3. The Use of ‘Farther’ and ‘Further’:

‘Farther’ is applied to mean greater distance, as-

He travelled farther than his brother.

I wish not to go farther.

‘Further’ denotes something additional, e.g.

Rahim studied further.

We require further guidance.

4. The Use of ‘First’ & ‘Foremost’:

‘First’ denotes order or position, as-

Peter was the first boy to attend the meeting.

He is the first of this class.

‘Foremost’ denotes most eminent, e.g.

Shakespeare was the foremost dramatist of the Age of Queen Elizabeth.

5. The Use of ‘Later’ and ‘Latter’:

‘Later’ denotes time (opposite to ‘earlier’), e.g.

Ramel arrived later than Rani.

‘Latter’ dentes ‘order’ (opposite to ‘former’), e.g.

The latter chapters of the novel are very interesting.

6. The Use of ‘Latest’ and ‘Last’:

‘Latest’ denotes time, e.g.

What is the latest news of the war?

‘Last’ denotes order or position, e.g.

He is the last boy in the school.

I went there last.

7. The Use of ‘Less’ and ‘Lesser’:

‘Less’ is used as both Adjective and Adverb. It is the opposite to ‘more’. as-

They are less industrious than you.

He earns less, eats more.

‘Lesser’ is used before an Adjective. It is a double comparative and is the opposite of ‘greater’. When it is used before an Adjective of the Comparative Degree, it is preceded by ‘the ’and followed by ‘of’, e.g.

Everybody likes to choose the lesser of the two evils.

8. The Use of ‘Less’ and ‘Fewer’:

‘Less’ denotes quantity (in uncountable noun), as-

Oliver refused to lake less sum than he desired.

He earns less money than his friend.

‘Fewer’ denotes number (in countable noun), as-

Fewer boys were present that day.

9. The Use of ‘Outer’ & ‘Utter’:

‘Outer’ refers to order or position, as-

The outer part of the porch needs painting.

‘Utter’ is used to mean the sense of ‘extreme’, e.g. 

The villagers are in utter darkness.

10. The Use of ‘Nearest’ & ‘Next’:

‘Nearest’ denotes distance, e.g.

Our school is nearest to the post office.

‘Next’ denotes order or position, e.g.

The next boy was Ram to attend the class.

EXERCISE

1. Insert appropriate adjectives in the blanks of the following sentences selecting one from the list given in brackets along with the sentences.

(a) Krishna is my ____ sister. (elder/older)

(b) Rajen is ____ than Lalita. (older/elder)

(c) Ahmed Newas is the ____ man of this village. (eldest/oldest)

(d) Ramanna’s ____ son is a doctor. (eldest/oldest)

(e) Kalam needs ____ help. (further/farther)

(f) Raghubir is the ____ politician of the state. (first/foremost)

(g) He runs ____ distance. (further/ farther)

Q.2. Insert appropriate adjectives in the blanks of the following sentences choosing from the list given within brackets along with the sentences.

(a) Shahriar is my ____ child. (foremost/first)

(b) He came here ____ than Ram. (latter/later)

(c) Let me know the ____ news. (latest/last)

(d) They spend ____ money. (less/lesser)

(e) ____ boys were absent. (less/lesser)

(f) Budhu is in ____ darkness. (outer/utter)

(g) Who is your ____ friend either Ram or Rahim? (next/nearest)

Q.3. Insert appropriate adjectives in the blanks of the following sentences.

(a) Sachin is the ____ brother of Renin. (elder/older)

(b) Harish’s ____ son is a teacher. (oldest/eldest)

(c) I travelled ____ than my friend. (further/farther)

(d) Hari was the  ____ boy of our class. (foremost/first)

(e) He arrived ____ than his brother. (latter/later)

(f) What is the ____ information from him? (last/latest)

(g) Don’t you like to choose the ____ of two evils? (less/lesser)

Q.4. Insert appropriate adjectives from the list given along with the following sentences and fill in the blanks.

(a) Rahim earns ____ money than his friend. (fewer/less)

(b) The ____ part of your building needs repairing. (utter/outer)

(c) My house is ____ to that of Ram. (next/nearest)

(d) He is ____ than his brother. (elder/older)

(e) Karim is the  ____ member of the party. (eldest/oldest)

(f) You may have ____ guidance from your teacher. (farther/further)

(g) The ____ chapters of the novel are amusing. (later/latter)

Q.5. Fill in the blanks of the following sentences choosing the correct word from those given in the brackets.

(a) I can not proceed ____ without a little rest. (further/farther)

(b) Rama’s ____ brother is a Post Master General. (older/elder)

(c) They arrived ____ than we expected. (later/latter)

(d) The ____ part of his lecture was very amusing. (later/latter)

(e) She is ____ than her cousin. (older/elder)

(f) He is ____ than Samsun. (older/elder)

(g) Invite Rajesh without ____ delay. (farther/further)

(h) Nilima went to Delhi for ____ study in Biology. (further/farther)

(i) Nehru was the ____ statesman of his time. (first/foremost)

(j) She stood ____ in the examination. (first/foremost)

(k) We can’t proceed _____ without a little rest. (further/ farther)

(l) His _____ brother is a doctor. (Older/ elder)

(m) You are ____ than Shankar. (older? elder)

(n) He arrived _____ than we expected. (latter/later)

Q.6. Fill in the blanks of the following sentences.

(a) Ahmed bowls faster ____ Shastri.

(b) Forgiveness is nobler ____ revenge.

(c) That was the ____ joyous moment.

(d) He is older ____ the two sisters.

(e) Ramesh is inferior ____ Shyam in intelligence.

(f) The Unification of Germany took place prior to  ____ the world wars.

(g) Lead is heavier ____ any other metal.

(h) Kapildev bowls faster ______ Har Bhajan.

(i) Generosity is nobler  ______ misery.

(j) It was the ____ glorious moment of my life.

(k) This meeting took place prior ________ World War II.

(l) You are senior _____ me by four years.

(m) This piece of cloth is ________ costlier ______ that.

(n) You are superior _______ Yadav in intelligence.

Q.7. Rewrite the following sentences by using the correct degree of comparison of the words given in brackets against each.

(i) Even the ____ worker can make a mistake. (careful)

(ii) Sita is the ____ of the three daughters. (old)

(iii) Her condition is ____ than before. (bad)

(iv) Prevention is ____ than cure. (good)

(v) Which is ____ gold or silver? (costly)

(vi) Which is the ____ day of the year? (long)

(vii) Is Ram the ____ of the three sons? (young)

(viii) Shirin is the ____ person in our village. (richer)

(ix) Your grandmother is the ____ member of your family. (old)

(x) Everest is  ____ peak in the world. (high)

(xi) A fox is ____ than a crow. (clever)

(xii) I would prefer to buy the ____ edition of this book. (late)

(xiii) He made ____ mistakes in his essays than you. (many)

(xiv) The Red Fort is one of the ____ buildings in the world. (beautiful)

(xv) This bundle of books is ____ than that. (heavy)

Q.8. Pick out the Adjectives and name the Degree of Comparison of each of them in the following sentences:

(i) The pen is mightier than the sword.

(ii) He was as wise as Solomon.

(iii) He is as beautiful as Shakuntala.

(iv) An example is better than precept.

(v) Jufika is the most intelligent girl in the class.

(vi) Iron is the most useful metal.

(vii) The longest day has the shortest night.

(viii) Hunger is the best sauce.

(ix) Misery is the greatest mystery.

(x) Lata Mangeshkar is the greatest singer in India.

(xi) Ram is better than his friend Kanak. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-12

CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS

 

Mind the bold words in the following sentences:

They read the Puranas.

Kamal and Sita play badminton.

You learn English.

It may rain.

They can do the work.

The bold words in the above sentences say something (actions) about the subjects. These i.e. read, play, learn, may, can are verbs.

A word that is used for saying something (some action) about the subject in a sentence is called a Verb.

There are many many verbs in the English language. According to their function in sentences, the English verbs are divided broadly into two classes, as: 1. Principal (Main) Verb and 2. Auxiliary Verbs.

A Principal Verb is a verb that can express a sense independently. In other words, to say, a verb which have a meaning of its own is called a Principal Verb (Main Verb or Full Verb).

The verbs read, play and learn in the above sentences are Principal Verbs.

On the other hand, an Auxiliary Verb is a verb that helps a Principal Verb (Finite Verb) in completing its action.

Again Verbs are divided into two classes, as- Transitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs. Let us discuss them as below:

1. Transitive Verbs:

Mind the verbs in the following sentences:

She likes apples.

They play football.

Alice learns Latin.

In the above sentences the actions of the verbs likes, play and learn pass to apples, football and Latin (objects) respectively. They are Transitive Verbs.

A Verb that has an object is called a Transitive Verb.

In a transitive verb, the action does not stop with the agent (Subject) but passes from the agent to something else.

2. Intransitive Verbs:

Mind the verbs in the following sentences:

Rana runs.

Dogs bark.

We sleep.

In the above sentences, the verbs have no objects to describe them. They are Intransitive Verbs.

An Intransitive Verb is a verb that has no objects. In case of an Intransitive Verb, the action does not pass on to affect an object but stops with the agent.

There are some Intransitive Verbs which take some words or group of words to complete the sense. Mind the following sentences:

Heera runs in the sun.

Birappan begs in the evening.

Birds fly in the sky.

The italicised groups of words in the above sentences are used to complete the sense of the verbs runs, begs and fly respectively. They are complements of the verbs.

A Complement is a group of words that complete the sense of a verb. (‘Complement’ means something that completes.) A complement generally begins with a preposition.

EXERCISE

1. What is called Principal Verb? Write ten sentences using the principal verbs.

2. Underline the Principal Verbs in the following sentences:

a. Edward works hard in the factory.

b. Manika drinks apple juice in the morning.

c. Deepika learns Hindi in the Eastern Institute.

d. Fahad was a good player.

e. Navanita kills a snake.

f. Farid presided over the meeting.

g. William goes to Italy every week.

3. Underline the Intransitive Verbs in the following sentences:

a. Kanak drinks.

b. We sleep at night.

c. The baby cries.

d. The dove flies.

e. The cat mews.

f. He laughs.

g. Dravid runs in the field.  0 0 0

 

Chapter-13

LIST OF VERBS

 

You have learnt that a verb is a word that tells something about the subject in a sentence. In the English language, every Principal verb has three forms, as: Present Form, Past Form and Past Participle Form. Notice the forms of the following verbs:

Present Form—-Past Form—Past Participle Form

Arise ———- Arose ———- arisen

Come ———- Came ———- Come

Give ———- gave ———- given

Act ———- acted ———- acted

Hear ———- heard ———- heard

Feel ———- felt ———- felt

In the above list, the verbs Arise, Come and Give have formed their Past and Past Participle Form by changing the vowels in the body of the word without adding any suffix. They are called Strong Verbs.

On the other hand, the verbs Act, Hear and Feel have formed their Past and Past Participle Forms by adding d, ed or t to the Present forms with or without a vowel change in the body of the verb. They are called Weak Verbs.

Thus Verbs are divided into Strong and Weak Verbs according to the way in which they form their Past and Past Participles.

Note that the Present Form of a Verb is called Lexicon  (Dictionary)Form.

A list of Verbs with their three Forms is given below:

Present form — Past form — Past Participle form

Arise ———- arose ———- arisen

Act ———- acted ———- acted

Advise ———- advised ——— advised

Abuse ———- abused ———- abused

Awake ———- awoke ———- awoken

Ask ———- asked ———- asked

Accuse ———- accused ———- accused

Argue ———- argued ———- argued

Appoint ———- appointed ———- appointed

Arrest ———- arrested ———- arrested

Arrive ———- arrived ———- arrived

Attack ———- attacked ———- attacked

Appear ———- appeared ———- appeared

Answer ——– answered ——– answered

Allow ———- allowed ———- allowed

Beg ———- begged ———- begged

Buy ———- bought ———- bought

Bend ———- bent ———-bent

Bring ———- brought ———- brought

Burn ———- burnt ———- burnt

Boil ———- boiled ———- boiled

Build ———- built ———- built

Begin ———- began ———- begun

beat ———- beat ———- beat

Become ——– became ——– become

Blow ———- blew ———- blown

Break ———- broke ———- broken

Bind ———- bound ———- bound

Bear ———- bore ———- born

Bear ———- bore ———- borne

Bid ———- bade ———- bidden

Boast ———- boasted ———- boasted

Believe ——- believed ——- believed

Borrow ——- borrowed —— borrowed

Bathe ———- bathed ———- bathed

Come ———- came ———- come

Call ———- called ———- called

Carry ———- carried ———- carried

Catch ——— caught ——— caught

Copy ———- copied ———- copied

Care ——— cared ——— cared

Clean ——— cleaned ———- cleaned

Change ——– changed —— changed

Collect ——– collected ——– collected

Climb ———- climbed ———- climbed

Choose ———- chose ———- chosen

Cook ———- cooked ———- cooked

Close ———- closed ———- closed

Cross ———- crossed ———- crossed

Cry ———- cried ———- cried

Clothe ———- clothed ———- clothed

Count ———- counted ———- counted

Clear ———- cleared ———- cleared

Creep ———- crept ———- crept

Consult ———- consulted ———- consulted

Confuse ———- confused ———- confused

Complete ———- completed ———- completed

Correct ———- corrected ———- corrected

Conceal ———- concealed ———- concealed

Do ———- did ———- done

Dig ———- dug ———- dug

Drink ———- drank ———- drunk

Draw ———- drew ———- drawn

Drive ———- drove ———- driven

Defeat ———- defeated ———- defeated

Defend ———- defended ———- defended

Divide ———- divided ———- divided

Dry ———- dried ———- dried

Deal ———- dealt ———- dealt

Dwell ——- dwelt ——- dwelt

Dream ———- dreamt ———- dreamt

Drown ———- drowned ———- drowned

Dance ———- danced ———- danced

Die ———- died ———- died

Devote ———- devoted ———- devoted

Direct ———- directed ———- directed

Deceive ———- deceived ———- deceived

Deliver ———- delivered ———- delivered

Eat ———- ate ———- eaten

Earn ———- earned ———- earned

Enter ———- entered ———- entered

Escape ———- escaped ———- escaped

End ———- ended ———- ended

Ease ———- eased ———- eased

Ebb ———- ebbed ———- ebbed

Eclipse ———- eclipsed ———- eclipsed

Economise —— economised ——- economised

Echo ———- echoed ———- echoed

Edify ———- edified ———- edified

Edit ———- edited ———- edited

Effect ———- effected ———- effected

Effort ———- efforted ———- efforted

Eject ———- ejected ———- ejected

Elaborate ———- elaborated ———- elaborated

Elect ———- elected ———- elected

Educate ———- educated ———- educated

Evade ———- evaded ———- evaded

Evoke ———- evoked ———- evoked

Fly ———- flew ———- flown

Find ———- found ———- found

Fall ———- fell ———- fallen

Fight ———- fought ———- fought

Feed ———- fed ———- fed

Forbid ———- forbade ———- forbidden

Fear ———- feared ———- feared

Fail ———- failed ———- failed

Force ———- forced ———- forced

Feel ———- felt ———- felt

Face ———- faced ———- faced

Float ———- floated ———- floated

Flee ———- fled ———- fled

Found ———- founded ———- founded

Fine ———- fined ———- fined

Finish ———- finished ———- finished

Falsify ———- falsified ———- falsified

Fascinate ———- fascinated ———- fascinated

Fill ———- filled ———- filled

Fold ———- folded ———- folded

Go ———- went ———- gone

Grow ———- grew ———- grown

Give ———- gave ———- given

Get ———- got ———- got/gotten

Grant ———- granted ———- granted

Gain ———- gained ———- gained

Gamble ———- gambled ———- gambled

Gaze ———- gazed ———- gazed

Govern ———- governed ———- governed

Grip ———- gripped ———- gripped

Hear ———- heard ———- heard

Hide ———- hid ———- hidden

Hit ———- hit ———- hit

Hang ———- hanged ———- hanged

Hold ———- held ———- held

Hew ———- hewed ———- hewed

Have ———- had ———- had

Hurt ———- hurt ———- hurt

Kill ———- killed ———- killed

Kiss ———- kissed ———- kissed

Know ———- knew ———- known

Kneel ———- knelt ———- knelt

Keep ———- kept ———- Kept

Knit ———- knitted ———- knitted

Kick ———- kicked ———- kicked

Knock ———- knocked ———- knocked

Kidnap ———- kidnapped ———- kidnapped

Lead ———- led ———- led

Learn ———- learnt ———- learnt

Leap ———- leapt ———- leapt

Labour ———- laboured ———- laboured

Load ———- loaded ———- loaded

Lie ———- lied ———- lied

Leave ———- left ———- left

Lay ———- laid ———- laid

Let ———- let ———- let

Lose ———- lost ———- lost

Light ———- lighted ———- lighted

Listen ———- listened ———- listened

Make ———- made ———- made

Meet ———- met ———- met

Mean ———- meant ———- meant

Magnify ———- magnified ———- magnified

Manage ———- managed ———- managed

Misbehave —— misbehaved —— misbehaved

Melt ———- melted ———- melted

Measure ———- measured ———- measured

Mow ———- mowed ———- mowed

Marry ———- married ———- married

Need ———- needed ———- needed

Nap ———- napped ———- napped

Nibble ———- nibbled ———- nibbled

Nip ———- nipped ———- nipped

Owe ———- owed ———- owed

Obey ———- obeyed ———- obeyed

Object ———- objected ———- objected

Oblige ———- obliged ———- obliged

Occupy ———- occupied ———- occupied

Observe ———- observed ———- observed

Oppose ———- opposed ———- opposed

Open ———- opened ———- opened

Put ———- put ———- put

Pack ———- packed ———- packed

Pay ———- paid ———- paid

Prove ———- proved ———- proved

Pen ———- penned ———- penned

Paint ———- painted ———- painted

Part ———- parted ———- parted

Participate ———- participated ———- participated

Quit ———- quit ———- quit

Quarrel ———- quarrelled ———- quarrelled

Qualify ———- qualified ———- qualified

Quash ———- quashed ———- quashed

Question ———- questioned ———- questioned

Reach ———- reached ———- reached

Read ———- read ———- read

Raise ———- raised ———- raised

Rend ———- rend ———- rend

Ride ———- rode ———- ridden

Rid ———- rid ———- rid

Rise ———- rose ———- risen

Run ———- ran ———- run

Rot ———- rotten ———- rotten

Ring ———- rang ———- rung

Rent ———- rent ———- rent

Say ———- said ———- said

See ———- saw ———- seen

Sell ———- sold ———- sold

Shake ———- shook ———- shaken

Shoot ———- shot ———- shot

Sleep ———- slept ———- slept

Slit ———- slit ———- slit

Shape ———- shaped ———- shaped

Shut ———- shut ———- shut

Sing ———- sang ———- sung

Shine ———- shone ———- shone

Shrink ———- shrank ———- shrunk

Seek ———- sought ———- sought

Smell ———- smelt ———- smelt

Speak ———- spoke ———- spoken

Spill ———- spilt ———- spilt

Stand ———- stood ———- stood

Spin ———- span ———- spun

Smite ———- smote ———- smitten

Spoil ———- spoiled ———- spoiled

Steal ———- stole ———- stolen

Swear ———- swore ———- sworn

Stick ———- stuck ———- stuck

Strike ———- struck ———- struck

Spring ———- sprang ———- sprung

Strive ———- strove ———- striven

Show ———- showed ———- showed

Sweep ———- swept ———- swept

Swim ———- swam ———- swum

Swell ———- swelled ———- swelled

Swing ———- swung ———- swung

Tell ———- told ———- told

Tear ———- tore ———- torn

Take ———- took ———- taken

Teach ———- taught ———- taught

Think ———- thought ———- thought

Tread ———- trod ———- trodden

Throw ———- threw ———- thrown

Thrive ———- thrived ———- thrived

Wear ———- wore ———- worn

Wed ———- wedded ———- wedded

Work ———- worked ———- worked

Win ———- won ———- won

Write ———- wrote ———- written

Wish ———- wished ———- wished

Wind ———- wound ———- wound

Wring ———- wrung ———- wrung

Wake ———- woke, waked ———- waked

Weave ———- wove ———- woven

Weep ———- wept ———- wept

Wash ———- washed ———- washed

Want ———- wanted ———- wanted     0 0 0

 

Chapter-14

THE AUXILIARY VERB

 

You have already learnt that English Verbs are broadly divided into two classes, as: Principal Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs. 

Mind the following bold typed verbs in the following sentences:

Karishma has a red pen.

They have a new ball.

I have an English Dictionary.

In the above sentences, the bold typed verbs have their own meaning as they express the sense of having or belonging something to the agent (subject). These are Principal Verbs.

The verbs which have the meaning of their own are called Principal Verbs. Principal Verbs are called Main Verbs or Full Verbs also.

Now mind the following verbs:

Nalini has gone to market.

We have done our homework.

I have seen the Tajmahal.

The bold words i.e. ‘has’ and ‘have’ in the above sentences are used as verbs, but they have no meaning of their own. They have only helped the main verbs go, do and see to make Present Perfect Tense. These are Auxiliary Verbs. (Auxiliary means helping).

The Verbs which help other verbs to form other tenses than the Simple Present or the Simple Past are called Auxiliary Verbs.

There are 24 Auxiliary Verbs in the English language. They are: 

Present  — Past

Am, Is — was

Are — were

Have, Has, — had 

Shall — should

Will — would

May — might 

Can — could

Do, Does — did,

Must ×

Ought (to),×  

Dare, ×

Need ×

×               Used (to).

Among these Auxiliary  Verbs am, is, are, was and were are called Be Verbs.

The use of Auxiliary Verbs are multifunctional and different in some way from the usual so they are called  Anomalous Finite Verbs also.

Again the Auxiliary Verbs are divided into two classes as– Primary Auxiliaries and Modal Auxiliaries.

Let us discuss their functions as below:

A. Primary Auxiliaries

Be (and its different forms as –am, is, was, are, were), do, did, does, have,  has and had are called Primary Auxiliaries. The Primary Auxiliaries generally help other Finite Verbs to express a statement of facts. The Primary Auxiliaries, besides being used as auxiliaries, sometimes used as Principal Verbs.

The Primary Auxiliaries when help other verbs taking place before them are used as Auxiliaries. And when they complete the sense of a sentence being used alone (without any other verb in a sentence) then they are called to be used as Principal Verbs or Regular verbs. Notice the following sentences:

(a) I am doing my duty. (Here ‘am’ is used as an Auxiliary Verb)

I am a teacher. (Here ‘am’ is  used as  Main or Regular Verb).

(b) I have eaten the piece of melon. ( used as Auxiliary Verb)

I have a new umbrella. (used as Main or Regular Verb)

The uses of Primary Auxiliaries are illustrated below:

1. The Uses of ‘Be’:

A. ‘Be’ as Principal Verb:

1. ‘Be’ and its different forms are used as linking verbs. They link the subject of a sentence with the words that follow them as in the following sentences:

(a) Geeta is a singer. (links with a Noun)

(b) They are very shrewd. (links with an Adjective)

(c) Hari was here. (links with an Adverb)

(d) The doctor is to go. (Links with an Infinitive)

(e) The box is on the shelf. (links with an Adverb Phrase)

2. ‘Be’ is used to mean order, suggestion or request, as:

(a) Be courteous to all.

(b) Be off from the hall.

(c) Be calm and sit here.

(d) Be an honest boy.

3. ‘Be’ is used to mean existence:

The soul is, therefore I am.

God is, therefore we are.

Raman is in the sea.

B. ‘Be’ as an Auxiliary Verb:

1. To form Present Continuous and Past Continuous Tense, as:

(a) I am writing a novel.

(b) Karishma was coaching the team.

(c) They were playing Volleyball.

2. To transform a sentence of Active Voice to Passive Voice, as:

(a) The work is done

(b) The students were punished.

(c) The boy was praised.

3. To form Present or Past Tense with the Past Participle forms of some Intransitive verbs, as:

(a) She is gone.

(b) Heema is come.

(c) They are run out.

2. The Uses of ‘Have’:

A. ‘Have’ as Principal Verb:

1. ‘Have’ is used to mean ‘eating of something’.

I have my supper in a hotel.

She has her breakfast at 7. a.m.

Ram had his dinner at home.

2. ‘Have’ is used to mean belonging something to an agent:

I have a new car.

We have a garden in Delhi.

My cousin has a yellow pen.

3. ‘Have’ is used to mean a feeling, condition or an experience:

Kanak has a skin disease.

She has a headache.

Rajani has a bad cold.

4. ‘Have’ is used to mean receiving or getting something.

I have good news for him.

She has a letter everyday from her mother.

Ranaki has a guest every week.

B. ‘Have’ as an Auxiliary Verb:

1. ‘Have’ and ‘Has’ is used before the Past Participle form of a Principal Verb to from Present perfect tense:

I have performed my duty.

She has arrived just now.

Arshad has done the mistake.

Kamala and Rina have gone there.

2. ‘Had’ the past form of ‘Have’ is used with the Past Participle form of a Principal Verb to form Past Perfect Tense:

I  had done the work.

They had played the game.

Rajib had finished the homework before noon.

3. The Uses of ‘Do’:

A. ‘Do’ as Principal Verb:

1. ‘Do’ is used to mean performance or doing something:

We do our duty very honestly.

Do as you are advised.

Seema does everything as she says.

B. ‘Do’ as an Auxiliary Verb:

1. ‘Do’ is used to ask a question:

Do you learn English?

Does Ravana come here off and on?

Did he go there yesterday?

2. ‘Do’ is used to form Negative Sentence:

I do not know the news.

Hitesh does not know Tapan.

He did not ask me any question.

3. ‘Do’ is used to emphasise an Assertive:

I do confess that I did the wrong.

He does write well.

They did say that they do not play in the morning.

B. Modal Auxiliaries

We have known that there are 24 Auxiliary Verbs. Among them the auxiliaries like shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could, must, ought (to), dare, need and used (to) are called Modal Auxiliaries. These are called Modal Auxiliaries because they express the mood of an agent. (‘Modal’ is the Adjective form of Mood).

There are some traits of the Modal Auxiliaries as,

1. They are never used alone i.e. they take a Principal Verb within a sentence as in the following examples:

We can swim.

They will come here tomorrow.

We must respect our elders.

2. There are no different forms of the Modal auxiliaries for the Third Person Singular Number. They are used in the same form irrespective of Persons and Numbers. Notice the following examples:

Singular — ——- Plural

1st. I can do it. We can do it.

2nd You can do it. You can do it.

3rd He/She/Rana can do it. They can do it.

3. The Modal Auxiliaries are used neither as Present Participle nor as Past Participle. Notice the following examples:

I dare say so. (Not I am daring to say so).

He must come.

I need your help.

They must not stay here.

It may rain now.

There are a variety of functions and uses of the Modal Auxiliaries. Let us discuss them with illustration as below:

1. The Uses of ‘Shall’:

(i) Shall is used in the first person to express mere futurity:

We shall attend the seminar on time.

I shall go to meet you.

We shall do it.

(ii) Shall is used in the second and third person to express command, promise, threat or inevitability:

You shall come here. (order)

You shall do your duty. (Command)

You shall be paid the next morning. (Promise)

Thieves shall be punished. (threat)

All shall die. (inevitability)

(iii) Shall is used in Laws, Rules etc. to denote Order or Command:

The bribe-takers shall not escape imprisonment.

All the members of the committee shall obey the disciplines imposed upon them.

(iv) In interrogative sentences, Shall is used in the first and third person to inquire about the will of the person addressed to:

Shall I visit you?

Shall Deepa return soon?

2. The Uses of ‘Should’:

(i) Should is the past form of ‘Shall’. It is used to mean future time in the past:

Ram told me that they should return soon that day.

I said that I should pay him by November last year.

(ii) Should is used to mean Duty or Obligation:

We should love the poor.

We should do our duty regularly.

One should respect one’s parents.

(iii) Should is used to  make polite statements:

We should not respond to him.

She should have it.

(iv) Should is used to indicate Probability:

You should be able to read this storybook.

This Note Book should be helpful to whom it is meant.

(V) Should is used to express supposition or anticipation:

Should the test held before the Summer vacation, we must appear on it.

3. The Uses of ‘Will’:

(i) Will is used in the second and third person in both numbers to make Future Tense:

You will do the sum.

You will do it for me.

They will visit Paris.

He will come soon.

(ii) Will is used in First Person to indicate Willingness, Promise, Threat and Determination:

I will assist you. (willingness)

I will prepare the report. (promise)

I will punish you for your wickedness. (threat)

I will not visit him the second time. (determination)

(iii) Will is used to making a polite request:

Will you please shut the window? 

Will you please lend me your umbrella?

4. The Uses of ‘Would’:

(i) Would is the Past form of ‘Will’. It is used to mean Futurity in the Past.

Kamal Pasha said that he would help us.

Devraj said that his brother would attend the meeting.

(ii) Would is used to express Determination:

I would not do that.

Harsha would go there on time.

(iii) Would is used to express a polite request:

Would you like to look into the matter?

Would you lend me your Dictionary?

Would you grant me a leave of absence?

5. The Uses of ‘Can’:

(i) Can is used to indicate Natural Power, Acquired Power and Ability:

Raja can swim. (acquired power)

He cannot ride a horse. (ability)

You can make a kite. (acquired power)

We can walk. (natural ability)

(ii) Can is used in seeking Permission:

Can Mahesh go there?

Can I take this for the day?

(iii) Can is used to express Prohibition:

You can not park your bike here.

He cannot go there now.

They cannot do that.

6. The Uses of ‘Could’:

(i) Could is used as the Past form of ‘Can’:

She could read and write Latin.

They could not read.

I could not loiter there.

(ii) Could is used to express Polite Request both in Present and Future Tense:

Could I have a glass of cold water?

Could you lend your Dictionary to Nilima?

(iii) Could is used as an Auxiliary Verb in the Subjective Mood:

If you could read the book, you would.

If he helps you, he could.

7. The Uses of ‘May’:

(i) May is used in Present Tense to take and give permission:

May we come in, sir?

Yes, you may come in.

(ii) May is used to denoting Possibility:

It may rain to-night.

She may not come in the evening.

(iii) May is used to expressing Wish:

May God bless us.

May you be happy.

(iv) May is used to denoting Purpose:

We have been working hard so that the world may be turned into a better place to live in.

We eat that we may live.

8. The Uses of ‘Might’:

(i) Might is used as the Past form of ‘May’:

She might do that.

They said that they might do the work.

We thought that it might rain last night.

(ii) Might is used in Indirect Narration:

The teacher said that the students might go.

The President said that the Secretary might visit him.

(iii) Might is used to expressing mild Request in the Present Tense:

Might she take this?

Might we go there?

(iv) Might is used to expressing Unfulfilled Condition:

The students might have succeeded if they studied hard.

We might have found the car if we searched that.

9. The Uses of ‘Must’:

(i) Must is generally used in the Present and Future Tense. In both tenses it retains the same form:

I must do that.

One must do one’s duty.

(ii) Must is used to express Fixed Determination:

I must study hard.

Renin must do that.

(iii) Must is used to express Moral Duty or Obligation:

We must obey our parents.

Man must be honest to live in peace.

(iv) Must is used to mean Certainty:

Man must die.

We must show a better result.

He must be released by now.

10. The Uses of ‘Need’:

Need is used as both Regular Verb and Auxiliary Verb. When it is used as a Regular (Principal) Verb it changes its form in the past tense. But if used as Auxiliary verb it does not change its form after Number and Person.

(a) The Use of ‘Need’ as Regular (Ordinary Verb):

Hermit needs no fashionable thing.

What the woman needed was a job.

Does he need your help?

During my student life, I needed my cousin’s help.

(b) The Use of Need as an Auxiliary Verb:

You need not come here.

Need she write a letter?

You need not do it.

Note:  As an Auxiliary Verb Need is used more in Negative and Interrogative sentences: Examples:

Need he pay the bill of the dinner?

He need not help her.

He need not shout.

12. The Uses of ‘Dare’:

Dare is used both as Ordinary (Principal) Verb and Auxiliary Verb. 

The verb Dare when used as Principal Verb takes -s with it in the Present Tense, Third Person Singular Number and in Past Tense in becomes dared. Examples:

He dares me to do that.

He dares say he will be successful.

When the verb ‘Dare’ is used as an Auxiliary Verb it does not change its form. It does not take Infinitive (to) after it. Examples:

He dare not do it.

I dare not say so.

13. The Uses of ‘Ought to’:

‘Ought to’ is used both in the Present Tense and Past Tense. It does not change according to Number and Person.

(i) ‘Ought to’ is used to denote Strong Probability:

You ought to visit the place.

I ought to get first division.

(ii) ‘Ought to’ is used to denote Duty and Moral Obligation:

We ought to do our duty every day.

We ought to love our motherland.

We ought to obey our elders.

10. The Uses of ‘Used to’:

(i) Used to is used to express some past action or habit that happened or occurred regularly.

I used to walk miles after miles while I was a student at High School.

Kamal used to smoke in his adulthood.

(II) Used to is used to connect a Past action with the Present:

I live in Delhi now, I used to live at Westminster.

Note: Sometimes Used to take gerund:

The baby is not used to sleeping in the morning.

Note: Before Used to we can use any form of Be verb as to be, get, become etc. Examples:

To be used to learning Latin you must take tuition.

He became used to smoking when he was in London.

I got used to reciting poetry while I was at Cambridge University.

 EXERCISE

1. Say which of the words in italics in the following sentences have been used as Auxiliary Verbs and  which are used as Principal Verbs:

(a) I can climb up a peepul tree.

(b She had an interview.

(c) Could you please tell me the time?

(d) He might go there.

(e) I dare not do it now.

(f) You need not eat guava.

(g)I need your help.

(h) It may rain tomorrow.

(i) Will you please lend me your car?

(j) He had had his lunch at the Hotel Tymor.

(k) She sang nicely.

(l) I don’t have breakfast daily.

(m) We ought to love our brothers.

(n) She used to ride an elephant while she was in the village.

2. Fill in the gaps with the right alternatives given within brackets at the end of each sentence:

(a) The missing child ……….. be found in the crowd. (could/may)

(b) I can hear a footstep, that ………….. be Tapash. (may/might)

(c) You ………… do as I ask. (shall/will)

(d) ………….. you please open the door? (shall/will)

(e)…………… I borrow your pen? (should/could)

(f) She ……………… do the work easily. (may/can)

(g)You …………… come back early. (can/must)

(h) They will go tomorrow, ………… they? (willn’t/won’t)

(i)………… you do me a favour? (should/would)

3. Rewrite the following sentences by filling in the blanks with appropriate Auxiliaries to illustrate the attitude given in the brackets.(a) He ………….come next week. (Simple Future)

(b) I …………. help you. ( intention)

(c) It ………. rain to-night. (possibility)

(d) She …………. swim. (ability)

(e) I ………. play volleyball when I was in college. (ability)

(f) He ……….. drink milk when he was in Calcutta. (past habit)

(g) You ………… not do that. (undesirable action)

(h) …………. you like to have a cup of tea? (offering)

(i) They …………. remember us. (emphasis)

(j) They ……………….. leave now. (formal permission)

(k) He ………….. be tired. (certainty)

(l) …………… you please tell me to wait? (would/will)

(m) This ……….. have been done by an expert. (belief)

(n) ………… you go to Delhi by Sunday? (will/would)  0 0 0

 

Chapter-15

MORE ABOUT VERBS

 

Previously we have talked about the kind of verbs and their uses. Again there are some other kinds of verb which are used differently from their usual use or they express meaning some differently from their usual meaning. Such verbs are being taken to be talked about as below:

1. Non-Conclusive Verb

Mind the uses of the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

The girl appears smart.

The rose smells sweet.

The boy seems intelligent.

The italicised verb used in the above sentences expresses the feeling or emotion (mental perception) of the speaker. Such verbs are called Non-Conclusive Verbs. 

The Non-Conclusive Verbs denote a state or feeling of the agent about a thing that is assumed to have no end.

The Non-conclusive Verbs are not used in the Present Continuous Tense. They are generally used in the Simple Present Tense.

Some Non-Conclusive Verbs are: 

(i) Non-Conclusive Verbs of Senses: see, hear, smell, notice, recognise, seem, suppose, imagine, want, wish etc.

(ii) Non-Conclusive Verbs of Emotion: love, hate, like, wish, desire, forgive, hope, mean, mind etc.

(iii) Non-Conclusive Verbs of Thinking and Knowing: think, feel, realise, understand, know, believe, expect, remember, forget, recall, recollect etc. 

2. Inchoative Verb

Mind the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

It is getting dawn.

We are growing old.

The leaves are turning yellow.

He is going bald.

Mind that the verbs used in the above sentences denote the condition that changes with the change of time. These are Inchoative Verbs.

The Inchoative verbs are verbs that denote the progressive change (beginning, development or final stage) of a thing or condition. 

Some Inchoative Verbs are: get, grow, go, come, become, turn, fall, run, wear.

Notice their uses in the following sentences:

The stone has worn smooth.

The well has run dry.

The stock of wheat is running short.

The milk in the pot has turned sour.

The mangoes are turning red.

Adventure is becoming more romantic.

Spring has come.

Ronaldo is growing old.

The weather is getting fine.

The old lady has gone pale.

3. Causative Verb

Mind the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

We selected him our President.

They made the boy do the work.

They elected Rajen their Chairman.

I made him sweep the room.

They call Nisha a heroine.

The mother walks the child.

The verbs in the above sentences are used to describe an action that is necessary to cause something else to happen. These are Causative Verbs. When an Intransitive Verb is used as Transitive then it becomes a Causative Verb. 

The verb that denotes that a person, place or thing is causing an action or an event to happen is called Causative Verb.

4. Quasi Passive Verb

Mind the uses of the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

The bed feels soft.

The novel sells well.

The melon tastes sweet.

The car runs well.

The verbs in the above sentences are active in form but passive in meaning. They are  Quasi Passive Verbs.

The verbs which are active in forms but passive in meaning are called Quasi Passive Verbs.

Some verbs used as Quasi Passive are: run, sell, taste, feel, appear, seem, appoint, consider etc.

5. Impersonal Verb

Mind the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

There are a hundred students in the class.

It rains heavily during the Monsoon.

There was a king in ancient India called Indrajit.

The verbs in the above sentences have no definite subject. They are introduced with either ‘It’ or ‘There’. They are Impersonal Verbs.

The verbs which have no definite subject but introduced with either ‘It’ or ‘There’ are called Impersonal Verbs.

6. Reflexive Verb

Mind the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

The man killed himself.

Thomas Alva Addison taught himself.

The students ran away themselves.

The cat hid itself.

The verbs in the above sentences have taken the same person or thing as their Subjects and Objects successively. These are Reflexive Verbs.

The Verb which takes the same thing or person as its Subject and Object is called Reflexive Verb.

7. Factitive Verb

Mind the uses of the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

We called him a hero.

They elected him their leader.

We selected Rajen the President of our Club.

The italicised verbs in the above sentences take a group of words, in addition to their Objects, to complete their sense. These are Factitive Verbs.

The Verbs that take a group of words, in addition to their Objects to complete their sense are called Factitive verbs.

7. Prepositional Verb

Mind the uses of the italicised verbs in the following sentences:

We can not rely on them.

Heat acts on water.

The great people bear up all problems.

They laughed at the baffoon.

The waves beat against the shore.

The verbs in the above sentences are Intransitive verb but each of them has taken a preposition after it and completes the sense. These are Prepositional Verbs. A Prepositional Verb gives a different meaning from its usual meaning.

The Intransitive Verb that takes a Preposition after it and completes its meaning as a Transitive Verb is called Prepositional verb. 

Appendix

Some puzzling Verbs

Some people, especially who learn English as a second language often find some verbs to be puzzling while using in everyday conversation. Some of such verbs are: tell, say, speak; like, love; wait, await, lie, lay, arise, rise, raise etc. Let us illustrate the use of these verbs as below:

1. Say is used to express instruction, command, question. It is generally used before a quotation. It is used to inform what one says about himself to others. Mind the following expressions:

Raja says, ”I am fine.”

What does the paper say about the incident?

Tell is used to narrate what one says or informs. It takes a Direct and an Indirect Object and Direct Object begins with the connective word ‘that’. The Reported Clause of such sentence is a Noun Clause or an Infinitive Phrase.

He told me that he was ill.

Navanita told that Geeta was busy then.

He told me to remain silent.

The verb Speak is used to refer to a lecture or talking about something.

Ashad speaks French well.

He spoke to me about the case.

The verb Talk is used in Conversation. Mind the following expressions:

She talked about the seminar in detail.

He talks about the rise in the price of common commodities.

2. The verb Love is used in respect of affection, God, virtue, beauty, parents, religion, relative, country etc.

I love my parents.

We love our country.

Like is used for things as: luxuries, food items, music, song, house, condition etc. 

I like the music of A. Malik.

Tapan likes sweetmeats.

Note: The verbs: love and like are not generally used in the Continuous Tense.

3. The verb Rise refers to getting up. It is an Intransitive Verb.

He rose to power by ill means.

Raise means Cause to happen. It is a Transitive Verb.

The flag was raised by the President.

Harihar raised the question.

Arise is used in respect of invisible things. It is an Intransitive Verb.

A new idea arose to my mind pertaining to this problem.

4. ‘Wait’ is used as an Intransitive Verb. It takes infinitive (to) after it. Mind the following example:

They waited to meet the Prime Minister.

‘Await’ is a Transitive Verb. It takes an object after it.

We awaited his arrival.

5. ‘Lie’ is an Intransitive Verb. Its past form is ‘lay’ and Past Participle form is ‘lain’.

Ramen, come and lie down here.

‘Lay’ is a Transitive Verb. It takes an Object after it.

We laid the wounded person on the bed.

(i) He (come) tomorrow morning. (ii) Look at the sky, it (go) to rain. (iii) Mahatma Gandhi (be)a great man of India. (iv)He (go) to Chennai next month. (v) He (come) here four years ago. (vi) She (go) to school on foot. (vii) Don’t disturb the baby, he (be) sleeping. (viii) We (know) each other for many years. (ix) The train (leave) before we (reach) the station. (x) He (do) the work since morning. (xi) This book (contain) important information. (xii) It (rain) since 4. o’clock .

EXERCISE

1.  Mind the uses of the verbs in the following sentences and say their kinds.

a. We selected Boby our Team leader.

b. The police looked at us.

c. It pains me.

d. The mango tastes sweet.

e. There is a box in the almirah.

f. It is getting dark quickly.

g. His hair is turning white.

h. He falls ill.

i. We grow paddy in the field.

j.We acted upon his advice.

k. We called him a hero.

l.I made him do the sum.

m. The boy appears lively.

n. It is becoming winter.

o. Ram seems intelligent.

p. He is getting bald.

q. It rains heavily in June.

r. The boy succeeded himself.

2. Fill in the gaps of the following sentences using the appropriate verbs given within the brackets at the end of each sentence.

a. Our President ………….. to power. (rises/ raises)

b.We were …………….. her arrival. (awaited/ waited)

c. Always ………….. the truth. (say/ speak)

d. I …………….. my new car. (like/ love)

e.  He …………. me a new story. (said/ told)   0 0 0

 

 

Chapter-16

MORE FUNCTIONS OF AUXILIARY VERBS (SPECIAL FINITES)

You have already learnt that the Verbs which help other verbs to form other tenses than the Simple Present or the Simple Past are called Auxiliary Verbs. Auxiliary verbs are 24 in number. They are multifunctional and special in performing functions in sentences. The Auxiliary Verbs are called Special Finites because their function is unique and special in different expressions. They are divided into two classes:  as Primary Auxiliaries and Modal Auxiliaries. In additon to the uses and functions of the Auxiliary Verbs talked about previously, there are some other functions of them which are going to be illustrated below: 

1. Auxiliary Verbs are used to form various tenses of Principal Verbs:

We are playing. (Present Continuous Tense )

They have done the work. (Present Perfect Tense)

They will visit us. (Simple Future Tense)

We have been doing this since morning. (Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

You were reading the story book. (Past Continuous Tense)

2. With the help of  Modal Auxiliaries, the Principal Verbs express different Moods of Feeling:

We must do our duty. (Compulsion)

May I come in, sir? (Permission)

We can read and write. (Ability)

It may rain today. (Possibility)

We should help the poor (Moral Obligation)

3. Auxiliary Verbs are used for forming Negative Sentence:

Affirmative —— Negative

I am happy. —— I am not happy.

He is strong. —— He is not strong.

We have done this. —— We have not done this.

We must do it. —— We must not do it.

We ought to do that. —— We ought not to do that.

We play cricket. —— We do not play cricket.

George plays hockey. —— George does not play hockey.

Mango tastes sweet. —— Mango does not taste sweet.

We played cricket. —— We did not play cricket.

She said something. —— She did not say something.

Come here. —— Do not come here.

Run on. —— Do not run on.

They laughed at him. —— They did not laugh at him.

Note: (i) The negative word ‘not’ is used after the Auxiliary verb to transform an Affirmative Sentence into a Negative one.

Note: (ii) If an Affirmative sentence does not have Auxiliary verb then do, does or did is used after the Subject and before the Principal Verb in accordance with the Tense and Number of Person and then not is placed after it. Does is used with the third person Singular Number in the Present Indefinite Tense and Did is used in the Past Indefinite Tense.

4. The Auxiliary Verbs are used to form Interrogative Sentences:

Assertive —— Interrogative

I learn English. —— Do I learn English?

We played volleyball. —— Did we play volleyball?

He did the work. —— Did he do the work?

They will arrive soon. —— Will they arrive soon?

I shall be glad. —— Shall I be glad?

You need go there. —— Need you go there?

Rani used to come here. —— Used Rani to come here?

Note: (i)  An Assertive Sentence bearing any Auxiliary Verb is transformed into Interrogative one by replacing the Auxiliary Verb before the subject. 

Note: (ii) If the Tense of the expression is Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite then we use do, does or did in accordance with the Person and Number of the Subject.

5. Auxiliary Verbs are used to give very short type answer like ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to any question:

Questions ——————- Answers

Do you know our President? —— Yes, I do.

Have you read ‘The War and Peace’? —— No, I haven’t.

Can you lend me the book? —— Yes, I can.

Does she sing Italian song? —— Yes, she does.

Can you speak Greek? —— No, I can’t.

Note: An Auxiliary Verb with ‘not’ after it can be written in contracted from as: do not: don’t,  does not: doesn’t, did not: didn’t, cannot: can’t, am not: amn’t, is not: isn’t, are not: aren’t, were not: weren’t, have not: haven’t, may not, mayn’t, could not: couldn’t, shall not: shalln’t dare not: daren’t, had not: hadn’t, will not: won’t etc.

6. Auxiliary Verbs are used to support any statement:

He speaks in French tone: Yes, he does.

He goes there once a day: Yes, he does.

We ran the shop last year: Yes we did.

There are thirty-three benches in the hall: Yes, there are.

7. Auxiliary Verb (Anomalous Finite Verbs) are used to support Negative Statements:

We do not know the place: No, we don’t.

He is not wicked: No, he isn’t.

Tapash did not play: No, Tapash didn’t.

8. Auxiliary Verbs are  used to give short replies in disagreement:

My cousin is a singer: No, she isn’t.

He is a good student: No, he isn’t.

He writes well: No, he doesn’t.

They are fine: No, they aren’t.

Ram will punish you: No, Ram won’t.

9. Auxiliary Verbs are used in case of Tag Questions:

Statement —— Tag Question

It is not raining now. —— Is it?

It is not cold today. —— Is it?

You speak English well. —— Don’t you?

She plays on the guitar. —— Doesn’t she?

Note: In case of making Tag Question remember that if the main statement is Affirmative then the Tag Question should be in the Negative and when the main statement is Negative then the Tag Question should be in the Affirmative.

10. Auxiliary Verbs are used in sentences meant for comparing Persons/Thing/Qualities etc.

The boy is as smart as his brother is.

I can run as fast as Robert can.

The field is as spacious as that is.

11. Do /does /did is used to add a statement to a sentence that has no Auxiliary Verb in its first part.

His father has left the land for ever but he didn’t.

I drink much water but my brother doesn’t.

They quarrelled often but his relatives don’t.

12. In case of adding an Affirmative statement to another Affirmative statement, Auxiliary Verb is used along with ‘so’.

I overcame all the difficulties and so did my younger brother.

Jenifa played fine and so did Bina.

I like a white rose so does my child.

13. If the first part of a sentence does not have an Auxiliary Verb, the second part can be formed by using do, did or does.

Rakesh works hard and so does his son.

The weather became good so did my mind.

Seema dances seriously so does her sister.

14. An affirmative statement may be made after Negative statement with the help of Auxiliary Verb by adding ‘but’:

I can not play on clarion but my uncle can.

He will not play ball but we will.

I may not succeed but my mission will.

They have not an organization but we have.

15. A negative statement may be made with the help of Auxiliary Verb by adding ‘Neither,  nor’ to Negative statement:

My classmates were not present, nor was the Headmaster.

They were not playing and neither was my brothers.

Jenifa does not play fine and neither does Jhony.

16. Negative statement may be added to an Affirmative statement by using an Auxiliary Verb:

I will go to Switzerland but my brother won’t.

I can read Latin well but my son can’t.

EXERCISE

1. Turn the following sentences into Negative:

a.  Rekha knows how to swim.

b. I can write Latin.

c. She feels happy.

d. We must keep that.

e. We are Indians.

f. The flowers smell sweet.

g. The boy looked very intelligent.

2. Turn the following sentences into Interrogative:

a. I always do my work.

b. She is singing a melodious song.

c. Karishma has a red car.

d.The shop opens at 10. a. m. everyday.

e. He lied to all.

f.You have a knife.

g. I was awaiting him.

h. She can walk.

3. Complete the following sentences with Tag Questions:

a. He is older than I am.

b. Nita broke the window.

c. She sang well.

d. We do not like it.

e. They were not fine. 0 0 0 

 

Chapter-17

THE FINITE VERBS AND THE NON-FINITE VERBS

 

Mind the verbs in the following expressions:

Charles is a boy.

I worked hard.

Rajesh was a pilot.

She goes to Christ School.

The italicised verbs in the above sentences have completed the meaning of their Predicates. Even they have changed their forms in accordance with their respective Subject and its Number and Person. These verbs are Finite Verbs.

The verb which completes the sense of its Predicate and changes its forms after the Number and Person of its Subject is called a Finite Verb.

Generally the Verbs in the Indicative, Imperative and Subjective Mood are Finite Verbs.

Now mind the verbs in the following sentences:

To steal is a sin.

This house is to let.

Seeing is believing.

It was a sleeping dog.

Walking is good exercise.

The italicised verbs in the above sentences have kept their sense incomplete (as verbs). Instead, they function as the name of some actions.  They do not change their forms after their respective Subject, Number and Person. They are called a Non-Finite Verbs. 

Generally, the Infinitives, Gerunds and Participles fall within the purview of Non-finite Verbs.

Let us discuss them in detail as under:

1. Infinitives

Mind the verbs in the following sentences:

He is ready to go there.

To err is human.

To see is to believe.

It is time to play.

In the above sentences, the verbs: to go, to err, to see, and to play have expressed the name of some actions. Such verbs are called Infinitives.

If we mind well, we see that these Infinitives have been formed by adding ‘to’ before the verbs. They are not functioning as the Principal Verbs in the sentences. The word ‘to’ used before each verb in the above sentences is not a Preposition. ‘To’ is merely used as an indicator of the Infinitives. None of them has changed its form after its Subject, Number and Person. 

Infinitives are of two kinds: 1. Simple Infinitives and 2. Gerundial Infinitives. 

Let us talk about them as follows:

(a) Simple Infinitives:

Simple Infinitives are used as Nouns. They function as:

(i) The Subject of a Verb:

To read a newspaper is a good habit.

To walk is good exercise.

To drink water in the morning is good for health.

To waste our time is bad.

To blush is a modesty.

(ii) The Object to a Verb:

You should try to remind it.

The teacher advised me to take regular exercise.

He likes to play.

She began to cry.

Rana wants to go.

I shall try to do that.

(iii) The Subjective Complement of a Verb:

My hobby is to read.

His aims is to make friends with his colleagues.

To see is to believe.

She seems to be diligent.

He appears to be honest.

(iv) The Object of a Preposition:

Hira is about to win.

He cannot but to deny the offer.

We are about to go.

He is about to weep.

(b) Gerundial Infinitives:

Gerundial Infinitives express Purpose, Cause or Result. They function as:

(i) An Adjective:

Let me have a book to read.

This is a car to sell.

Give him a mango to eat.

This is a pen to write.

(ii) An Adverb to a Verb:

He cried to meet his friend.

We went to enjoy sports.

They came to see us.

(iii) An Adverb to an Adjective:

The boy is happy to meet his parents.

We are glad to find you.

Seema is slow to walk.

(iv) To Qualify a Sentence:

To tell the truth, he is not guilty.

To speak the truth, I am happy to meet you.

To express the truth, his heart is full of kindness.

There are some Characteristics of Infinitives, as:

(i)The Infinitives can take an Object of its own:

He wishes to present us a book.

I like to learn Greek.

(ii) The Infinitive like any other Verb can take an Adverb to modify it:

We want to get it fine.

He likes to visit us again.

You want to read attentively.

In some sentence, if an Adverb or Adverb Phrase is used between the indicator of Infinitive (i.e. ‘to’), then the  Infinitive goes split. Such Infinitive is called Split Infinitive. Examples:

He requested me to quickly go there.

He decided to intimately follow his leader. 

But it is better to write these sentences as follows:

He requested me quickly to go there.

He decided to follow his leader intimately.

In some expression, the indicator of Infinitive (to) is omitted, as:

We saw Tapash  (to) cross the bridge.

They help me (to) do the work well.

He made me (to) drink the cup of milk.

The use of such infinitive is called Bare Infinitive.

In the following cases the indicator of Infinitive (to) is not used:

(i) In Active Voice the verbs like know, watch, behold, make, please, see, feel, need, let, bit, watch, dare etc. do not take the marker of Infinitive (to) after them:

We made her (to) sweep the room.

Please (to) do the sum.

Let me (to) have a pen.

Bid her (to) sit on the chair.

But in Passive Voice, all the verbs except only ‘let’ take the marker of Infinitive (to) after them.

He was bid to sit on the chair.

Rita was heard to say so.

But the verb ‘dare’ when used in Affirmative sentence takes the marker of Infinitive after it:

She dared to do that.

We dared to challenge their feat.

(ii) Some special Finites like shall, should, will, would, can, could, may and might do not take the marker of Infinitive ‘to’ after them.

We can do it.

You may come in.

He will meet us.

(iii) After the phrases ‘had better’ and ‘had rather’ the indicator of Infinitive (to) is not used:

We had better (to) give up smoking.

You had rather (to) accept this job.

(iv) The marker of Infinitive is not used after ‘then’ and also in the Past Tense after the word ‘but’:

He is stronger enough to fight than (to) play.

He did nothing but (to) read.

2. Gerund

Mind the following sentences:

1. Swimming is good exercise.

2. Reading is a good amusement.

In the above sentence no. 1 the word ‘Swimming’ is formed of the verb ‘swim’ and in the sentence no. 2   ‘Reading’ is formed of the verb ‘read’. Both are followed by respective finite verbs and function as Nouns. These are Gerunds.

A Verb when takes ‘ing’ after it, becomes a Subject of a Finite Verb and functions as a Noun is called a Gerund.

A Gerund and a Present Participle have identical forms as both are formed by adding ‘ing’ with them. Bear in mind that a Gerund is a Verbal Noun as it functions as a Noun and a Present Participle is a Verbal Adjective as it qualifies a Noun.

Sita likes dancing (Gerund)

Dancing along the road, they went ahead. (Present Participle)

Gerund may be used as:

(i) The subject of a Verb:

Reading is a good habit.

Seeing is believing.

Playing is good exercise.

Collecting Greeting Cards is my hobby.

(ii) The object of a Transitive Verb:

He likes delivering a lecture.

I like drinking coffee.

He abhors meeting people.

(iii) The complement of a Verb:

What I like is reading.

He seems going there.

(iv) Absolutely in an Independent Clause:

Reading being my favourite activity, I frequent the District Library.

(v) Object to a Preposition:

Sita is fond of singing.

We are eager of reading.

He is desirous of smoking.

3. Participles

Mind the italicised words in the following sentences:

It is a singing bird.

A rolling stone gathers no moss.

A burnt child dreads the fire.

The italicised words i.e. ‘singing’ and ‘rolling’ in the above sentence no. 1 and 2 are formed of verbs ‘sing’ and ‘roll’  by adding ‘ing’ after them. Each of them has functioned both as a verb and as an adjective. In the sentence no 3. the italicised word ‘burnt’ is formed of the verb ‘burn’ by adding -t after it and it works as an Adjective. These are Participles.

A Verb that is partly a verb and partly an Adjective is called a Participle.

There are three kinds of Participles: 1. Present Participle, 2. Past Participle and 3. Perfect Participle. Let us illustrate them as below:

1. The Present Participle:

A Present Participle is formed by adding ‘ing’ after the present form of a verb to make Continuous Tense. Examples:

I am reading. 

The dog is barking. 

They are working in the field.

A Present Participle is an Adjective while it qualifies a Noun or Pronoun as in the following example:

A laughing boy comes here.

2. The Past Participle:

The Past Participle refers to the third form of a verb. It ends in -en, -n, -d, -ed or -t.  It is used:

(i) To form Perfect Tense with the suitable Helping Verb (have, has, had):

He has done the work.

We have performed our respective duty.

(ii) To form the Passive Voice with the suitable form of the Verb “Be” (am, is, are, was, were):

They were tired.

I was pleased with his behaviour.

He was mocked at by them.

(iii) Attributively, Predicatively and Object Complement, like the Present Participle:

The burnt child was crying. (Attributive)

The girl seems unattentive. ( Predicative)

They found the gate closed. (Object Complement)

(iv) Like an Adverb to modify a Verb:

He left away displeased.

(v) To form an Adjectival Phrase:

The goods once sold, can not be taken back.

(vi) To join two sentences:

Having completed our works we returned home. (We completed our works. We returned home.)

3. The Perfect Participle:

The Perfect Participle is formed by using ‘having’ before the third form of a verb:

Having bathed, we went out.

Having rested, they began to dance.

Having completed the work, we drank soup.

While using Participle, mind the following Rules to avoid errors:

Rule 1.  A participle is an Adjective and as it is an Adjective it must be related to some Noun or Pronoun which it qualifies. It should never be left unattached:

Climbing up the tree, he saw a tower. 

or 

He, climbing up the tree, saw a tower. (but not ‘Climbing up the tree, a tower was seen). Thus:

Entering the chamber, I lighted the candle. (but not ‘Entering the chamber, the lamp was lighted.’)

Rule 2. With the Participle ‘Being’ when used for weather, season etc. the neutral ‘It’ should be used. For example:

It being a rainy day, the office was closed.

It being very hot, we remained within doors.

Rule 3. It is not necessary to relate such Participles as considering, taking, regarding, speaking, owing to etc. to any Noun or Pronoun. They must be left unrelated:

Speaking truly, the house is on the top of the hill.

Regarding his ability, we have no doubt.

Rule 4. A Present Participle should not be used to express an action which cannot and does not, take place at the same time as the action denoted by the finite verb in a sentence. In such cases, the Indefinite Tense must be used instead of the Participle. For example:

We started for Cochin on Sunday and arrived there on Tuesday.  (but not, ‘We started for Cochin on Sunday, arriving there on Tuesday.’)

EXERCISE

1. Correct the following sentences:

(i) I hope that you will be successful to get the job. (ii) You are requested to kindly grant me a leave for three days. (iii) You need not ask such a  question. (iv Leaving Madras on Monday, he arrived in Calcutta on the next day. (v) You should try to clear to understand these rules.  (vi) I am to please as many people as possible. (vii) I intended to have been present. (viii) He did not dare to say such a thing. (ix) Going up the street an elephant was seen. (x) He seems to enjoy his stay at Kali Mandir.

2. Complete the following sentences, by adding a Gerund or an Infinitive (whichever correct):

(i) My Parents never approved ………….. (ii) My mother dislikes ………. (iii) Most children enjoy …………… (iv) You will succeed if you keep on …………. (v) He was punished …………………. (vi) The President objected ……………….. (vii) We were waiting ………….. (viii)My parents are not accustomed to ………. (ix)My child likes ………………….. (x) He is fond of…………………. (xi) Would you mind ……….? (xi) I am sorry …………..

3. Rewrite the following sentences using the neuter ‘It’:

(i) To read your handwriting is impossible. (ii) To hear the sound of the lake is very amusing. (iii)To climb Everest is very difficult. (iv) To call people’s name is not polite. (v) To betray one’s friend is disgraceful. (vi) To bribe a man is an offence. 

4. Join each of the following pair of sentences, using a Participle:

(i) We reached the station. We purchased the tickets.

(ii) He saw the policeman. He took to his heels.

(iii) The rain stopped.  We went for playing cricket.

(iv) We arrived in the port. We went to the seashore.

(v)The boy heard a loud cry. He was startled.

5. Rewrite the following sentences using the correct form (‘ing’ or ‘ to’ – verb form) of the verbs given within brackets:

(i) I hate (get up) early and dress in the dark.

(ii) The manager let us (watch) the actor’s rehearsal.

(iii) I had to ask the baby (stop) play.

(iv) Please do not talk of (go) before (see) my photo album.

(v) I would like (take) a more English lesson.

6. Find out which of the words ending in -ing in the following sentences are Gerund and which are Present Participle:

(i) Swimming is good exercise. (ii) I saw Shyam driving a car. (iii) Swimming in the pond, he suddenly saw a fish. (iv) Watching at a cloudless sky is his favourite pastime. (v) Seeing is believing. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-18

TAG QUESTIONS AND QUESTION WORDS

 

A. TAG QUESTIONS

Tag Question refers to asking question formed with any of the Auxiliary Verbs after a Statement. For example:

She plays on the guitar, doesn’t she?

He is not honest, is he?

Kamal played cricket nicely, didn’t he?

There are some general rules for forming Tag Questions, as:

(i) If the statement is Affirmative, the Tag will be a Negative one and if the statement is Negative then the Tag will be a Positive one:

He is tired, isn’t he?

She does not go there, does she?

(ii) The Subject of a Tag Question is always a Pronoun:

Shahin reads well, doesn’t he?

Kanaklata did not come here, did she?

(iii) In Negative Tag Question the contracted form of not (n’t) is used:

He likes to eat a guava, doesn’t he?

I can do it easily, can’t I?

(iv) If the main statement does not have an Auxiliary but a Principal Verb then the ‘Do'(did, does) verb is used according to the tense of the Principal Verb.

He ran much, didn’t he?

They fought boldly, didn’t they?

She plays with a toy, doesn’t she?

(v) The Tag Question of an Imperative Sentence is ‘Will you?”:

Open the window, will you?

Shut the gate, will you?

Post the letter, will you?

Do not do it, will you?

(vi) The Tag Question of an Imperative Sentence begun with ‘Let’ verb is ‘shall we?’:

Let us play there, shall we?

Let us go out for a walk, shall we?

Let us make friends, shall we?

Note: In Tag Question, some Auxiliary Verbs   change their forms, as:

Cann’t —- can’t

Used not —- didn’t

Willn’t —-won’t

Amn’t —-aren’t

B. QUESTION WORDS

Mind the following sentences:

Who are you? 

Why are you late?

Which was Tom’s book?

How big is your ambition?

What did you do?

When will he come?

Whose book is this?

Whom do you like?

The italicised words (Interrogative Pronouns or Interrogative Adjectives) in the above sentences are used at the beginning of the sentences and by using them something is enquired of. These are called Question Words.

The basic question words are: Who, What, Which, Whose, Whom, Where, When, Why and How. In addition to these the following words are used in asking a question:

How many, How much, How far, How long, Since when etc.

Notice the uses of some Question Words in the following sentences:

What are they doing?

Which road shall we take?

How old is your child?

How long has he been playing?

How many members attended the seminar?

Who went to school with you?

What is the cause of your lamentation?

What is wrong with your friend?

Which one of these books belong to you?

Whose pen is this?

Whom do you love most?

Where is your village?

Notice the Making of Question to an Answer, as:

1.Answer: He is Rajat.

Question: Who is he?

2.Answer: My mother is a house-wife.

Question: What is your mother?

3.Answer: He is an engineer.

Question: What is he?

4.Answer: I am speaking to Madab.

Question: Who are you speaking to?

Note: When a Preposition governs an Interrogative word then the Preposition is placed at the end of the sentence.

5.Answer: Shoes are made of leather.

Question: What are shoes made of?

6.Answer: He laughed at the old man.

Question: Who did he laugh at?

7.Answer: We are talking about this?

Question: What are you talking about?

8.Answer: She listened to music.

Question: What did she listen to?

8Answer: I am writing to my mother.

Question: Who are you writing to?

10.Answer: She is looking at me

Question: Who is she looking at?

11.Answer: Raja had put on a new dress.

Question: What had Raja put on?

12.Answer: The beggar asked for alms.

Question: What did the beggar ask for?

13.Answer: He has come from New York.

Question: Where has he come from?

14.Answer: He is looking for a car.

Question: What is he looking for?

15.Answer: I go to school at 9 o’ clock.

Question: When do you go to school?

16.Answer: She bought many books?

Question: How many books did she buy?

17.Answer: He wants a kilogram of rice.

Question: How much rice does he want?

18.Answer: He went to the station.

Question: Where did he go?

19.Answer: This is my favourite game.

Question: Which is your favourite game?

20.Answer: I want to meet Himesh.

Question: Whom do you want to meet?

21.Answer: His mother is seventy years old.

Question: How old is his mother?

22.Answer: His pen is blue.

Question: What colour is his pen?

23.Answer: This is my shirt.

Question: Whose shirt is this?

24.Answer: He has been ill since yesterday.

Question: Since when has he been ill?

25.Answer: The teacher punished Akash.

Question: Whom did the teacher punish?

EXERCISE

1. Complete the following sentences with Tag Questions:

(i) I am older than you, …………..? (ii)It is very cold this evening, …………….? (iii) He used to visit us every Monday, ……………? (iv) She has come early, ……………..? (v) I am happy, …………..?  (vi) She broke the window,  ………….? (vii) John knows me, ………….? (viii)Let us go out for a picnic, ……………..? (ix)They won’t come now, …………..? (x)Let us read the lesson, ………………….? (xi) Stop quarrelling, ………….? (xii)He loves horse riding, ………….? (xiii) We shall meet them tomorrow, ……………? (xiv) He used to live there, ………….? (xv) You are happy, ……?

2. Write the questions to which the words in italics are the answers:

(i) My shoes are white. (ii) He is Mr William. (iii) My shirt is blue. (iv)The New Master comes tomorrow. (v) I am Menonimus. (vi) He plays ball in the evening. (vii) He is 13 years old. (viii) They live in Delhi. (ix)That man is an engineer. (x) He is my uncle. (xi)They want to go out. (xii) He plays football well. (xiii)Everybody says he is a good singer. (xiv)The teacher called me. (xv) Silpa wants a novel. (xvi) I went to the station to see my friend. (xvii) He punished the boy. (xviii) He gets up at 5 a.m. (ix) The girl wore a new gown. (x) Shila bought a pen. (xi) Diana is a beautiful girl. (xii) He has come here to play with his friends. (xiii) He wants to speak to you. (xiv) My name is Ranin. (xv) His father is a teacher. (xvi) Children play in the field.

3. Write the Preposition at the end:

(i) He laughed at my remark. (ii) He smiled at the girl. (iii) The cow lives on grass. (iv) We are listening to the radio. (v) He is sitting on the chair. (vi)The tiger looked into the den. (vii) The Ganges rises from the Himalayas. (viii) She is writing to her mother. (ix) Leela is playing with her red pen. (x) Butter is made from milk. (xi) Mr, Pearle hails from Myanmar. (xii)I wash my clothes with surf. (xiii) The moon is like a silver-ball. (xiv) He asked for a glass of milk.

4. Turn the following sentences into Questions:

(i) I have a new pen. (ii) He had done that well. (iii)He ate rice. (iv)He wrote a storybook. (v)He broke the window. (vi)She was a good girl. (vii) I was late to go there. (viii) They are going to the cinema. (ix) You will do that. (ix) We should do it. (x) I am a boy.

5. Complete the following sentences by adding correct Question word:

(i)……….. is your brother? (ii)…… are you? (iii) ………. did the teacher call? (iv) ……….. is the way to the Post Office? (v)……….of you can do this? (vi)……….. do you want to see? (vii)…….. brother is he? (viii). ………is the best boy in the class? (ix) ……… is this book? (x)……. do you want to speak to? (xi) …. is Meena? (xii) ………….. are you making noise? (xiii) ………… pen is that? (xiv)………… the girl crying for? (xv) …………. are you listening to? 0 0 0 

 

Chapter-19

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS

 

Notice the italicised words in the following sentences: 

1. Pearson laughs loudly.

2. Rebeca is very intelligent.

3. Raphel walks so slowly.

In the above sentences, the italicised words have modified or added something to the meaning of a Verb (laughs), an Adjective (intelligent), or an adverb (slowly). These are called Adverbs.

An Adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an Adjective or another Adverb.

Now mind the italicised words in the following sentences:

I work there

The children play in the field.

The italicised words in the above sentences are Adverbs as they tell us of the actions ‘work’ and ‘play’. In the first sentence there is a Simple Adverb and in the second sentence in the field is an Adverbial or Adverb Phrase.  

When only one word is used to modify or qualify the meaning of other words is called a Simple Adverb and when a group of words are used to modify the meaning of some other words then the modifying group of words are called an  Adverbial or an Adverbial Phrase.

In this chapter you will learn about the Kinds of Adverb, Position of Adverb, Adverbials of Particles and Usage of Some Simple Adverbs.

A. KINDS OF ADVERB

Adverbs are divided into the following nine kinds according to their meaning and function:

1. Simple Adverbs or Adverbs of Place: They tell us of the place where some action is being done. For example:

He goes there.

The boys are playing in the field.

In the above sentences, the italicised words tell us about the place of the verbs (actions) ‘goes’ and playing’. They are Adverbs of Place.

Some Adverbs of Place are: here, there, in, out, within, without, above, below, far, near, outside, inside etc. 

2. Adverbs of Time: Words or a group of words which tell us of the Time of some action are called  Adverbs of Time. For example:

Today the bus arrived late.

The boy will come on Sunday.

Shila will start tomorrow morning.

Some words used as Adverbs of Time are: now, then, before, since, go, late, tomorrow, yesterday, today, shortly, recently, soon, presently, immediately, early, instantly, afterwards etc.

3. Adverbs of Manner: The words which tell us about the manner or way of doing something is called Adverbs of Manner. For example:

He walks slowly.

Silpa talks loudly.

Tipu reads clearly.

Some words used as Adverbs of Manner are: thus, so, ill, well, badly, certainly, probably, conveniently etc.

4. Adverbs of Degree: They tell us how much, to what extent or in what degree an action is done. For example:

He is fully armed.

She always tells the truth.

The picture is very beautiful.

It is partly colourful.

Kamala runs fast.

Heera runs faster.

Some Adverb of Degree are: very, much, too, quite, little, almost, somewhat, half, partly, wholly etc.

Note: Like Adjectives, Adverbs have three Degrees of Comparision, as– the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. The Comparative and the Superlative Forms of an Adverb are done as under:

(i) Comparative and Superlative Degree of an Adverb having one syllable are formed by adding -er and -est at the end respectively, as:

Positive — Comparative — Superlative

Long ——– longer ——– longest

Loud ——– louder ——– loudest

Late ——– later ——– latest, last.

Near ——– Nearer ——– Nearest

Soon ——– sooner ——– soonest.

(ii) Adverbs ending in ‘-ly’ form Comparative and Superlative Degrees by adding ‘more’ and ‘most’ respectively, as:

Positive ——–  Comparative ——– Superlative

Wisely ——– more wisely ——–    most wisely

Beautifully —– more beautifully —- most beautifully

Regularly —- more regularly —- most regularly

Truthfully —– more truthfully —- most truthfully

(iii) Some Adverbs form their Comparative and Superlative Degree in an irregular way, as:

Positive ——– Comparative ——– Superlative

Far ——– farther ——– farthest

Fur ——– further ——– furthest

Little ——– less ——– least

Much ——– more ——– most

Ill/bad ——– worse ——– worst

Well ——– better ——– best

5. Adverbs of Number or Frequency: They tell us how often or how many times or how frequently an action is done. For example:

We always tell the truth.

I have read the poem thrice.

He often comes late.

6. Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation: They tell us that some action is done or not done. Surely, certainly, ever, yes etc. are Adverbs of Affirmation. Not, hardly, scarcely, never are Adverbs of Negation. For example:

I will surely go there.

They will certainly play the match.

It is not my book.

He never drinks wine.

Hardly had he learned the lesson.

7. Adverbs of Reason, Purpose or Consequence: They tell us why some action is done or not done. Some Adverbs of Reason, Cause or Consequence are, therefore, so, on account of,  that is why, for, because of etc. For example:

He did not work hard, therefore he failed.

He is ill, so he can not come here.

The school is closed on account of Laxmi Puja.

8. Interrogative Adverbs: The Adverbs which are used to ask  questionS about a place, time, reason or manner of an action are called Interrogative Adverbs. When, how, why, where etc. are Interrogative Adverbs.  For example:

When do you go to college?

How old is he?

Why is the baby crying?

Where is she?

9. Relative Adverbs: When the Interrogative Adverbs as: when, how, why etc. are used to join two clauses, then they are called Relative Adverbs. For example:

That was what he wanted to know.

This is where our journey started from.

I do not know why he did not go there.

B. POSITION OF ADVERB

There are some general Rules of using (placing) Adverbs in sentences, as:

Rule-1: When an Adverb modifies an Intransitive Verb (i.e. a verb that takes no object), it is used after the verb. Example,

My uncle lives there.

They arrived late.

Rule-2: When a verb is Transitive (i.e. a verb that takes an object), the Adverb should be placed either before of the verb or after the object. Example,

I keenly felt this honour.

or 

I felt this honour keenly.

We carefully do our works.

We do our works carefully. 

Rule-3: In a sentence consisting of a Helping Verb and a Principal Verb, the Adverb must be placed between the two and not before or after. Example,

I have often told him to read attentively.

I did not know his whereabouts.

Note: The Adverb ‘not’ is always placed between the Helping Verb and the Principal Verb.

Rule-4: When an Adverb modifies an Adjective or an Adverb, it must be placed immediately before the word it modifies. The Adverb must not be separated from it. For example,

She sang very nicely.

The cat was quite dead.

Rule-5: The Adverb ‘enough’  is always, without exception, placed after the words it modifies. Example,

He is well enough to attend the meeting.

He reads loud enough to be heard.

Rule-6: Adverbs of Time as ever, always, often, seldom, never, whether, frequently, are placed before the word they modify, whether the verb is Transitive or Intransitive. Example,

We always do our duty.

Nothing ever happens without a plan.

I often talk to him every afternoon.

He seldom makes a mistake.

I frequently go there.

Note: In a sentence, if the Principal Verb is one of the Be Verb (am, is, are, were, been, etc.) then the Adverbs of Time are always placed after the verb and not before it. Example,

We are always happy.

She is often angry.

He was never late.

Rule-7: The Adverb ‘only’ and ‘even’ must be placed immediately before the word they modify. Example,

He answered only three questions.

He can not read even the Alphabet of Greek.

Rule-8: The Adverb ‘merely’ and ‘never’ must be placed before the word they modify. Example,

He merely went there to play cricket.

We never tell a lie.

Rule-9: When it is intended that an Adverb should modify the whole sentence, it must be placed at the beginning of the sentence. Example:

Luckily he got rid of the accident.

Unfortunately, he is undone.

Probably he is wrong.

Certainly, our business is in progress.

Rule-10: The Adverb ‘very’ is used before Present Participle and ‘much’ before Past Participle. Example:

This novel is very interesting.

I am much pleased with his behaviour.

Note: The Adverb ‘very’ is used to modify the Adverb ‘much. Example,

I very much like your paintings.

Note: ‘Very’ is used before Adjective and Adverb of the Positive Degree and ‘much’ before the Comparatives. Example:

I was walking very quickly.

Shila is much quicker than you.

Rule-11: Two Negative words mean an Affirmative. Hence they should not be used together if the intention is negative. Example,

I could not find a pencil anywhere. (but not ‘I could not find the pencil nowhere.)

I have not got any paper.

Unless you read hard, You cannot succeed. (‘Unless’ means  ‘if not’)

Scarcely anyone wears turban nowadays. (‘Scarcely’ is negative in sense)

Rule-12: ‘First’ itself is an Adverb, hence ‘firstly’ is wrong. However secondly, thirdly etc. are correct. Example,

First, you must read your Text Books thoroughly.

Secondly, read all other reference books.

Rule-13: ‘Else’ is always followed by ‘but’ and not by ‘than’. Example,

It is nothing else but your hard work that is responsible for your ill health.

Rule-14: ‘Too’ means more than enough. Hence it should not be used  in place of ‘very’ or ‘much’

Sugar is very sweet. (but not ‘Sugar is too sweet’)

He is very good to us. (but not ‘He is too good to us’)

Rule-15: Adverbs should not be used to modify a Noun or a Pronoun. Example,

Explain the above-mentioned passage. (but not ‘Explain the above passage’.)

Rule-16: It is generally supposed that ‘rather’ is used only for emphasis. This is wrong. ‘Rather’ should be used only when some comparison is intended. Example,

The patient is better today. (but not, ‘The patient is rather better today’. ‘Rather’ means ‘somewhat’.) 

C. ADVERBIAL PARTICLES

Sometimes some Verbs take some definite prepositions after them and express special meaning. Notice the following expressions:

Her coat was off.

 His purse was run down.

The prepositions in the above sentences are used as Adverbs. 

Thus when some Preposition being placed after a verb functions as an Adverb is called an Adverbial Particle. Only these prepositions as: off, out, away, back, backward, forward, downward and upward are used as Adverbial Particles. There are some conventions of using Adverbial Particles, as:

1. If the Verb in a sentence does not have any Object then the Adverbial Particle is used just after the Verb, as:

We sat down.

They set off for Port Blair.

2. If a Transitive Verb takes a Pronoun as its Object then  the Adverbial Particle is used after the Object, as:

We found it out.

The President gave it away.

3. If the Object of a Verb is a Noun, the Adverbial Particle is used either before the Object or after the Object, as:

The boy gave away his marbles.

or

The boy gave his marbles away.

4. If the Object of a Verb is a group of words then the Adverbial Particle may be used just after the Verb, as:

He made out the consequence of the problem.

5. In an Exclamatory sentence, the Adverbial Particle is used at the beginning of the sentence, as:

In you come!

Out you go!

D. USE OF SOME PECULIAR/SIMPLE ADVERBS

There are some frequently used Adverbs as: there, enough, since, too, very, quite, much, very much, too much, much too, presently, Just now, still, yet etc. Some of them are used peculiarly. To avoid confusion notice their uses as illustrated below:

1. Use of ‘There’:

‘There’ is a Demonstrative Adverb. But when the Subject of a Verb is not definite then ‘there’ is used at the beginning of a sentence. Such use of ‘there’ is called ‘Introductory There’. The Introductory ‘There’ does not have any meaning. In such a sentence, the Subject is used after the verb, as:

There was a king in ancient India.

There are twenty benches in the classroom.

2. Use of ‘Enough’:

‘Enough’ is used to mean that the limit of something has been reached but not exceeded. For example,

The house is spacious enough for my family.

Note: ‘Enough’ must not be used in place of ‘too’ as ‘too’ means beyond a limit.

Enough may be used as a Noun. For example:

Three days journey is enough to reach the place.

‘Enough’ may be used as an Adjective. For example,

He has enough to eat and spend.

3. Use of ‘Since’:

‘Since’ refers to time ‘from then up to now’, ‘from now’, and  ‘between then and now’.

I lost my father about twenty years ago and have remembered him ever since.

Shilpa left the institute last year and has never attended since.

It is now eighteen years since we separated from each other.

He has been ill since last Sunday.

4. Use of ‘Presently’/ ‘Just now’:

‘Presently’ is used to denote future action, and ‘Just now’ is used to denote present action in the Perfect Tense.

He will come here presently.

I have arrived just now. 

5. Use of ‘Too’:

‘Too’ denotes ‘excess’ or more than enough or beyond  a limit, as:

He is too weak to walk alone.

Janaki is too feeble to turn right and left.

6. Use of ‘Quite’:

‘Quite’ means ‘perfectly’. It should not be used as an equivalent to ‘very’:

He is quite well these days.

During my life in Hojai, I was quite alone.

7. Use  of ‘Indeed’:

‘Indeed’ as an Adverb is used in the following senses:

(i) To mean ‘certainly’:

Your role in the programme was indeed a remarkable one.

Your action is indeed better than that of your sister.

(ii) In the sense of admission:

Hari is skilled indeed in sports but weak enough in a debate.

8. Use of ‘Already’:

‘Already’ is used to mean that something has happened or had been done prior to the time mentioned or thought of:

The boy has already arrived.

He has arrived already.

9. Use of ‘Still’/ ‘Yet’:

‘Still’ denotes the continuance of some activity or situation from the past to the present.

He is still a fool.

The girl is still waiting.

‘Yet’ denotes the present situation in relation to the future. It is generally used in Negative and Interrogative sentences.

I have to read English Grammar yet.

The guests have not arrived yet.

I have yet to meet him.

Has he not come yet?

EXERCISE

1. Pick out the Adverbs in the following sentences:

(i) Had he never written to you? (ii) He does not go to the market every day. (iii) Anima is a very clever girl. (iv) Did Rani often go to bathing? (v) No one else came. (vi) They do not visit there. (vii) I can do it clearly. (viii) Rana is a very good boy. (ix) He never drinks Coca-cola.(x) He always tells a lie. (xi)Where did she get the pen? (xii) He is still alive. (xiii) He has not come yet. (xiv) He seldom comes here. (xv)  We have not met him since Monday. 

2. Put the Adverbs, given in brackets, in their proper place:

(i) I have seen such a man (never). (ii) He promised to do the work (never/ again). (iii) He faced the problem (boldly). (iv) It was a poor sight ((certainly). (v) He can speak Latin (well) (vi) She is cheerful (always). (vii) I meet a saint (once). (viii) Rajen is older than Raja (much). (ix)The bus came (late). (x) The journey will be a pleasant one (Perhaps). (xii) Flood is a difficult problem (indeed). (xiii) My mother loves me (dearly) (xiv) He makes a mistake (often) (xv) I know her (well)

3. Fill in the blanks with the Adverbs ‘much’ or ‘very’ (which is suitable):

(i) It is  ………… hot in July in Assam.

(ii) The boy works …………. harder than the girl.

(iii) The patient is ……….. better today.

(iv) I do not like her music …………

(v)He is ………….. senior officer in our staff.

(vi) That doll is ………. pretty.

(vii)He worked ………. than we expected.

(viii) We are ………… affected by his lecture.

(ix) It is ………… interesting.

(x) John is a boy of …………. understanding power.

4. Fill in the blanks with the Comparative or Superlative Degree of the Adverbs given in brackets:

(i)Light travels ………….. than sound (fast).

(ii) He looks………….today (pretty)

(iii)The ………….. we leave the place, the better it is (soon).

(iv) Of all the participants Alka was the one who deserved ………to win (much).

(v) He had done it …………. carefully (much)

(vi) No …………did we reach the station than the train arrived (soon).

(vii) Who came …………. Rina, Bina or Sita? (late)

(viii) He was unable to stay ………………than he had planned (long)

(ix) He is ………… today (good)

(x) He worked ……… than we expected (slow).

6. Make sentences with the following Adverbs:

Much, Perhaps, hard, carefully, happily, coldly, poorly, gladly, truly, nicely, quickly, lazily.

7. Correct the following sentences:

(i) Ever since I like it.

(ii) He wanted nothing else than leave.

(iii)I never talked to him today.

(iv) My friend was much angry that day.

(v) He was very pleased to meet me.

(vi)I never remember to have seen such a sight.

(vii) He terribly suffered from his friend’s behaviour.

(viii) Seldom he makes a mistake.

(ix) He is rather very tired at this time.

(x)The rose smells sweet.

(xi) He bravely faced the difficulties.

(xii) Only football is the game I like.

(xiii)We enough have to spare.

(xiv) I felt so lonely during this journey.

(xv)I could not find the book anywhere.

(xvi)You are not enough wise.

(xvii) I only give advice when it is required.

(xviii) He speaks the truth always.

(xix)He will wait here until you do not return.

(xx)You will fail unless you do not work hard. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-20

TENSE OF VERBS

 

‘Tense’ refers to the time of an action meant by a verb. Mind the following expressions:

I eat rice every day.

I ate rice yesterday.

I shall eat rice tomorrow.

In the above sentences, we see the three different forms of the verb ‘eat’. The verb ‘eat’ in the first sentence refers to an action in the Present time, the verb ‘ate’ in the second sentence refers to an action in the Past time and the verbs ‘shall eat’ refers to an action in the Future time. Thus Tense denotes the time of an action meant by a verb. In other words to say, Tense is the change of form in a verb to express the time of action of the verb. It also denotes the nature of the action: whether it is habitual, continuous or completed.

There are three principal tenses in English corresponding to the principal divisions of time to which actions belong: 1. Present Tense 2. Past Tense and 3. Future Tense.

Mind the following expressions:

I drink tea. 

I am drinking tea.

I have drunk tea.

I have been drinking tea.

Each of the above sentences has expressed an action in the present time with some difference. The first sentence refers to an action in the ordinary (indefinite) present time, the second sentence refers to the action which is running on in the present time, the third sentence refers to the action which has already been completed in the present time and the fourth sentence refers to the action which has begun sometime ago but in progress to be completed in the present time.

Thus to indicate the different degrees of completeness of an action or the nature of an action, every three principal tenses are sub-divided into four forms, as:

1. The Present Tense

(i) The Present Indefinite Tense.

(ii)The Present Continuous Tense.

(iii) The Present Perfect Tense.

(iv) The Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

2. The Past Tense:

(i) The Past Indefinite Tense.

(ii) The Past Continuous Tense.

(iii) The Past Perfect Tense.

(iv) The Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

3. The Future Tense:

(i) The Future Indefinite Tense.

(ii) The Future Continuous Tense.

(iii) The Future Perfect Tense.

(iv) The Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

Let us discuss these different Tenses with their uses in detail as under:

1. THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE

Mind the following sentences:

I learn English.

We play ball

They sing song

He reads a book.

Each of the above sentences refers to an action in the present time. Now mind well that the verbs in those sentences are in their present forms. Each sentence begins with a Subject (the agent who operates an action) and the subject is followed by a verb and then comes the Object (name of the action). All those sentences are called to be in the Present Indefinite Tense or Simple Present Tense.

The Formation of a sentence of Present Indefinite Tense is:

Subject + Principal Verb (present form) + Object (Extension).

The Present Indefinite Tense is used:

1. To express an action that takes place ordinarily without indicating any degree of its completeness:

I drink tea in the morning.

He goes to school every day.

We play cricket in the evening.

They watch T. V. at noon.

We like a banana.

He finds it difficult.

Birds fly in the sky.

2. To express habitual actions:

Ram gets up early in the morning.

He usually writes in black ink.

I go to school on foot.

His sister bites nail.

3. To express a universal truth or what is always true in the nature of things:

Birds fly in the sky.

The Sun rises in the East. 

Milk is white.

Coal is black.

Butter is made from milk.

Honey is sweet.

The Sun shines during the day.

The moon is a satellite.

Man is mortal. 

Death comes to all.

Ice floats on water.

4. To describe a past event vividly as if it were present  before our very eyes:

King Puras stands against the Greeks.

Hitler begins a barbarous massacre in Germany.

Napoleon marches to Russia.

Siraj-ud-daulla now turns his eyes to Bengal.

Sukafa crosses Patkai.

5. To express an action that has been decided to be operated in the near future:

She leaves London this evening.

He starts for Vienna the next morning.

Our school closes for the Winter Vacation on 29th December.

The new master comes tomorrow.

The Prime Minister of India comes to Guwahati on Monday next.

6. To Introduce a Quotation:

Virgil says, “Love conquers all.”

Shakespeare says, “Love is not love if alters when alteration finds.”

Ibsen says, ”The strongest man in the world is he who stands most alone.”

7. To write an exclamatory sentence beginning with ‘here’ or ‘there’:

There he goes!

Here Ram comes!

There the Pyramids stand!

8. To express an activity of perception (through senses) with some definite verbs as: think, see, feel, seem, appear, taste etc.

Quinine tastes bitter.

I feel it hot.

He seems better.

9. To write literary criticism:

Hamlet is not only the best tragedy of Shakespeare but also the most complex one ever written.

10. To give a running commentary of Games and other events:

Rana kicks the ball. It runs… Dilip holds it between his toes…..

11. The Present Indefinite Tense is used often with Adverbs of Times as: daily, often, generally, every month, every year, once a week etc.

He comes here once a week.

I go there daily.

He often quarrels with his colleagues.

She pays his servant every month.

Note:  The Present Indefinite Tense is formed by the Present form of the Mian Verb. If the Subject of the Verb is a third Person Singular Number then ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added to the Present form of the Main Verb. For Example:

Ram reads the Ramayana.

Sita goes there.

He learns English.

She plays cricket.

The moon gives us silver-light.

The baby cries.

The cuckoo sings in April.

While adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the Main Verb used with the Subject in the Third Person Singular Number the following Rules should be maintained:

Rule -1: ‘es’ is added to the verbs ending in ‘ss, sh, ch, x, or o while used with the Subject in Third Person Singular Number in Present Indefinite Tense:

Kiss ………… kisses

miss ………… misses

pass ………… passes

watch ……… watches

do ……………. does

brush ……….. brushes

go……………. goes

box …………….. boxes

rush …………. rushes

match ………… matches etc.

Rule -2. If a verb ends in ‘y’ preceded by a consonant, then it changes ‘y’ to ‘i’ and then ‘es’ is added to the verb while used with  the Subject in the Third Person Singular Number in the Present Indefinite Tense:

carry …………. carries

fly …………….. flies

dry ……………. dries

cry ……………… cries.

Rule-3. If a verb ends in ‘y’ preceded by a vowel, then  only ‘s’  is added to the verb while used with  a Subject in the Third Person Singular Number in the Present Indefinite Tense:

play ………………. plays

say …………………. says

pay …………………. pays

obey ………………… obeys

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Present Indefinite Tense:

Persons –Singular————- Plural

1st Prsn. I write a letter.    We write a letter.

2nd Prsn. You write a letter.  You write a letter.

3rd Prsn. He writes a letter.   They write a letter.

2. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Mind the following sentences:

I am learning English.

He is drinking tea.

She is playing cricket.

They are reading a book.

Each of the above sentences expresses an action which is continuing in the present time. Now mind that a Be Verb (am, is, are) is used after the Subject and before the Main verb in each of those sentences and ‘ing’ is added to each Main Verb which is followed by an Object. All those sentences are called to be in the Present Continuous Tense.

The Formation of a sentence of Present Continuous Tense is:

Subject + Be Verb (am/ is/ are) + Main Verb-ing (Present Participle) + Object (Extension).

The Present Continuous Tense is used:

(i) To Express an action which is  taking place at the time of speaking and not yet completed:

I am making a kite.

He is playing ball.

She is drinking milk.

They are cooking food.

The cows are grazing in the field.

The train is running along its way.

The baby is crying.

(ii) To express an arranged action (action decided to be undertaken) in the near future:

Mr Sen is leaving Dubai tomorrow morning.

They are starting for Bangladesh next Sunday.

Mr Bhadra is flying to Tokyo tonight.

The boy is arriving the next morning.

(iii) To express an eager wish of the agent in pursuit of some action in near future, or to mean likelihood (probability) of happening something in near future the  ‘going to +verb’ form is used:

I am going to meet my parents in the evening.

We are going to win the match.

It is going to rain at night.

Note: There are some verbs of Perception as– see, smell, hear, notice, taste, recognise, love, hate, wish, want, feel, desire, like, forgive, believe, understand, think, realise, know, expect, suppose, recollect, care, refuse, gather, matter, mean, resemble, contain, belong, possess, consist, remember, observe, wonder etc. are not generally used in the Present Continuous Tense. These verbs are used in the Present Indefinite Tense instead of Present Continuous Tense. Notice the following sentences:

I see a bird on the mango tree. (not, I am seeing a bird on the mango tree.)

The rose smells sweet. (not, ‘smelling sweet’)

Milk contains water.

The picture resembles that.

It seems it will rain.

I see them well.

I wonder to see the baby.

He wants a pen.

I think your idea is better.

Note -1: Though The Present Indefinite Tense and the Present Continuous Tense  express the action of the Present time yet there are some differences between the two, as:

The Present Continuous Tense describes the actual moment of action. It denotes an action in progress.

Shila is painting a picture.

On the other hand, the Present Indefinite Tense does not really describe a present action. It is used for a general statement and to describe those actions that are habitual or natural or generally done without mentioning definite time.

Note-2: Mind that in a sentence of Present Continuous Tense the Present participle form of the main verb is used. The Present Participle is formed by adding -ing to the present form (root form/the first form)  of a verb, as:

play +ing = playing

write + ing = writing

live + ing = living

draw + ing =drawing.

Notice that when ‘-ing’ is added (at the end) to a verb there occurs some spelling change to the verb as shown under:

(i) When ‘ing is added to a verb ending in ‘e, the last ‘e’ is omitted:

take + ing = taking

save +ing = saving

make+ ing = making

give + ing = giving.

(ii) if a verb ends in ‘ee’ then they (ee) are not omitted:

see + ing = seeing

flee + ing =fleeing

agree + ing =agreeing

(iii) If a verb is made of one syllable having only one vowel and if its last letter is a consonant then  the consonant becomes double while ‘ing is added to it:

dig + ing= digging

get +  ing =getting

hit + ing = hitting

spin + ing = spinning

put + ing =putting

sit + ing = sitting

stop + ing = stopping

run + ing = running.

(iv) If a verb is made of two or  more syllables having only one vowel in the last syllable and if its last letter is a consonant then  the consonant becomes double while ‘ing’ is added to it:

confer + ing = conferring

prefer + ing = preferring

admit + ing = admitting

begin + ing = beginning

(v) If a verb ends in ‘l’ preceded by a vowel, then the ‘l’ becomes double while ‘ing is added to it:

travel + ing = travelling

signal + ing = signalling

control + ing = controlling

(vi) If a verb ends in ‘ie’, it changes to ‘y’ while ‘-ing is added to it:

lie + ing = lying die + ing = dying.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Present Continuous Tense:

Persons–  Singular —————– Plural

1st —    I am writing. ——–     We are writing. 

2nd— You are writing. ——– You are writing. 

3rd — He is writing. ——–   They are writing.

3. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Mind the following sentences:

Mina has drunk the cup of tea.

The students have attended the seminar.

You have done the sum.

She has gone there.

Each of the above sentences expresses an action which has already been completed. Notice that each of those sentences is composed of a Subject followed by an Auxiliary Verb (have/ has), then the Main verb (past participle form) and then Object. All these sentences are said to be in the Present Perfect Tense. The Present Perfect Tense denotes an action that took place within a given period that extends to and includes the present moment, It does not tell us when the completed action took place. It simply refers to the present result of an activity or experience in the past.

The Formation of a sentence of Present Perfect Tense may be shown as:

Subject + have/ has (Auxiliary Verb)+ Main Verb (Past Participle) + Object (Extension).

The Present Perfect Tense is used:

(i) To Express an action that has just been completed

The boy has drunk the cup of milk.

She has posted the letter.

I have done my homework.

He has learnt the lesson.

(ii) To indicate an action that has been continuing from the past up to the present moment. This is called the Continuative use of the Present Perfect Tense. In such a sentence, the time of the referred action is expressed.

He has listened to the radio for two hours.

She has lived in Chennai for five years.

He has been in this post since 2011.

(iii) To indicate  a past action whose time is not given (not definite):

I have visited the Qutub Minar.

They have seen the Tajmahal.

 Have you found your pen?

She has done her homework.

(iv) To express the sense of Future Perfect Tense when preceded by ‘after’, ‘when’ etc.

We will visit the Rangpur of Assam after we have completed our visit to Tehran.

I shall see your kite when I have finished my study.

(v) The Present Perfect Tense is used with the Adverbials like already, just now, lately, yet, ever, never etc.

I have arrived just now.

The boys have already submitted their assignments.

Gurudas has returned from Beijing lately.

He has not performed his duty yet.

I have never seen the Great Wall of China.

(vi) It is used with ‘since’ and ‘for’ in a Negative sentence:

I have not met Rajesh for the last two years.

He has not learnt the Greek Alphabet since November.Note: The Adverbs ‘since’ and ‘for’ is used with the Present Perfect Tense and Present Perfect Continuous Tense to indicate time. 

‘For’ is used to indicate a period of time as: for a week, for a  month, for a year, for eight hours, for a long time.

I have not seen my friend for a week.

They have been here for a month.

He has read the lesson for eight hours at a stretch.

They have lived there for a long time.

‘Since’ implies a point of time. It refers to ‘from that point to the time of speaking’, as since 8. am. since Monday last. 

We have known each other since our student life.

He has felt a headache since yesterday.

Sometimes the sense of the Present Perfect Tense is meant by Intransitive Verbs like come, arrive, rise, go etc.

He is come = He has come.

He is gone = He has gone.

The Sun is risen = The Sun has risen)

I am come = I have come.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Present Perfect Tense:

Persons — Singular ————–  Plural

1st— I have written. ——–    We have written. 

2nd — You have written. ——– You have written. 

3rd —He/She has written. ——–      They have written. 

4. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Mind the following sentences:

I have been drawing a picture for three hours.

He has been suffering from fever since Sunday last.

It has been raining for two hours.

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to indicate that an action has been going on for some time and is not completed yet. It may denote that an action (i) began some time ago in the past, (ii) is continuing in the present and (iii) may extend to the future.

The formation of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense is:

Subject + have been/ has been + Main Verb-ing + Object (Extension).

Note: ‘Since’ or ‘for’ is generally used with the Present Perfect Continuous Tense as Adverbs of Time.

The Earth has been revolving round the Sun since the beginning of Creation.

We have been living in London since 1971.

I have been learning English throughout my life.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

Persons– Singular ————– Plural

1st —    I have been writing. ——– We have been writing 

2nd — You have been writing. ——– You have been writing.

3rd–  He has been writing. ——–  They have been writing.

5. THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE

Mind the following sentences:

I ate rice.

You drank tea.

He made a kite.

They learnt Sanskrit.

He did the work.

Each of the above sentences indicates an action of the past. Notice that the verbs used in those sentences are in the past forms. The Past Indefinite Tense is used for the relation of past events. It is used to indicate an action completed in the past. There is often an Adverb of Time denoting past tense in the sentence.

The formation of the Past Indefinite Tense is:

Subject + Main Verb (past form) + Object (Extension).

The Past Indefinite Tense is generally used:

(i) To express an event occurred or done or completed in the past:

Cholera came out last year.

He came here an hour ago.

He drank tea in the morning.

(ii) To indicate a series of activity, each one separately, in case the context is clear:

I came, I saw, I conquered.

Rajesh went to market, purchased a Sports Magazine, sat under a banyan tree by the street, read thoroughly and returned home.

(iii) To express a habitual action in the past:

He worked hard. = He used to work hard.

Socrates held his class in the open street. (Socrates used to hold his class in the open street.

(iv) To express a polite request:

Could you please lend me your umbrella?

Would you please despatch the package soon?

Would you please show me the way?

(v) To denote an action actually going on in the past:

Nero fiddled while Rome burnt.

The girls danced while the boys sang.

I worked while he ran.

(vi) It is used with ‘as if’, ‘as though’, ‘I wish’ and similar expressions to express an unreal past, an improbable  wish or a mere supposition:

I wish I were on the Moon.

I wish I were the President of India.

He behaved as if he knew everything.

I wish I knew your whereabouts.

He talked as if he was the leader of the team.

(vii) It is used after the expression, ‘It is time’:

It is time we played.

It is time we started for home.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Past IndefiniteTense:

Persons—  Singular ——–  Plural

1st–  I wrote. ——–  We wrote. 

2nd— You wrote. ——– You wrote. 

3rd — He wrote. ——– They wrote.

6. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Mind the following sentences:

He was eating rice.

Ram was going to school.

It was raining when we were in the field.

She was reading a newspaper.

Each of the above sentences expresses that action was going on for some time in the past. Each of them is said to be in the Past Continuous Tense.

The Formation of the Past Continuous Tense is:

Subject + Be Verb (‘was’ or ‘were’  according to the Subject, number and person) + Main Verb -ing + Object/Extension.

The Past Continuous Tense is used:

(i) To express an action going on for some time in the past:

He was playing ball.

I was making a doll.

He was sewing a shirt.

She was singing a song.

(ii) To express an action going on for some time during which something took place:

The phone rang while we were talking.

It was raining heavily while we were in the market.

The bus knocked down the dog while it was crossing the road.

(iii) To describe two actions going on simultaneously in the past:

My friends were playing carom while I was reading a novel.

While I was bathing, my sister was singing.

While Jenni was knitting a sweater, John was fiddling.

(iii) If two actions were going on in the past and one got completed before the other then the Past Indefinite Tense is used for the completed action and the Past Continuous Tense is used to express the remaining one:

It was raining when we went out of the home.

I saw a snake while I was walking in the garden.

(iv) The Past Continuous Tense is used to denote some planning done in the past time:

He read hard for he was appearing in the test last year.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Past Continuous Tense:

Persons  Singular           Plural

1st– I was writing ——– We were writing.

2nd— You were writing. ——– You were writing.

3rd — He was writing. ——–  They were writing.

7. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

Mind the following expressions:

Ram had eaten rice before they began to work.

Hari had left the place before Rabi came.

She did the sum after Tapan had drunk tea.

Each of the above sentences has expressed two actions (expressed in two clauses) one of which is completed before the other in order of time. The action happened earlier is expressed in the Past Perfect Tense. 

The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action already completed at some time in the past before another past action. It denotes that (i) two actions took place in the past, (ii) one of them took place before the other and (iii) the earlier action is expressed by the Past Perfect Tense and the later action by the Past Indefinite Tense. Generally ‘before’ or ‘after’ is used between the clauses if one is in the Past Indefinite Tense and the other is in the Past Perfect Tense. Mind well that Past Perfect Tense is used in the clause preceding ‘before’ and following ‘after’.

The Formation of the Past Perfect Tense is:

Subject + had + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + Object/Extension.

The Past Perfect Tense is used:

(i) To indicate that one action took place before another in the past:

The bus had started before we reached the station.

We reached the station after the train had left.

The patient had died before the physician came.

The physician came after the patient had died.

(ii) The Past Perfect Tense is used after ‘if’ or ‘I wish’ if it relates to a past activity that is unreal or a mere supposition:

I wish I had invited my colleagues.

If you had eaten the cup of liquid, you would have died.

She wishes she had helped the boy with her books.

(iii) The Past Perfect Tense replaces the Past Indefinite Tense and the Present Perfect Tense in Indirect Narration if the Reporting verb is in the Past Tense.

Peter said to Charles, “I have visited the Pyramids.”

Peter said to Charles that he had visited the Pyramids.

Rahman said to Rekha, “I did the work.”

Rahman said to Rekha that he had done the work.

(iv) The Past Perfect Tense is used before the conjunction ‘before’ and after the conjunction ‘after’ in a sentence made up of two clauses:

He had come before I came.

Hari went after I had come.

Note: The conjunctions used to join two actions: one Past Perfect and the other Past Indefinite are when, before, after, until, no sooner ………….. than etc. For example:

When he had come to the place, he hid the purse there.

No sooner had he seen the tiger than he ran off.

He had waited here until I came back.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Past Perfect Tense:

Persons—  Singular ————-  Plural

1st —      I had written. ——– We had written.

2nd– You had written. ——– You had written.

3rd— He had written. ——– They had written.

8. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Mind the following expressions:

He had been working in the industry before he fell ill.

I had been writing a letter for two hours yesterday.

The child had been playing for three hours last night.

Marry had been driving the car for eight hours that day.

Each of the above sentences has expressed an action that began in the past and was still going on to a given moment in the past. These sentences are called to be in the Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

The Formation of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense is:

Subject + had been + Main Verb-ing (Present Participle) + Object/Extension.

Notice the following more examples:

Ankana had been reading in the school before she left for Dubai.

We had been playing cricket before it rained.

Mr Sen had been serving as a lecturer at Cambridge University before he became a Fellow of Oxford University.

My friend had been suffering from fever for three months before he died.

The train had been running in full swing before it met with the accident.

They had been playing hockey when the quarrel began.

He had been doing nothing before he got this job.

I had been writing a poem from 7 a.m.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Past Perfect Continuous Tense:

Persons—  Singular —————-  Plural

1st–      I had been writing. ——–  We had been writing. 

2nd—  You had been writing. ——– You had been writing.  

3rd–      He had been writing. ——– They had been writing. 

9. THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

Mind the following expressions:

I shall eat rice.

He will come here tomorrow.

They will play tennis in the evening.

I shall go home next week.

Mira will not dance in the programme.

Each of the above sentences denotes an event or action that will be performed or happened in some future time. These expressions are said to be in the Future Indefinite Tense.

The Formation of Future Indefinite Tense is:

Subject + shall/ will + Main Verb (present form) + Object/Extension.

The Future Indefinite Tense is used:

(i) To denote speeches, ideas, actions to be done in future time. The time of action may or may not be mentioned:

He will do the sum.

The bus will arrive on time.

You will do it before they come.

I shall do it by noon.

The baby will play with his brother in the evening.

Note: In case of making sentences in Future Tense the Auxiliary Verb ‘shall’ or ‘will’ is used after the Subject and before the Main Verb. ‘Shall’ is generally used after the first person in both numbers and ‘will is used in second and Third person in both numbers.

(ii) Sometimes Future Indefinite Tense is used to express usual happenings or universal truths:

Death will continue to follow them who are living.

The Tributaries of the mighty Brahmaputra will swell when Summer comes.

Spring will come after winter.

(iii) Sometimes, especially in expressing some premeditated intention the ‘Be + going to + verb’ form is used instead of using ‘shall’ or ‘will’:

I am going to appear in the UPSC examination.

He is going to make an Orphan House.

I am going to purchase a new car next month.

He is going to America as an opportunity comes.

(iv) Future Indefinite Tense is used after Conditional Clause introduced by ‘if’ or ‘when’:

The cuckoo will appear in nature when spring comes.

If you do not learn well, you will fail.

Seeds will sprout when it is summer.

Unless he comes I will not go.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Future Indefinite Tense:

Persons–  Singular ——– Plural

1st —  I shall write. ——– We shall write.

2nd –You will write. ——– You will write.

3rd– He/She will write. ——– They will write.

10. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

Mind the following expressions:

I shall be eating rice.

He will be coming home from the market.

They will be playing badminton.

I shall be going there with my brother.

Mira will be dancing. 

Each of the above sentences denotes an event or action that will be going on or that is likely to be going on in future time. 

The Formation of Future Continuous Tense is:

Subject + shall be/ will be + Main Verb-ing (present participle) + Object/Extension.

The Future Continuous Tense is used:

(i) To denote some action to be going on at any time in future:

I shall be studying Greek literature.

He will be roaming there.

(ii) To denote some action to be done at any fixed time in future:

I shall be taking bath at 6 a.m. tomorrow.

We will be singing the song the whole next evening.

He will be fiddling all day long since January next.

The main use of Future Continuous Tense is to express a future action without intention. It differs from the Present Continuous Tense in the following points:

(a)The Present Continuous Tense implies a deliberate present action that is going on to some indefinite or expected future time.

(b) The Future Continuous Tense is less definite and more casual than the Present Continuous Tense.

(c) The Present Continuous Tense is used only with a definite time and for the near future. But the Future Continuous Tense is used with or without a definite time and for the near or far future.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Future Indefinite Tense:

Persons—  Singular ——– Plural

1st—   I shall be writing. ——– We shall be writing.

2nd —You will be writing. ——– You will be writing.

3rd– He will be writing. ——– They will be writing.

11.THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Mind the following expressions:

I shall have eaten rice before he comes.

He will have gone there while Rajen leaves us.

They will have played badminton by this time the next day.

I shall have done this tomorrow.

Mira will have danced before she begins to sing. 

I shall have read John Keat’s poems by the end of the year.

The match will have started before you reach the station.

The ticket counter will have closed by 10. a.m.

Each of the above sentences denotes an event or action that is supposed to have completed in the future before (or by the time) something happens. These expressions are said to be in the Future Perfect Tense.

The Future Perfect Tense is used in the expression in which some action of future time is supposed to have been finished or over at a certain point of time in future. A time expression is generally mentioned in such expression.

The Formation of Future Perfect Tense is:

Subject + shall have/ will have + Main Verb (past participle) + Object/Extension.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Future Perfect Tense:

Persons  Singular ————– Plural

1st      I shall have written. ——–     We shall have written.

2nd      You will have written. ——– You will have written.

3rd      He will have written. ——–   They will have written.

12. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Mind the following expressions:

I shall have been doing the work for a week next month.

The bus will be running for three days before it reaches Westminster.

Nero will have been practising the guitar for three months next year.

If I had money enough, I shall have been helping the needy.

Had it not rained, we shall have been playing in the field.

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action that will be continuing or going on for some time in the future until another action begins in future.

The Formation of Future Perfect Continuous Tense is:

Subject + shall have been/ will have been+ Main Verb-ing (present participle) + Object/Extension.

Now mind the Conjugation of the Verb ‘Write’ in the Future Perfect Continuous Tense:

Persons  Singular ———————————- Plural

1st      I shall have been writing. ——–We shall have been writing.

2nd     You will have been writing. ——–   You will have been writing.

3rd     He will have been writing. ——–   They will have been writing.

Note: The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is very rarely used except in some conditional actions. 

EXERCISE

A. The Present Indefinite Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) The cat (like) milk. (ii) Hot air (rise) above. (iii) Rain (fall) from the clouds. (iv) An illustration (make) a book more comprehensive. (v) A vegetarian is a person who (do) not eat meat. (vi)The Hindustan Times  (appear) every day. (vii)Look! here (come) the tiger. (viii) Fire (burn) everything. (ix) You (go) to school on foot. (x) Sita (like) horse riding. (xi) Sushanta (drink) a glass of water when he (go) to sleep. (xii) I (see ) a bird on the tree.

B. The Present Continuous Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) The baby (cry) because its mother is away. (ii) He (feel) that he is wrong. (iii)Father (take) us to the zoo next Monday. (iv)Nabina often talks in the class, now she  (talk). (v) She (have) a cold now. (vi) The boys (play) now in the field. (vii) Look! that man is (carry) a hare on his head. (viii) My mother (knit) a sweater for my sister. (ix) Where are you  (go) now. (x) He (go) to market.

C. The Present Perfect Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) Madhu and Lewis (come) here just now. (ii) I not (see) him since last year. (iii) He (do) the work and is now taking rest. (iv) Hiren knows this place, he (be) here before. (v) I (forget) to bring my Identity Card. (vi) He (tell) me a comic story just now. (vii)  I already (finish) the work. (viii) I not (meet) him for a month. (ix) I (see) the Tajmahal. (x) I (know) how wonderful the Taj is! (xi) You (work) for a long time. (xii) They (arrive). (xiii) The sun (set). (xiv) He (come). (xv) She (go).

D. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) Mr Babar (teach) in this college for the last ten years. (ii)He (play) on the violin for two hours. (iii) He (swim) in the river for an hour. (iv)Harsha (work) hard for the coming examination. (v) The girl (sing) for three hours. (vi) We (wait) for your arrival since noon. (vii)The old man (sleep) for seven hours. (viii)I (read) the newspaper for an hour. (ix) Haren (practise) the violin for the last three years. (x) I (do) this for the last five years.

2. Fill in the blanks with ‘for’ or ‘since’:

(i) What have you been doing ……………… morning? (ii) He has been staying in this house …………. the last five years. (iii) We have been sitting here ……………… two hours. (iv) I have known him ……………….. his boyhood. (v) He has been reading this book ………… Tuesday last. (vi) He has been suffering from fever …………. a week. (vii) It has been raining heavily…………………. morning. (viii) We have been living  here …………..many years. (ix) We have been playing cricket ……………7  o’clock. (x) Anupam has been studying French ………..the last five years.

E. The Past Indefinite Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) It is time we (go) home. (ii) During my student life, I (read) ten hours a day. (iii) It is time we (receive) our tuition. (iv) If I (be) there, I should have helped you. (v) I wish I (be) the President of India. (vi) We (visit) Pakistan two years ago. (vii) I wish I (know) your address. (viii) He talked as if he (be) my boss. (ix) He (study) hard. (x)While the boy danced, the girls (sing).

F. The Past Continuous Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) When we started our journey this morning, the sun (shine). (ii)I got this photograph while I (search) my old box. (iii)When I met her first, she (work) in a  hotel. (iv) When I met him in the street, he (go) to the cinema. (v) I (see) you that you (be) reading a novel. (vi) The cat (mew) all night. (vii)He (work) all evening. (viii)As he (cross) the road, a car knocked him down. (ix) The bus started while he (get) on. (x)The girl (jump) off the bus while it (move).

G. The Past Perfect Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i)The student (leave) the class after the teacher (go) out. (ii) I (go) to sleep after my cousin (leave). (iii) Lesson (start) after the teacher (enter) the class. (iv)We (go) home after we (complete) the work. (v) No sooner she (hear) the news than she fainted. (vi) Hardly he (go) out when a dog bit him. (vii)The bird (fly) away before the hunter shot it. (viii)No sooner I (start) than it began to rain. (ix)We did not know when he (leave) the place. (x)If you (go) there, you would have met him.

2. Rewrite the following sentences using ‘after’ in place of ‘before’:

(i) He had gone to the field before the match started. (ii) The sun had set before we started for the fair. (iii) The doctor had done it before  I went there.

H. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense form:

(i) Anupam (play) on the guitar before his father came. (ii)She (recite) poems for more than two hours before it became dark. (iii)He (draw) a picture for three hours before my sister came in. (iv) The girls (play) before the sunset. (v)He (do) nothing before he took the job of a masonry. (vi) He (read) in the village school before he came to Delhi. (vii)He (suffer) from insomnia before he was treated by Dr Shila.

I. The Future Indefinite Tense

1. Put ‘shall’ or ‘will’ (which is suitable) in the blanks and fill in the blanks:

(i) Mr Babar ………. teach us English. (ii)We ………. go to the cinema this evening. (iii) They ………. visit the temple. (iv) We ………. play football. (v) We ………. read the novel. (vi) Ram and Shaym ………… do the work tonight. (vii) He …………. build a house. (viii) Tomorrow ……….. be Monday. (ix) They …………… come the day after tomorrow. (x) I ……….. finish the work on Tuesday next.

J. The Future Continuous Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense forms:

(i) We (play) for our team even next year. (ii) I (work) till 12 p.m. tonight. (iii) I (write) to my friend shortly. (iv)They (play) a match with our team at this time tomorrow. (v)I (meet) Rahim at this time tomorrow. (vi)He (leave) for Calcutta in half an hour. (vii)He (learn) French till next January. (viii) I (read) a poem for the whole evening. (ix) He  (write) a letter. (x) I (meet) the Principal tomorrow.

K. The Future Perfect Tense

1. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense forms:

(i) We (reach) home by now. (ii)The boy (take) her supper by 8.a.m. (iii)We (get) to Kanpur by this time tomorrow. (iv) We (leave) the place before sunset. (v)You (arrive) in Port Blair before 21st March.

L. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Rewrite  the following sentences into Future Perfect Continuous Tense:

(i) I (like) this for all my life. (ii) He (do) the work till his end. (iii) He (be) working as long as he is living. (iv) He will have been reading this book till Ram (return). (v) I (learn) the lesson till I (get) proficiency in it.

M. Miscellaneous

1. Put the verbs in  the brackets in correct Tense forms:

(i) He (come) tomorrow morning. (ii) Look at the sky, it (go) to rain. (iii) Mahatma Gandhi (be)a great man of India. (iv)He (go) to Chennai next month. (v) He (come) here four years ago. (vi) She (go) to school on foot. (vii) Don’t disturb the baby, he (be) sleeping. (viii) We (know) each other for many years. (ix) The train (leave) before we (reach) the station. (x) He (do) the work since morning. (xi) This book (contain) important information. (xii) It (rain) since 4. o’clock. 0 0 0 

 

Chapter- 21

THE CONDITIONALS

 

A. TYPES OF CONDITIONALS

 Mind the following expressions:

1. He will attend the meeting if we invite him.

2. He would attend the meeting if we invited him.

3. He would have attended the meeting if we had invited him.

Each of the above sentences expresses two actions: one depends upon the fulfilment of the other. These kinds of expressions are called Conditionals. 

In sentence no. 1 the condition refers to future action which may or may not be fulfilled. This type of Conditional is called Real Conditional or Open Conditional. 

More Examples:

If you come here, you will meet my nephew.

If you read thoroughly, you will pass the examination with flying colours.

If we walk fast, we will catch the bus.

The condition refers to in sentence no. 2 might have been fulfilled but was rejected to put into action so remained unfulfilled. This type of Conditional is called  Rejected Conditional.

More examples:

If I went there, I would meet my friend.

If I were not so tired, I would go for a walk.

If I had time, I would visit the Kaziranga National Sanctuary.

The condition refers to in sentence no 3. is impossible of fulfilment because the action refers to a past event which was imagined only after the time was over so never happened. This type of Conditional is called Imaginary Conditional.

More examples:

If I had studied harder, I would have passed the examination.

If I had known, I would have helped you.

If it had rained in spring, we would have a good harvest.

What would you have done, if you had been attacked by a lion?

Thus Conditionals may be of three types as: 1. Real (Open) Conditional, 2. Rejected Conditional and 3. Imaginary or Unreal Conditional.

A Sentence that consists of a condition is called a Conditional Sentence. A Conditional Sentence consists of two Clauses: the Principal Clause and the Sub-ordinate Clause. The Sub-ordinate Clause contains the condition. Most Conditional Clauses begin with the conjunction ‘if’ or ‘unless’ (‘unless’ means ‘if not’). So the Sub-ordinate Clause in a Conditional Sentence is also called If Clause.

B. TENSES IN CONDITIONALS

(a) Real Conditional:

In Real Condition (a condition that may be or may not be fulfilled) the Principal Clause is in Future Indefinite Tense and the Subordinate Clause (or If Clause) is in Present Indefinite Tense. For example,

If it rains, we shall not play.

If you work hard, you will win the race.

We can not succeed unless we labour hard.

We shall not go to the playground unless it stops raining heavily.

If we have time, we shall visit the zoo.

I shall see you if you come.

The President will give us a present if we win the match.

Note: In a Conditional Sentence, if the ‘If Clause’ is placed at the beginning of the sentence it is separated from the Principal Clause by a comma (,).

(b) Rejected Conditional: 

The Rejected Conditional is that conditional which might have been fulfilled but was rejected to put into action so remained unfulfilled. The Principal Clause in a Rejected Conditional sentence is in Past Tense of Modal Verb and the ‘If Clause’ is in the Past Indefinite.

If we went there, we would meet them.

If I were not so exhausted, I would go for a walk.

He would come if you called him.

If he asked me, I would help him.

If we ate too much, we would be ill.

The President would come if we invited him.

(c) Imaginary Conditional

The condition which is impossible of fulfilment because the action refers to a past event which was imagined only after the time was over and was never happened.

The Principal Clause of Imaginary Conditional is Conditional Perfect (past tense of Modal Verb) + have + Past participle.

The ‘If Clause’ is in the Past Perfect Tense.

If he had read harder, he would have passed the Test.

If I had known, I would have helped them.

If it had not rained, we would have enjoyed the match.

I would have rescued him if I had known the way.

Note-1: In a conditional expression if the reference is made to the present, then the Present Indefinite Tense is used in both cinditionals. For example:

If the wind blows, the leaves of trees flirt.

If water boils, it turns into vapour.

If we heat ice, it melts.

If we drink poison, we die.

Note-2: The use of the Past Indefinite Tense in the ‘If Clause’  may express a Real Condition:

If you were in the spot, you unfailingly experienced the event with your eyes.

If she was present in the meeting, she surely stood against their decision.

Note-3: In the ‘If Clause’ the Future Tense is never used, but Modal Verb may be used  to express willingness, politeness or supposition:

If you will need our help, you may ask for it.

I should be grateful if you send the message without delay.

Note-4: ‘Should’ used in the  Conditional Clause often emphasises a doubtful view of the conditional:

If you should help them, you are warmly welcome.

Note-5: Use of the ‘Inverted Should’ is more literary than informal:

Should he faint again, send him to hospital.

Should he decline the offer, we will consider your demand.

Should you agree to my terms, I will take you into my confidence.

Note-6: The use of ‘were’ with singular subjects denotes that the supposition is contrary to reality:

If I were you, I would not accept the job.

If I were a king, I would spend all my wealth to the cause of the poor.

If I were the President of India, I would eradicate poverty.

EXERCISE

1. Read the following sentences and say what kind of condition  each sentence is:

(i) If you disturb the dog, it will bite you. (ii)If he comes, I shall go there. (iii) If tomorrow is a sunny day, I shall visit the Calcutta Zoo. (iv) They would do it if they could. (v) He would have told you if you had asked him. (vi) If it rains, I shall drench in it. (vii) If I had enough money, I should give them away to the needy. (viii) It would have been better if they had not gone there. (ix)If he had worked harder, he would have passed the examination. (x) If you can answer my question,  you will be rewarded. (xi) If I should die, think this only of me. (xii) If you wait for a moment, the Secretary will meet you. (xiii) If water freezes, it turns into ice. (xiv)  If he was at home at that time, he would certainly hear the noise. (xv) Should you find it, please send it to me. (xvi) I should have saved him if I had known swimming. (xvii) If you had gone, you would have met him. (xviii) You can not succeed unless you work hard. (xix) I shall give you a reward if you stand first. (xxi) If you study regularly, you will pass. (xxii)If you started early, you would catch the train. (xxiii) If it rains, we will not go out. (xxiv) If I were a millionaire, I would give generously to the poor. (xxv)  If I were you, I should not go there.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into their correct tense:

(i)If I (know) his address, I would have met him. (ii)You (be) ill, if you eat too much. (iii) They would (do)  if they could. (iv) He will not learn much unless he (study) hard. (v) If he (see) you, he would speak to you. (vi) I shall not write to him unless he (write) to me. (vii) If they had waited, they (meet) me. 

3. Put the following conditional sentences into Past Tense:

(i) If you go in time, you can meet the doctor. (ii) If you read sincerely, you will secure good marks. (iii) If I tell you the truth, you will not believe me. (iv) Unless you buy a ticket, you cannot go inside. (v) If you spoke more slowly, we should hear you better. (vi) If she has spare time, she spends it at the cinema. (vii) If you need my advice, you come to me.

4. Begin the following sentences with ‘I wish’:

(i) I know your whereabouts. (ii) I am the President of India. (iii) I know your name.  (iv) I have a lot of wealth. (v) I tell you the time.

5. Rewrite the following sentences in the correct tense form:

(i) I wish I (be) there at that time. (ii) I’d rather  (try) again for the prize. (iii) I don’t know his name, I wish I (know) it. (iv) He (speak) as if he (know) everything. (v) It is time you (revise) your lesson. (vi) He behaves as if he (be)  boss. (v) If only he (tell) me the secret! 0 0 0

 

Chapter-22

VOICE CHANGE

 

Voice is a grammatical category that applies to the verb in a sentence. It shows the relationship between the doer of an action (Subject) and the receiver of that action  (Object). The action remains the same, but the focus changes depending upon the context. Mind the following expressions:

1. We eat rice.

2. Rice is eaten by us.

If we mind well, we see that both the sentences have expressed the same meaning though both the sentences differ in forms.

In sentence no.1 the Subject (agent/doer of an action)   of the verb ‘eat’ is placed at the beginning and takes an active part in doing something himself. It is said to be Active Voice.

On the other hand in sentence no.2 the  Subject of the verb ‘eat’ has not acted himself but is acted upon—-it is said to be Passive Voice.

Thus according to the manner or forms of expression Voices are divided into two forms or kinds, as: 1. Active Voice and 2. Passive Voice.

An Active Voice may be transformed into a Passive Voice and vice versa. The transformation does not change the meaning of the sentence, it only changes the manner of expression.

Though most sentences are spoken or written in Active form yet in some occasion Passive form  is used where:

(i) the importance is given more on the work done than on the doer.

(ii)when the agent or the doer of an action remains unknown.

(iii) when it is not necessary to mention the agent.

There are  some general Rules for  Changing Sentences from Active to Passive as:

(i) The Subject in the Active Voice becomes the Object in the Passive Voice, preceded by Preposition like ‘by’, ‘with, ‘at’, ‘to’.

(ii)The Object in the Active Voice becomes the Subject in the Passive Voice.

(iii) The Finite Verb in the Active Voice is changed into the Past Participle form and used with Auxiliary Verb (to Be).

(iv)The Verb ‘to Be’ takes the tense of the Finite Verb in the Active Voice and agrees to the number and person of the Subject in the Passive Voice.

(v) The Pronouns used as Subjects in Active Voice are changed into Objective forms in Passive Voice as under:

Sub. forms Ob. forms

I ————— me

We ————— us

He ————— him

She ————— her

You ————— you

They ————— them

It ————— it/its

Ram, Rahim (Nouns) ————— Ram, Rahim (no change)

However, there are some minor differences for such changes according to the kinds of sentences.

We know that English Sentences are divided into five kinds, according to the meaning or purpose as: Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Exclamatory and Optative. Of all these kinds of Sentences may have Active and Passive forms. Let us discuss the Changing of Voices as under according to kinds of Sentences:

A. VOICE CHANGE OF ASSERTIVE SENTENCE

A Sentence which makes a statement either in the positive or negative is called an Assertive Sentence.  An Assertive sentence is used to state a fact or to convey information. Let us illustrate the Voice changes of Assertive sentence in accordance with twelve Tenses:

1. The Present Indefinite Tense:

Mind the following sentences:

We drink tea. (Active)

Tea is drunk by us. (Passive)

The first sentence is in Active Voice and the second sentence is in the Passive Voice. Notice that while changing the sentence from Active Voice to Passive Voice the Object of the Active Voice has become the Subject in the Passive Voice (used in Subjective Form) and a suitable ‘Be verb’ (am, is, are)  is used after the Subject which agrees to the person and number of the new Subject, then comes the Past Participle form of the Main Verb followed by a preposition ‘by’ and at the end the Objective form of the Subject of Active Voice is used.

Active Formation: Subject + Main Verb (Present form) + Object.

Passive Formation: Object of Active Voice as Subject(Subjective Form) + Be verb (am, is, are) + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Objective form of the Subject of Active Voice.

More Examples:

1.I do the sum. (Active) 

The sum is done by me. (passive)

2. We play cricket. (Active)

Cricket is played by us. (Passive)

3. She likes flower. (Active)

Flower is liked by her. (Passive)

4. Kamala sings a song. (Active) 

A song is sung by Kamala (Passive)

5.Jenifa breaks the glass. (Active)

The glass is broken by Jenifa. (Passive).

6. I can do this. (Active)

This can be done by me. (Passive)

7. You must do it. (Active)

It must be done by you. (Passive)

2. Present Continuous Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We are drinking tea. (Active)

Tea is being drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form : Subject + Present form of ‘Be Verb’  (am, is, are) + Main Verb- ing + Object.

Passive form: object (Subjective form) + be Verb (am, is, are according to the number and person of the new Subject) + being + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject (Objective form).

More Examples :

You are eating rice. (Active)

Rice is being eaten by you. (Passive)

She is reading the Ramayana. (Active)

The Ramayana is being read by him. (Passive)

I am drinking a glass of cold water. (Active)

A glass of cold water is being drunk by me. (Passive)

Kanak is writing a letter. (Active)

A letter is being written by Kanak. (Passive)

3.  The Present Perfect Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We have drunk tea. (Active)

Tea has been drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form: Subject + have/has  + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + Object.

Passive Form: Object (Subjective Form) + have/has + been + M.V. (Past Participle form) + by + subject (Objective form).

Sita has lost the new pencil. (Active)

The new pencil has been lost by Sita. (Passive)

They have eaten an apple (Active)

An apple has been eaten by them. (Passive)

I have killed mice. (Active)

Mice have been killed by me. (Passive)

We have done the work. (Active)

The work has been done by us. (Passive)

4. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We have been drinking tea. (Active)

Tea has been being drunk by us. (Passive)

Active Form: Subject + have/has + been + Main Verb -ing + Object.

Passive form:  Object (Subjective form) + have/has + been + being + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject (Objective form).

More Examples :

Tapan has been building a house. (Active)

A house has been being built by Tapan. (Passive)

Arup has been writing a letter. (Active)

A letter has been being written by Arup. (Passive)

I have been eating a mango. (Active)

A mango has been being eaten by me. (Passive)

He has been making a kite. (Active)

A kite has been being made by him. (Passive)

5. The Past Indefinite Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We drank tea. (Active)

Tea was drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form: Subject + Past form of the Main Verb + object.

Passive form: Object (Subjective form) + Past form of be Verb (‘was’/’were’ according to the number and person of the subject) + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject (Objective form).

I ate an apple. (Active)

An apple was eaten by me. (Passive)

Shila wrote a book. (Active)

A book was written by Shila. (Passive)

We drank a glass of hot milk. (Active)

A glass of hot milk was drunk by us. (Passive)

6. The Past Continuous Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We were drinking tea. (Active)

Tea was being drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + Past form of Be Verb (was/were) +Main Verb-ing + Object.

Passive form: Object as Subject + Past form of Be Verb (was/were) + being + Past Participle form of the Main Verb  + by + Subject as Object.

More Examples :

Azad was throwing a bottle. (Active)

A bottle was being thrown by Azad. (Passive)

Jerifa was giving a book. (Active)

A book was being given by Jerifa. (Passive)

I was drinking a cup of butter. (Active)

A cup of butter was being drunk by me. (Passive)

Nina was playing ball. (Active)

Ball was being played by Nina. (Passive)

7. The Past Perfect Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We had drunk tea. (Active)

Tea had been drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + had + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + object.

Passive form:  Object as Subject + had + been + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject as Object.

More Examples :

Java had finished the lesson. (Active)

The lesson had been finished by Java. (Passive)

The girl had misused the barrel. (Active)

The barrel had been misused by the girl. (Passive)

We had built a house. (Active)

A house had been built by us. (Passive)

A boy had broken the bottle. (Active)

The bottle had been broken by a boy. (Passive)

8. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We had been drinking tea. (Active)

Tea had been being drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + had + been + Main Verb-ing +Object.

Passive form:  Object as Subject + had + been + being + Past Participle of the Main Verb + by + Subject as Objcet.

More Examples:

He had been doing his duty. (Active)

His duty had been being done by him. (Passive)

Sabina had been writing the lesson. (Active)

The lesson had been being written by Sabina. (Passive)

Fatima had been drinking coffee. (Active)

Coffee had been being drunk by Fatima. (Passive)

9. The Future Indefinite Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We shall drink tea. (Active)

Tea will be drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + shall/will + Main Verb + Object.

Passive form:  Object as Subject + shall/will + be + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject as Object.

More Examples :

Nabin will do the work. (Active)

The work will be done by Nabin. (Passive)

You will help me. (Active)

I shall be helped by you. (Passive)

They will speak the truth. (Active)

The truth will be spoken by them. (Passive)

10. The Future Continuous Tense. 

Mind the following sentences:

We shall be drinking tea. (Active)

Tea will be being drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + shall/will + be + Main Verb -ing + Object.

Passive form:  Object as Subject + shall/will + be + being + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject as Object.

More Examples :  

Fida Hussain will be drawing a picture. (Active)

A picture will be being drawn by Fida Hussain. (Passive)

Shahin will be writing a letter. (Active)

A letter will be being written by Shahin. (Passive)

I shall be doing the sums. (Active)

The sums will be being done by me. (Passive)

11. The Future Perfect Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We shall have drunk tea. (Active)

Tea will have been drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + shall/will + have + Past Participle form of the  Main Verb + Object.

Passive form: Object as Subject+shall/will+have+ been+Past Participle form of the Main Verb+Subject as Object.

More Examples:

They will have done their duties. (Active)

Their duties will have been done by them. (Passive)

Mother will have finished the lesson. (Active)

The lesson will have been finished by mother. (Passive)

She will have done this. (Active)

This will have been done by her. (Passive)

He will have read the book. (Active)

The book will have been read by him. (Passive)

12. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

Mind the following sentences:

We shall have been drinking tea. (Active)

Tea will have been being drunk by us. (Passive)

Active form:  Subject + shall/will + have + been + Main Verb-ing + Object.

Passive form:  Object as Subject + shall/will + have + been + being + Past Participle form of the Main Verb + by + Subject as Object.

More Examples :

I shall have been doing the work. (Active)

The work will have been being done by me. (Passive)

We shall have been eating the apples. (Active)

The apples will have been being eaten by us. (Passive)

Manab will have been reading the Koran. (Active)

The Koran will have been being read by Manab. (Passive)

N. B. The Future Perfect Tense and The Future Perfect Continuous Tense are rarely used.

B. VOICE CHANGE OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

A Sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative Sentence. 

(i) The Assertive Sentences which are transformed into Interrogative  Sentences by placing the Auxiliary Verb before the Subject abides by all the general Rules as laid down earlier while changing them from Active to Passive. The only exception is that the Auxiliary Verb is placed before the Subject in the Passive Voice.

Mind the following sentences:

1. Have I lost a book? (Active)

Has a book been lost by me? (Passive)

2. Shall we do the work? (Active)

Will the work be done by us? (Passive)

3. Had they played cricket? (Active)

Had cricket been played by them. (Passive)

4. Were we eating oranges? (Active)

Were oranges being eaten by us? (Passive)

5. Is Shilpa eating an apple? (Active)

Is an apple being eaten by Shilpa? (Passive)

(ii) The Interrogative Sentences which are formed by adding ‘do’, ‘did’ or ‘does’ before the Subject abides by all the general Rules as laid down earlier while changing from Active to Passive Voices. The only exception is that some Be Verb (is, am or are) is placed before the Subject in accordance with the person, number and tense of the new Subject in Passive Voice. (‘Do’ is used with the Present Indefinite Tense ‘did’ is used with the  Past Indefinite Tense and ‘Does’  is used with the Subject in Third Person singular in Present Indefinite Tense.) Mind the following examples:

1. Does Karishma drink a glass of coffee? (Active)

Is a glass of coffee drunk by Karishma? (Passive)

2. Did Seema build the house? (Active)

Was the house built by Seema? (Passive)

3. Do you buy the pen? (Active)

Is the pen bought by you? (Passive)

4. Does Ranaki write a letter? (Active)

Is a letter written by Ranaki? (Passive)

5. Did Hari write a novel?

Was a novel written by Hari?

(v) The words: who, what, why, how, and when are called Question Words. While changing an Interrogative sentence begun with any of these Question words from Active Voice to Passive Voice the Question word retains its place at the beginning of the sentence and then abide by all the rules as laid down already. Mind the following examples:

How have you done the sum? (Active)

How has the sum been done by you? (Passive)

What is Ram doing ? (Active)

What is being done by Ram?  (Passive)

Why do you write it? (Active)

Why is it written by you? (Passive)

Who teaches you English? (Active)

By whom is English taught you? (Passive)

Who gave you the purse? (Active)

By whom were you given the purse? (Passive)

Note: If the Question word ‘who’ is used as the Subject in the Active Voice then in the Passive Voice the Objective form of the Question word is used.

C. VOICE CHANGE OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

An Imperative Sentence is a sentence with which an order, direction, command or request is issued. In an Imperative sentence the Subject word ‘you’ remains understood. 

(i) To change an Imperative sentence from Active Voice to Passive Voice the ‘Let’ verb is used at the beginning of the sentence, then comes the Object of the Active voice which is followed by ‘be’ and then the Past Participle form of the Main Verb is used. Mind the following examples:

Drink the cup of milk. (Active)

Let the cup of milk be drunk. (Passive)

Active form: (Subject – Understood) + Main Verb (Present Form) + Object.

Passive forrm: Let + Object + be + Past Participle form of the main Verb.

More Examples :

1.Do the work. (Active)

Let the work be done. (Passive)

2. Close the window. (Active)

Let the window be closed. (Passive)

3. Open the door. (Active)

Let the door be opened. (Passive)

4. Give me a glass of cold water. (Active)

Let a glass of cold water be given me. (Passive)

Note: If there is the name of a person as a Subject word in an Active Voice then the name is retained in the Passive Voice. Mind the Following example:

Sangita, sing a song.

Let a song be sung, Sangita.

or 

Sangita, let a song be sung.

or 

Let a song be sung by Sangita. 

Ram, do the sum. (Active)

Let the sum be done by Ram. (Passive)

or 

Let the work be done, Ram.

Sabina, bring a glass. (Active)

Let a glass be brought by Sabina. (Passive)

(ii) While changing an Imperative Sentence having the word ‘please’ we use ‘you are requested’ in place of ‘please’ in Passive Voice. For example:

1. Please bring me a glass of milk.

You are requested to bring me a glass of milk.

2. Please help the needy.

You are requested to help the needy.

3.Please come here immediately. (Active)

You are requested to come here immediately. (Passive)

4.Please have a cup of tea. (Active)

You are requested to have a cup of tea. 

(iii) If the Imperative Sentence is negative then it is changed into Passive Voice as :

Please do not do the work. (Active)

You are requested not to do the work. (Passive)

Don’t make a noise. (Active)

Let not noise be made. (Passive)

D. VOICE CHANGE OF OPTATIVE AND EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

There is no specific rules for changing  Optative and Exclamatory sentences into Passive Voice. Such sentences are to be changed from Active to Passive Voice following the Rules laid down for the other kinds of sentence. Mind the following examples:

1.May God bless you. (Active)

You might be blessed by God. (Passive)

2. Oh, what a kindness she has shown. (Active)

Oh, what kindness had been shown by her. (Passive)

E. MISCELLANEOUS

(i) Generally, an Intransitive verb have no voice change. But a sentence with a Group Verb or Cognate Object may be changed into Passive Voice, as:

Deepa joked at  Hena. (Active)

Hena was joked at by Deepa. (Passive)

I laughed at him. (Active)

He was laughed at by me. (Passive)

I dreamt a dream, (Active)

A dream was dreamt by me. (Passive)

Jenny ran a race. (Active)

A  race was run by Jenny. (Passive)

(ii) If there  is  any of the modal verbs:  ‘can’, ‘may’, and ‘must’ then in the Passive Voice only ‘be’ (of Be Verb) is used after the modal verb and then  the Past Participle form of the Principal Verb is used after it in addition to abiding by all the general Rules. Notice the following examples:

Shahin may give the book. (Active)

The book may be given by Shahin. (Passive)

She must do the work. (Active)

The work must be done by her. (Passive)

You can do the sum. (Active)

The sum can be done by you. (Passive)

He may support you. (Active)

You may be supported by him. (Passive)

Can Rani do this? (Active)

Can this be done by Rani? (Passive)

(iii) Some sentence consists of two Objects: one is Inanimate (non-living) Object and the other is Animate (living) Object. The Inanimate Object is called Direct Object and the Animate Object is called Indirect Object. While changing a sentence consisting of two objects only one object is used as Subejct in the Passive Voice and the other remains as Object and which remains as Objcet in the Passive voice is called Retained Object. Mind the Following examples:

1.My father gives me a shirt. (Active)

(a) A shirt is given me by my father. (Passive)

(b) I am given a shirt by my father. (Passive)

2.I teach the students English. (Active)

(a) English is taught the students by me. (Passive)

(b) The students are taught English by me.

3.Lama asked me a question. (Active)

(a) A question was asked me by Lama. (Passive)

(b) I was asked a question by Lama. (Passive)

Note: The Transitive Verbs that generally take two objects are: tell, speak, ask, send, give, bring, buy, show, teach, lend and promise.

(iv) There are some sentences where there is no mention of the doers. Such sentences are turned into Passive from Active as under:

People Called Stalin Steel-man.  (Active)

Stalin was called steel-man. (Passive)

People call Mohandas “Mahatma”. (Active)

Mohandas is called “Mahatma”. (Passive)

(vii) Some statements are to be made Passive only for the sake of expression:

1.Books are printed on paper.

2.Petrol is found in Assam.

3.Gold is discovered in the sand of Sahara.

4.The book was bought.

5.The scheme was brought into action. 

6.The godown was ransacked.

7.The stalls were kept open.

(ix) To turn an Interrogative sentence into the Passive Voice, it should at first be turned into an Assertive Sentence and then changing the voice it should again be turned into an Interrogative sentence.

1.Did Manisha do this? (Active)

This was done by Manisha. (Assertive)

Was this done by Manisha?(Passive/Interrogative)

2.Does she write a book? (Active)

She writes a book. (Assertive)

A book is written by her. (Passive)

Is a book written by her?

(x) There are some expressions the Object of which cannot be used as Subject in the Passive Voice, as:

1.She shot herself. (Active)

She was shot by herself. (Passive)

2.Rebeca hurt herself. (Active)

Rebeca was hurt by herself. (Passive)

3. Rabana killed himself. (Active)

Rabana was killed by himself. (Passive)

(xi) There are some Verbs in English which are Active in form but Passive in sense. Such verbs are called Quasi- passive Verbs: 

1.This pen writes well.

2. The flower is sweet when it is smelt.

3. Honey tastes sweet.

4. The rose smells nice.

Note: Some Quasi-passive Verbs are: smell, taste, build, write etc.

(xii) The Impersonal ‘It’ is used in the Passive Voice with Verbs like– expect, know, hope, say, find, fear, think etc.

It is hoped that I will win the race.

It is said that honesty pays in the long run.

It is thought that the end will meet its means.

It is expected that she will secure the First Division.

EXERCISE

1. Change the voice of the following sentences:

(i) We drink milk. (ii) We will do it. (iii) He has drunk the glass of water. (iv) Jim Corbett killed the tiger. (v) Birds build nests. (vi) Go there at once. (vi Herry Jackson teaches us English. (vii) He did the work. (viii) Open the door. (ix) The bird is seen. (x) He did it.

2. Turn into Passive Voice:

(i) He helped all. (ii) She is cooking rice. (iii)Hima sang a sweet song. (iv) She was doing the owrk. (v) He has just finished the work. (vi)  I shall do it. (vii) He bought a new pen. (viii) He teaches us Latin. (ix) Lila is writing a letter. (x) He is making a noise.

3. Change the Voice of the following:

(i) He liked the piece of cloth. (ii) I have spent all my pocket money. (iii) Someone has stolen my umbrella. (iv) The tailor has not stritched my shirt. (v) The Headmaster gave us a prize. (vi) I know your father. (vii) Can you do this sum? (viii)Who has done this mischief? (ix) Go there and see the sight. (x) Hari helped the poor boy. (xi) He is writing a novel. (xii) Do you know his brother? (xiii) Who can do it? (xiv) Please do the work? (xv) Someone had cheated her. (xvi)  We are made slaves by our habits.

4. Change the Voice of the following sentences:

(i) I see a bird. (ii) Ram reads the Bible. (iii) People play football everywhere. (iv) The hunter killed the tiger. (v) You must do it. (vi) He knows them. (vii) I am reading the Geeta. (viii) Mr Kakati teaches us English. (ix) The cow gives us milk. (x) Do this.  (xi) Shut the door. (xi) Call in a doctor. (xii) Mend your manners. (xiii) Put up a tent. (xiv) He ran a race. (xv) She dreamt a happy dream. (xvi) Haren laughs at the beggar. (xvii) He worked out the sum. (xviii) You see the moon. (xix) Who shut the window? (xx) Who said this? (xxi) How did you do the sum? (xxii) He hurt himself. (xxiii) They made him king. (xxiv) Who will bell the cat? (xxv) The farmers have reaped the harvest. (xxvi) The lady had sold her old car. (xxvii) All living beings need food.  (xxviii) Lalita has been doing her job. (xxix) He will have been doing this. (xxx)  I was compelled to do this. 

5. Turn into Passive Voice:

(i) We saw him talking to the Station Master. (ii)I could see someone sitting on a cot. (iii) I will buy tickets for your journey. (iv) He paid forty rupees for lunch. (v) I got the name Rubel from my grandfather. (vi) They had brought the boy to the city. (vii) Everyone tells you this. (viii) He looked upon them with respect. (ix) Who was that lady looking for? (x) Do not insult the poor. (xi)The court found him innocent.  (xii) What is butter made from? (xiii) He is making a new house. (xiv) Reba has lost her pen. (xv) Shakila will have undertaken the mission.

6. Turn the following sentences from Passive into Active:

(i) His pen has been stolen. (ii) He is known to us. (iii) The poor must not be looked down upon. (iv) Gandhiji is called the Father of Modern India. (v)  He is annoyed at your misbehaviour. (vi) A lot of tea is grown in Assam. (vi) A lot of cottons is grown in Egypt. (vii) ‘Abhijnan Sakuntalam’ was written by Kalidas. (viii) How will that be done? (ix) What will have been done by them? (x) What cannot be cured must be endured. (xi) Duty must be done. (xii) His leg was hurt in an accident. (xiii)  Indiscipline should not be tolerated. (xiv) He was voted to the chair. (xv) Rome was not built in a day. (xvi) You cannot undo what you do. (xvii) A promise should be kept. (xviii) Circumstances compelled me to go. (xix) He let himself be cheated. (xx) Let not the wall be broken.

7. Change the voice of the following:

(i) Who has not help you? (ii) Who will not trust an honest man? (iii) Is her homework done? (iv) Have you done the work? (v) Who built the Tajmahal? (vi) Can we do the work? (vii) Will the sum be done by you? (viii) Have you done the work? (ix) Is a letter being written by her? (x) Let me have a talk with you. (xi) He does the work.

(xii) Let the window be closed. (xiii) By whom was it done? (xiv) Give up bad habits. (xv) He gave me a book. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-23

NARRATION

 

In our everyday speech, we often speak to the other person of something that was said to us by somebody. In other words, to say, we often report a speech whether ours or someone else’s. We do this in two ways: we either report the speech exactly as we had heard without making any change or we may change the sentence that we had heard without changing its meaning and then report it. For Example:

The boy said to his friend, “My pen is red.”

The boy said to his friend that his pen was red.

In the first sentence, the exact words (i.e. ‘My pen is red’) said by the boy to his friend is reported exactly and in the second sentence the statements of the boy made to his friend is reported with some changes, though the meaning of both the sentences remains almost the same.

Thus when the words (statements) of a speaker are reproduced exactly as he says without initiating any change in language is called Direct Narration or Direct Speech. On the other hand, when the statement of a speaker is reported or reproduced to the other person with some slight changes of language and form though not in meaning is called  Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech.

A. Direct Narration has the following features:

1. The Direct speech is kept within inverted commas:

2. Direct speech begins with a capital letter.

3. The Clause which introduces the Direct Speech is called Reporting Clause. A comma is used after the Reporting Clause.

4. The Verb which introduces the Direct Speech is called  Reporting Verb.

5. The verb which expresses the statement of the Direct Narration is called Reported Verb.

Mind the following sentence:

Rani says, “I like sweetmeats.”

In the above example, ‘Rani says’ is Reporting Clause and ‘I like sweatmeats’ is Reported Clause. The verb ‘says’ in the Reporting clause is the Reporting Verb, and the verb ‘like’ in the Reported clause is the Reported Verb.

We know that English sentences are classified into five kinds according to their meaning or purpose as: Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Optative and Exclamatory. Let us discuss the change of narration of these kinds of sentences in detail as under:

1. CHANGE OF NARRATION OF ASSERTIVE SENTENCE

While transforming an Assertive sentence from Direct into Indirect, the following changes are made:

1. The comma (,) after the Reporting clause is removed and the connective word ‘that’ is used.

2. The inverted commas (“—–“) are removed.

3. The forms of Pronouns are changed

4. No capital letter is used after the connective word ‘that’.

Now, in order to bring about these changes while converting from Direct into Indirect or vice-versa, there are several important but simple rules that need to be observed. They are:

1. Changes in Tense and Verb: While changing from Direct to Indirect we have to make different changes regarding tenses, verbs or helping verb, as:

Direct —- Indirect 

Present Indefinite —- Past Indefinite

Present Continuous —- Past Continuous

Present Perfect —- Past Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous —- Past Perfect Continuous

Past Indefinite Past Perfect

Past Continuous —- Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect —- No change

Past Perfect Continuous —- No change

(a) If the Reporting Verb, i.e. the Main Verb in the first part of the sentence before the comma is in the Present or the Future tense then the tense of the verb in the reported speech will not change. Examples

Direct: Father says, “I shall write a letter.”

Indirect: Father says that he will write a letter.

(b) If the Reporting verb is in the Past tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech will be changed into

their corresponding Past tense. Examples:

Direct: The student said to his friend. “I write every day.” (Present Indefinite)

Indirect: The student said to his friend that he wrote every day. (Past Indefinite)

Direct: The student said to his mother, “I am going there.” (Present Continuous)

Indirect: The boy said to his mother that he was going there. (Past Continuous)

(c) If the Reporting Verb is in the past tense (the Simple Past) and the Reported clause is in the Past Indefinite tense then in the Indirect specch it changes into Past Perfect tense. Examples

Direct: He said, “The dog died.” (Simple Past)

Indirect: He said that the dog had died. (Past Perfect)

Direct: He said, “The boy came at seven.” (Simple Past)

Indirect: He said that the boy had come at seven. (Past Perfect)

(d) If the Reporting Verb is in the past tense and the Reported speech is in the Past  Continuous Tense then in the Indirect speech it changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense. Examples:

Direct: He said, “The beggar was coming.” (Past Continuous)

Indirect: He said that the beggar had been coming. (Past Perfect Continuous)

Direct: He said, “Rain was falling yesterday.” (Past Continuous)

Indirect: He said that rain had been falling the previous day. (Past Perfect Continuous)

2. Change of Person: The persons undergo the following changes while converting from Direct to Indirect:

(a) First person pronouns in the Direct speech change according to the subject of the reporting verb:

Direct —- Indirect

We —- They

My —- His, her

Direct: He says, “I am going to Delhi.

Indirect: He says that he is going to Delhi.

Direct: Mummy says, “I will have to go.”‘

Indirect: Mummy says that she will have to go.

(b) Second person pronouns change according to the noun or pronoun coming after the reporting verbs. Second person changes to third, if there is no mention of the second person in the Reporting verb:

Direct —- Indirect

You —- He

Your —- His/Her

Your (Plural) —- Their

You (Object) —- Him/Her

You (Object) —- Them

Yours (Object) —- Theirs

But if there is mention of ‘you’ (second person) in the Direct speech, then ‘you’ in the indirect speech remains unchanged.

Direct: Ram said to you, “You are a good boy.”

Indirect: Ram said to you that you were a good boy.

Direct: I said to Masrur, “You will have to read.”

Indirect: I said to Masrur that he would have to read.

Direct: Ram said to you, “You are wrong.”

Indirect: Ram said to you that you were wrong.

(c) Third person pronouns of the Direct speech remain unchanged when converted to indirect. Examples:

Direct: Sita said to me, “She will be rewarded.”

Indirect: Sita said to me that she would be rewarded.

Direct: She said, “He has come.”

Indirect: She said that he had come,

4. Said to: If the Reporting verb ‘said to’ is followed by an object, it is changed into ‘told’ while converting it into Indirect speech. Examples

Direct: She said to her mother, “I have done my work.”

Indirect: She told her mother that she had done her work.

Direct: He said to me, “There is no more water.”

Indirect: He told me that there was no more water.

Note: If there is mention of the first person in the reporting clause, then the second person in the Direct speech changes to the first person, as: 

Direct —- Indirect

You (Singular) —- I

You (Plural) —- We

Your (Singular) —- My

Your (Plural) —- Our

You (Object, Singular) Me

You (Object, Plural) Usk

Direct: Ram said to me, “You are a good boy.”

Indirect: Ram told me that I was a good boy.

5. If the Reported speech has two actions which are both in the past continuous tense, its tense will not change

while converting into Indirect speech. Example,

Direct: She said, “The cat was running and the dog was chasing it.”

Indirect: She said that the cat was running and the dog was chasing that.

Similarly, if the reported speech is in the past tense and indicates time or period, its tense will not change. Example

Direct: She said, “I worked in Delhi for two years.”

Indirect: She said that she worked in Delhi for two years.

6.  In case the sentence in the Direct Narration tells about some Universal Truth, habitual action or thing of wonder, the tense of the Reported Verb does not change in the Indirect Narration. It remains in the same tense as in Direct Narration. For example,

Direct: The teacher said, “The earth is round.”

Indirect: The teacher said that the earth is round.

Direct: Galileo said, “The moon is a satellite.”

Indirect: Galileo said that the moon is a satellite.

Direct: She said, “Honey tastes sweet.”

Indirect: She said that honey tastes sweet.

Direct: Charles said, “It is very cold in winter.”

Indirect: Charles said that it is very cold in winter.

Direct: The teacher said, ”The Red Fort is an achievement of wonder.”

Indirect: The teacher said that the Red Fort is an achievement of wonder.

7. In Indirect Narration the Past Tense of ‘shall’ is not generally used but ‘would’ is used as the past tense form of both ‘shall’ and ‘will’. Examples,

Direct: She said, ”I will do this.”

Indirect: She said that she would do that.

Direct: They said, “We will play badminton tomorrow.”

Indirect: They said that they would play badminton the following day.

8. Adjectives, Adverbs and Verbs of nearness in the Direct Narration should be changed into Adjectives, Adverbs and Verbs of distance in the Indirect Narration as shown below:

Direct —- Indirect

Here —- there

Now —- then

This —- that

These —- those

Today——– that day

Yesterday —- the day before/the following day

Tomorrow —- the day after/ the following day

To-night —- that night

Come —- go

Last night —- the previous night

Ago —- before

Examples:

Direct: Seema said, “I shall go to the library now.”

Indirect: Seema said that she would go to the library then.

Direct: Rina said, ”This is the village and my uncle lives here.”

Indirect: Rina said that that was the village and her uncle lived there.

Direct: Raja said, ‘These are the boys with whom I play.

Indirect: Raja said that those were the boys with whom he played.

Direct: The Postmaster General Said, “I signed the letter yesterday.

Indirect: The Postmaster General said that he had signed the letter the day before.

9. ‘Must’ and ‘need not’:

(a) In some cases, ‘must’ and ‘need not’ are used in place of ‘have to’. Examples

Direct: He said, “I must go now.”

Indirect: He said that he had to go then.

Direct: He said, “I need not go.”

Indirect: He said that he would not have to go.

(b) ‘Must’ is used in place of ‘shall have to’ when it expresses necessity or compulsion. Examples

Direct: He said, “I must finish this book on Monday.”

Indirect: He said that he would have to finish that book on Monday.

Direct: He said, “I need not write this essay.”

Indirect: He said that he would not have to write that essay.

(b) ‘Must’ sometimes indicates an order or a command. But in some sentences when ‘must’ indicates some kind of advice or suggestion and compulsion; in

such sentences ‘must’ remains ‘must’. Example

Direct: The policeman said to us, “You must not cross the road against the red light.”

Indirect: The policeman told us that we must not cross the road against the red light.

2. CHANGE OF NARRATION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

In case of changing Interrogative sentence from Direct to Indirect Narration most of the rules applicable to Assertive sentence as mentioned above apply with the following exceptions:

1. The Reporting verb ‘Said’ in Direct Narration is changed into asked, enquired of, wanted to know etc. in Indirect Narration. 

2. If the Question in the Reported speech begins with a helping verb, i.e. is, am, are, was, were, do, does, did, may, might, can, could, will, would, must, etc.  the inverted commas are replaced by ‘if’ or ‘whether’.

3. If the Question in Direct Narration starts with who, whose, when, where, what, which, why, how etc. no conjunction is used.

4. While changing the Direct Narration into Indirect Narration the Interrogative sentence becomes an Assertive sentence.

Now mind the following examples:

Direct: Nina said to the boy, “Where do you live?”

Indirect: Nina asked the boy where he lived.

or

Nina enquired of the boy where he lived.

Direct: She said to me, “How can you manage the shop?”

Indirect: She asked me how I could manage the shop.

Direct: Hira said to me, “Do you know my sister?”

Indirect: Hira wanted to know if I knew her sister.

Direct: He said to me, “Where are you going?”

Indirect: He asked me where I was going.

Direct: He said to me, “What are you doing?”

Indirect: He asked me what I was doing.

Direct: The poor man said, ”Will no one help me?”

Indirect: The poor man enquired whether no one would help him.

Direct: Ram said to Kamal, “Will you go to School?”

Indirect: Ram asked Kamal if (whether) he would go to School. 

Direct: I said to Ajmal, “Is your sister at school?” 

Indirect: I asked (enquired of) Ajmal if (whether) his sister was at school. 

Direct: Abraham said to me, “Are you doing work?” 

Indirect: Abraham enquired of me if  I was doing work. 

Direct: Radhika said to me, “Do you eat guava?” 

Indirect: Radhika asked me if I ate guava. 

Direct: They say, “Does Ram go to market?”

Indirect: They ask whether (if) Ram goes to market.

Direct: Ramcharan said, “Did you go to school?” 

Indirect: Ramcharan asked if  (whether) he had gone to school.

Direct: Manab said to Manik, “Do you smoke tobacco?”

Indirect: Manab asked Manik if (whether) he smoked tobacco.

Direct: He said to my brother, “What is your name?” 

Indirect: He asked my brother what his name was. 

Direct: I asked Raman, “What are you reading?” 

Indirect: I enquired of  Raman what he was reading. 

Direct: My father said to me, “Which is my book?” 

Indirect: My father asked me which my book was. 

Direct: Suman said, “How Ram does the work.

Indirect: Suman asked how Ram did the work.

Direct: I said to him, “When will Renuka return?”

Indirect: I enquired of him when Renuka would return. 

Direct: I said to him, “How long will you stay?” 

Indirect: I enquired of him how long he would stay. 

3.CHANGE OF NARRATION OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

The following rules are observed while changing Imperative sentences from Direct Narration to Indirect Narration:

1. In the Imperative sentence, the sense of order, command, advice, request, entreaty, warning, etc. are

conveyed. So, the Reporting verb ‘said’ is changed into ordered, requested, advised, commanded, warned, forbade etc. depending on the nature of the sentence.s/online-course/2.  Inverted commas (“ “) are replaced by ‘to’.

3. In the sentences of negative-imperative, ‘don’t’ or ‘do not’ is substituted by ‘not to’.

4. If the Imperative sentence starts with ‘let’ verb and expresses some proposal or suggestion, ‘said to’ should be changed into ‘proposed to’, or ‘suggested to’.

Now mind the following examples: 

Direct: The master said to the servant, “Post the letter at once.”

Indirect: The master ordered the servant to post the letter at once.

Direct: I said to my son, “Work hard for a better tomorrow.”

Indirect: I advised my son to work hard for a better tomorrow.

5. Some more rules:

(i) ‘Said to’ is changed into ‘wished’. (In the case of Good morning, Good noon, Good afternoon, Good evening, etc.)

(ii) ‘Said to’ is changed into ‘bade’. (In case of Good night, Goodbye, Farewell, etc.)

(iii) If the sentence expresses some desire (i.e. starts with would that, that if, etc.), ‘said to’ is changed into ‘wished’.

(iv) If the sentence expresses some wish or prayer (i.e. starts with ‘May – -! or May God —!), ‘said to’ is changed into ‘wished’ or ‘prayed’.

(v) If an exclamatory sentence expresses sorrow, grief or pain, ‘said to’ is changed to ‘exclaimed with sorrow that’ or ‘exclaimed with grief that’ etc.

(vi) ‘Said to’ is changed to ‘exclaimed with joy that’ or ‘exclaimed joyfully that’ etc., if an exclamatory sentence expresses joy.

(vii) ‘Said to’ is changed to ‘applauded saying/telling, calling out that’ etc. (In case of exclamatory sentences expressing approval.

Now mind the following examples:

Direct: He said to me, “Good morning.”

Indirect: He wished me a good morning.

Direct: The boy said, “If I could win this game.”

Indirect: The boy wished that he could win that game.

Direct: She said to him, “May God grant you success in the examination.”

Indirect: She prayed that God might grant him success in the examination.

Direct: I said to my mate, “Please give me your pen.”

Indirect: I requested my mate to give me his pen. 

Direct: Father said to his son, “Adopt morality.” 

Indirect: Father advised his son to adopt morality. 

Direct: The student said to the teacher, “Please excuse me, sir.

Indirect: The student prayed to the teacher to excuse him.

Direct: Rahim said, “Ramu, come here.” 

Indirect: Rahim told Ramu to go there. 

Direct: My mother said to me, “Don’t run in the sun.” 

Indirect: My mother forbade me to run in the sun. 

Direct: Sabina said to Masrur, “Please send a letter.” 

Indirect: Sabina requested Masrur to send a letter. 

Direct: He said, “Let us play”.

Indirect: He proposed that we should play.

Direct: She said, “Let me have a pen.” 

Indirect: She wished that she might be allowed to have a pen. 

Direct: He said, “Let me go there now.” 

Indirect: He wished that he might be allowed to go there then.

Direct: Mahim said, “Let me have a book.” 

Indirect: Mahim wished that he might be allowed to have a book. 

Direct: My father said, “Let them go.”

Indirect: My father wished that they might be allowed to go.

4. CHANGE OF NARRATION OF OPTATIVE SENTENCE

The following rules are observed while changing an Optative Sentence from Direct Narration to Indirect Narration:

1. The Reporting verb is changed into ‘wish’ or ‘pray’ according to the sense of the sentence.

2. The inverted comma is replaced by the conjunction ‘that’.

3. The Optative Sentence is changed into a Statement (Assertive sentence).

Now mind the following examples:

Direct: Father said, ”May you live long.”

Indirect: Father wished that I might live long.

Direct: The teacher said to the students, “May you prosper in life.”

Indirect: The teacher wished that the students might prosper in life.

Direct: He said, “If I were dead.”

Indirect: He wished if he had been dead.

Direct: Mother said to me, “May God bless you.”

Indirect: Mother prayed that God might bless me.

Direct: The old lady said to me, ” May you live long.”

Indirect: The old lady wished that I might live long.

Direct: Reba said, “May David be happy.” 

Indirect: Reba wished that David might be happy. 

Direct: Anjali said, “May God bless Sukanta.”

Indirect: Anjali prayed that God might bless Sukanta.

Direct: The Ministers said, “Long live our Prime Minister.”

Indirect: The ministers wished that their Prime Minister might long live.

Direct: Ramu says to me, “May you be prosperous”. 

Indirect: Ramu wishes me that I may be prosperous. 

5. CHANGE OF NARRATION OF EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

The following rules are observed while changing an Exclamatory Sentence from Direct Narration to Indirect Narration:

1. The Reporting verb is changed into ‘cry out’, ‘exclaim’ etc. according to sense.

2. The inverted comma is replaced by ‘that’

3. The exclamatory sentence is turned into an Assertive sentence or Statement. The Interjection or Interjectional phrase, if any, is omitted.

Now mind the following examples:

Direct: She said, “Alas! I am undone.”

Indirect: She cried out in sorrow that he was undone.

Direct: The players shouted, “Hurrah! we have won the match.”

Indirect: The players shouted with joy that they had won the match.

Direct: The old man said, “Ah! I am done for.”

Indirect: The old man exclaimed with sorrow that he was done for.

Direct: The captain said to the natives, “What a lonely island this is.”

Indirect: The captain exclaimed to the natives that that was a lonely island.

Direct: Tapan said, What a fool I am.”

Indirect: He cried out in sorrow that he was a great fool.

Direct: The warrior said, ”Adieu, my countrymen.”

Indirect: The warrior bade adieu to his countrymen.

Direct: He said, “Good morning, Mr Sen.”

Indirect: He wished Mr Sen good morning.

Direct: He said, “By God, what a piece of good news!”

Indirect: He swore by God that it was a piece of very good news.

Direct: Ram said, “Bravo, well done.”

Indirect: Ram applauded saying that that was well done.

Direct: She said, What a lovely flower!”

Indirect: She cried out in joy that it was a very lovely flower.

Direct: Ramu said, “How cruel I had been to Shila!”

Indirect: Ramu confessed with regret that he had been very cruel to Shila.

EXERCISE

1. Change the form of narration of the following :

(i) John said, “My brother is a good student.”

(ii) Rewa said to me, “I was writing a letter to my mother.”

(iii)The boy said, ”  I slept well last night.”

(iv) Tapan said, “I was here.”

(v) Ramu said, “I must go.”

(vi)They said, “We are discussing an important matter.”

(vii) Nabin said, “I attended the Farewell meeting.”

(viii) Rina said, ” I was singing yesterday.”

(ix) Ratan says, “I am glad.”

(x) The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

2. Change the form of narration of the following:

(i) Socrates said, “What is this strange outcry?”

(ii) He said to me,  ”What are you doing here?”

(iii) My friend said, “Did you see the Tajmahal?”

(iv) Raju said to me, “Are you hungry?”

(v) Rekha said to me, “Will you lend me your book?”

(vi) Junu said, “I am guilty.”

(vii) He said to me, “Who are you?”

(viii) He said to Reba, “How are you?”

(ix) She said, “Who taught you English grammar?”

(x) He said to me, “Where did you go yesterday?”

3. Change the form narration of the following sentences:

(i) The old man said to me, “Sit down.”

(ii)The master said to the servant, ” “Get out from here.”

(iii) The General said to the soldiers, ” March forward.”

(iv) Mother said, “Don’t shout.”

(v) The boy said to me, “Please sit down.”

(vi) The boy said to the teacher, “Pardon me, sir.”

(vii) The old man said to us, “Don’t tell a lie.”

(viii) He said, “Let me do this.”

(ix) The teacher said to us, “Go as you like.”

(x) The boy said, ”Let me go home.”

4. Turn the following sentences into Indirect form:

(i) Grandfather said to me, “May God bless you.”

(ii)The old lady said to me, “May you live long.”

(iii) I said to him, “May God grant you a long life.”

(iii) They said, ”Long live Mahatmaji.”

(iv) He said to me, “May you prosper in life.”

(v) He said to me, “May you recover from illness.”

(vi) The boy said, “May your team win the match.”

(vii) She said, “Alas! I am undone.”

(viii) He said, “What a lovely flower!”

(ix) Shakespeare said, “What a piece of work man is!”

(x) Alaka said, “Good morning Rekha.”

5. Change the narration of the following:

(a) I said to him, “You are wrong.”

(b) He said to Hari, “ Can you cook?”

(c) She said, “Let us go for a walk.”

(d) Nina said to me. “ I like to read story books.”

(e) Mamon said to Tapan, “Where did you go yesterday?”

(f) He said, “By God! what a capital punishment!”

(g) The saint said that God governs everything.

(h) I requested him to pardon me.

(i) The girl said, “ Two and Three make five.”

(j) I said, “What is your profession?”

(k) Rahim said to me, “I shall buy a new car.”

(l) John said to me, “Is your mother  still in service?”

(m) The Prime Minister told the people that he would do everything for the welfare of his countrymen.

(n)The President told the people to work for the progress of the nation.

(o) The old lady said to the baby, “May there be peace with you.”

(p)Joseph said to Mary, “Where can we stay for the night?”

(q) Macbeth asked the guests, “Which of you have done this?”

(r) Mother said to me, “Honesty is the best policy.”

(s) The boys shout, “Hurrah we have won the match.” 0 0 0

 

Chapter-24

PREPOSITION

 

Mind the italicised words in the following sentences:

The book is on the table.

God is in heaven.

We work with our hands.

Mind that each of the italicised words in the above sentences is placed before a noun and shows its relationship with other nouns within the sentence. These words are called Preposition. (‘Preposition’ means ‘that which is placed before.)

A preposition is a word which is placed before a noun or Pronoun and shows its relation with some other Noun or Pronoun within the sentence.

There are a number of Prepositions in English, such as: in, on, into, by, with, at, below, to, for, after, before, till, until, off,  beyond, above, about, against, from etc.

A. KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS

The Prepositions may be classified, as:

1. Prepositions of Place: The Prepositions which express the relationship in place or space are called Preposition of Place. Some Prepositions of Place are: in, on, over, up, into, upon, across etc.

2. Prepositions of Time: The Prepositions of Time express the relations in time. Some Prepositions of Time are: at, on, before, after, till, until etc.

3. Simple Prepositions: in, on, by, for, to, from etc.

4. Compound Prepositions: inside (in+side), outside (out+side), within (with+in),  upto (up+to) etc.

5. Prepositional Phrase: in front of, on account of, in spite of, on behalf of,  by virtue of, with a view to,  in the face of, by means of etc.

6. Participle Prepositions: The Participle Prepositions are made up of present or past participle form of verbs to be used as Preposition, as: considering, regarding, respecting, touching etc. 

B. PLACE  OF PREPOSITIONS

As a general rule, a Preposition is placed  before a Noun or a Pronoun, but in the following cases it is placed at the end of a sentence:

(a) The Preposition is always placed at the end of a sentence if the Object is the Relative Pronoun ‘that’:

Here is the pen that you asked for.

This is the house that Mathew often talked of.

(b) The Preposition is placed at the end, if its Object is an Interrogative Pronoun, as:

Which of these benches did you sit on? 

What are you laughing at?

(c)The Preposition is placed at the end, if its object is an Interrogative Pronoun understood, as:

That is the boy (whom) we were speaking of.

(d) Sometimes the Preposition is placed at the end for the sake of emphasis, as:

He is known all the world over.

This he insists on.

(e) The Preposition is placed at the end of a sentence with an Infinitive of Purpose, as:

This is the pen to write with.

This is the chair to sit on.

Here is the cup to drink with.

C. USES OF SOME PREPOSITIONS

The uses of some important Prepositions are illustrated below:

1. At, in, on:

‘At’ is used to denote a small place or a point of time. ‘In’ denotes a large place or a period of time. ‘On’ is used to denote day or date.

Mr Kakati lives at Barpeta.

Dr Saxena lives in Delhi.

He was born in June.

Harsha will return on Sunday.

He went there at 8 o’clock.

2. By, with:

‘By’ is used with the agent and ‘with’ is used with an instrument:

The tiger was killed by Jim Corbett with a gun.

We work with our hands.

The sum was solved by Rana.

3. Between, Among:

‘Between’ refers to only two persons or things while ‘Among’ refers to more than two:

Divide the mangoes between Ram and Radha.

Distribute the marbles among the boys.

4. In, into:

‘In’ denotes position inside while ‘into’ denotes motion from outside to a place inside:

Dr Lalita is in her office.

We saw a rabbit running into the forest.

They had had their supper and went into the Theatre Hall.

5. Of, from:

‘Of’ or ‘from’ is used before the name of a substance from which a thing is made. ‘Of’ is used if the substance remains unchanged and if the substance is changed then ‘from’ is used.

Butter is made from milk.

The table is made of wood.

Wine is made from grapes.

Flour is made from wheat.

6. In, On, To:

‘In’ denotes within the boundary,  ‘On’ on the boundary and ‘To’ beyond or outside the boundary.

The Arabali is in the South of India.

The Himalayas are on the north of India.

Srilanka is to the south of India.

7. Beside, Besides:

‘Beside’ means by the side of. ‘Besides’ denotes in addition to.

The girl sat beside me.

Besides shelter, they provided me with a job.

Besides being a good singer, Tapash is a story-teller.

8. For, Since, From:

‘For’ refers to a period of time. Both ‘Since’ and ‘For’ refer to a point of time. ‘Since’ is used in Present Perfect and  Present Perfect Continuous tense and in reference to past time only. But ‘From’ is used in any form of tense and in reference to Present., Past or Future time. ‘For’ is used in any form of tenses.

It rained for three hours.

The work begins from Friday.

My brother will stay here for a week.

Sabina has been ill since Monday last.

Hiren was ill for a fortnight.

9. After, In, Within:

‘After’ is used to denote a period of past time. ‘In’ refers to a period of Future time and ‘Within’ denotes before the end of a period of Future time.

My cousin returned home after three months.

He went there after Ram had left the place.

He will come back in an hour.

I shall return the book within a week.

The boys will come here within three days.

10. On, Over:

‘On’ denotes physical contact while ‘Over’ does not indicate physical contact:

The box is on the table.

The birds are flying over our head.

11. ‘Across’ is used to mean ‘from one side to the opposite:

The bridge is across the river Yamuna.

The temple is across the field.

12. ‘After’ is used to mean sequence in time, place, effect:

I shall do the sum after you teach me.

The bus arrived afternoon.

I am pleased with you only after you have done this.

13. ‘Against’ is used to mean opposition of some kind or provision for comparison:

The leaders stood against the decision of the members.

We must stand against the injustice done to the minorities.

14. ‘Along’ is used to mean lengthwise. It is contrary to ‘across’:

We roamed about along the riverside.

The forest lies along the National High Road.

15. ‘Around’ or ‘Round’ is used to mean something circling round or nearness.

The students stood around the Principal.

They may come around midnight.

16. ‘Behind’ is used to indicate at the back of, lateness. It is contrary to ‘before’:

The soldiers are marching behind the Captain.

The bus will arrive behind the scheduled time.

17. ‘Below’ is used to mean at a lower point or less than.

The members of the party will be below fifteen.

18. ‘Beneath’ is used to mean lower position or under:

The box was kept below the heaps of sands.

The purse was found beneath the pile of books.

19. ‘But’ is used to mean except.

He was all but dead.

None but Rajen was present.

20. ‘By’ means nearness of some kind:

Please stand by me.

She sat by me.

21. ‘Down’ means lower or descent of some kind: