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School Essays for school students written by Menonim Menonimus, Published by Growhills Publishing, Internet Edition by menonimus.com
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D.T.P. by Adid Shahriar
Essay Writing: An Introduction
My Native Village
The Bihu or National Festival of Assam
Sri Sankardeva or Life of a Great Man
Mahatma Gandhi or Life of a Great Man
Mother Teresa or Life of a Great Woman
Dr. Bhupen Hazarika
My School Library
Science in Everyday Life
Science and Mankind
Science and War or Science and Its Bad Effects
My Daily Life
Holidays and How I spend them
Cottage Industries of Assam
Fifty Years (Golden Jubilee) of Indian Independence
Prize Distribution Day at My School or My Memorable Day
If I were a Lakpati
Responsibilities of Students or Duties of Students
My Last Day at School
The Busiest Day I Experienced
Flood in Assam
My Aim in Life
The Value of Time or Punctuality
A Picnic Party Shared by Me
Journey by Train
Village Life in Assam
The Durga Puja or National Festival of India
Travelling to a Historical Place
Government Steps for Sustainable Development of Environment
The Role of Mobile Phone
Conventional Resources of Energy
Kaziranga National Park
How I Spent My Last Summer Vacation
Rainy Season or Rainy Day
The National Festivals of India
Honesty is the Best Policy
Knowledge is Power
My Summer Vacation
The Domestic Pets
The Honey Bee
Transportation: Old and Modern
The Post Office
The Public Library
The Printing Press
A Village Market
A Cricket Match
Town Life and Village Life
If I Were a King
Health is Wealth
Obedience to Parents
The Value of Labour (Industry)
Kindness to Animals
The Study of Science
The Study of Biography
Military Training for Students
Use of Books
Importance of Sports
Utility of Leisure
The Value of Experience in Life
Life is Work
A Village Fair
The Importance of English in Modern India
National Integration of India
The Role of Students in Nation Building
Outlines for Some Essays
ESSAY WRITING: AN INTRODUCTION
The word ‘Essay’ is derived from the French word assay which means ‘trial of a subject or attempt towards it.’ Montaigne, a sixteenth-century French writer, was the first to write essays. He called his writings ‘Essays’ because Montaigne thought that he was trying or attempting a new genre of literature. Being inspired by him an English diplomat and scholar of the sixteenth century named Francis Bacon wrote essays first in English. Hench this new branch of literature has been being attempting by writers throughout the world in almost every written language. To speak in brief, an Essay is a prose composition wherein the writer expresses his point of view on a topic. Thus an Essay expresses the mind and ideas of the writer. Nowadays Essay is the most widely written and read branch of literature.
English Essays may broadly be divided into two classes as Expository Essays and Personal Essays.
The Expository Essays are those essays which are written from the historical, biographical, philosophical, scientific or critical point of view. The objective of such essays is to give information or instruction. The essays of Mathew Arnold, Spencer, Macaulay, Carlyle belong to this type.
Personal Essays are those essays which are written on any subject from the personal point of view and exhibit the personality of the writer. Whatever may be the topic, Personal Essays always reflect the opinions, whims and fancies of the essayist. The objective of such essays is not to instruct but to please. These essays are coloured by the writer’s imagination. This type of essays is described often as Lyric in Prose. The essays of Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, De Quincy belong to this category.
On the basis of the treatment of the subject matter, essays again may be classified into three classes, as- Descriptive Essays, Narrative Essays and Reflective Essays.
Generally, the essays are written on known things, animals, natural phenomena as- flood, cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes etc. are Descriptive Essays.
Narrative Essays are those essays which are written on some events- historical, accidental or imaginary such as-Sepoy Mutiny, Railway collision, a kind of journey etc.
Reflective Essays are the essays which reflect the writer’s reflections or thoughts on any subject which are generally of an abstract nature. Punctuality, perseverance, discipline etc. fall under this class of essays.
Nowadays essay is the most popular form of literature. In school and college, this genre of literature is prescribed in the curriculum. The main Objectives of the Students’ Essays are as follows:
The practice of writing essays increases the curiosity of learning more information.
It enhances the linguistic power of the students.
It develops the reflective as well as the reasoning power of the students.
There are Three Steps of Writing an Essay, such as-
Reading for Data Collection: In this step, the students should read journals, magazines and related books for collecting data of his topic. They should not read mechanically rather they should try to enter into the main spirit of the contents of the book they read. This would increase their vocabulary and power of understanding. While reading the book they should mark the passage which strikes them and go through them a second time.
Thinking: In this step, the students must learn to think for themselves. Everything which is read should not be granted. Therefore the students should think and judge for them and accept only which are considered to be correct and logical to their topics.
Writing: After reading and thinking, the students should step ahead for the third and final step. But before going to write they should make an outline of the essays they want to attempt. It would help the students to arrange their thoughts and give clarity to what they say.
An essay may usually be divided into three parts as- Introduction, Body (Description) and Conclusion.
Introduction to an essay should be brief and attractive. In Introduction the writer should give a brief allusion of what he is going to describe below. Every word written in the Introduction must have a bearing upon the main theme. Introduction to an essay should be written in one brief passage.
The Body is the main part of an essay. In this part, the writer should give a detailed description or elaboration of what he has hinted or written in the introduction. The Body of an essay may be divided into three or more points according to need. The points should be dealt with in a separate paragraph. In this part, the main theme of the essay must be developed and elaborated logically.
The conclusion is the third and final part of an essay. In this part, the essay writer should draw an effective ending from the main body of the essay. It bears the thoughts and opinion of the writer on the subject. The Conclusion should be as effective as an effective beginning. But the Conclusion should never be impertinent to the topic; rather it should be as natural as possible. However, nothing else is possible a brief summary of the previous statements may be given.
There are some Qualities of Good Essays, as-
(i) The simplicity of Language: The language of an essay should be simple and comprehensive; because the essays are generally informative. The use of the bombastic word, long sentence and much use of figures of speech may cause difficulty in understanding the main spirit.
(ii) Unity of Thought: A good essay must have Unity of Thought and matter. It means that an essay must deal with only one subject (one topic). Everything which is not connected with it must be left out.
(iii) Logicality: In an essay, the idea should develop logically and naturally. The important points should be given more space than the less important one.
After writing an essay the writer should revise the essay bearing the following points in mind-
He should be sure that there is no grammatical mistake in the essay. If there is he should correct them.
Except for autobiographical essays, the writer should avoid the use of such personal pronouns like- ‘I’, ‘We’ etc.
If any quotation is used in the essay he should ensure that the quotation is an exact word by word. If not so he should avoid such quotation. 0 0 0
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Introduction: The cow is a four-footed useful animal. In almost every peasant family there is a cow.
Description: The cow has two eyes, two ears and a long tail. She has two horns on her head. Her body is covered with smooth fur. Her hoofs are cloven. There are cows in many colours like white, red, black, brown etc. She has a set of teeth in the lower jaw.
Food: The cow lives chiefly on the grass. She eats wheat, paddy rice, vegetables and a few other things.
Usefulness: The cow is very useful to us. It gives us milk. The farmers plough their lands with her. Cow dung is used as good manure. Some people take the flesh of cow as meat. Its bones are used to make fertilizing chemicals. Its skin is used to make shoes, bags, belts, jackets etc. Oxen and bullocks are used to draw carts. The farmers cannot live without a cow. The cow gives us a calf once a year. Its milk is very nutritious food for us. We should take care of its calf.
Conclusion: In our real-life, the cow is so useful to us that we should take good care for such a useful animal. 0 0 0
Introduction: The dog is an easily domesticated four-footed animal.
Description: The dog has two eyes, two ears and a curved tail. It has sharp teeth and nail. It fights its enemies with them. The young ones of a dog is called a puppy. It gives birth to a number of puppies at a time.
Dogs are of many sizes and colours. The dog eats the flesh of other animals. It also eats rice and other food taken by a man.
The dog is said to be the most faithful servant to man as it guards the house of its master. It does not allow a stranger to enter the house of its master.
Dogs are used in circus also. It can be trained well and can show and performs various tricks.
Conclusion: The dog is most faithful of all animals. We should take care of our pet dogs. 0 0 0
Introduction: The cat is a four-footed animal. It looks like a small tiger as it belongs to the tiger family. In most countries, the cat is kept as a domestic animal. There are wild cats also. The wild cats are very ferocious.
Description: The cat has two eyes and two ears on its round head. It has sharp teeth. It has a coat of soft fur. There are sharp nails in her feet. Its eyes are very bright. The cats are of a different colour as– white, black, brown etc.
Food: The cat is fond of milk and flesh. It takes other foods like rice, bread and almost all the foods that humans take.
Nature: The cat is very mild. Children like to play with it. It loves warm places. In the winter season, it often likes to sleep near the fireplace. Some cats like to sleep in the bed of its master. It sleeps by day and hunts at night. It kills rat, mouse, cockroach, spider and even sometimes it seem to kill snake also. It gives birth to four to five youngs at a time.
Conclusion: The cat is a very gentle and faithful servant to its master. A well-nursed cat is a proud possession of a family. We should take care of it. 0 0 0
Introduction: The elephant is a four-footed giant animal. Though the elephant is a wild animal, yet it can be tamed and domesticated.
Description: An elephant has two eyes, two fan-like ears and a long trunk. Its trunk is its nose. It has two teeth which are very precious. It has a tail but it is short. An elephant helps a man in many ways. It can carry a burden from one place to another. It is a faithful friend to the hunters. They go for hunting riding on its back. The wild elephants are hunted with the domesticated elephant. Asia and Africa are rich in elephant population. But the elephant of Assam is world-famous. Among the Indian states, Assam is rich in elephant population. The colour of the elephant is generally black. Some white elephant is found in Myanmar.
Food: An elephant eats leaves of trees, grass, paddy etc. The banana tree is its favourite food. An elephant takes about three hundred kilograms of food every day.
Usefulness: An elephant gives birth to a young once a year. In addition to its use in carrying a burden, it is also used in the circus. An elephant can be trained well. It can show tricks to give entertainment to the spectators in a circus.
Its teeth are used to make ornaments. Its bones are used in making various things. Its bones are used in preparing some medicines also.
Menace it faces: Forest is the natural habitat of the elephants. But with the increase of population the space for forest has been coming down and as a result, these valuable animals have been facing a deadly menace.
Conclusion: To protect this species of animal Government must take some decisive steps like increasing forest area, guarding it against smugglers and planting more of its food trees. 0 0 0
Introduction: I am a student of Kayakuchi H. S. School. I read in class VIII. There are five buildings in our school. One building is used as a library and Teachers’ Common room. Our classroom belongs to the new building.
Description: Our classroom is a very spacious nice room. There are about twenty-five desks and benches. They are made of fine wood. There is a platform in the front middle side of the classroom in which there is a chair and a table. There is a big blackboard hung in the wall beside the platform.
There are eight windows and two doors in our classroom. There is a ceiling made of bamboo but well painted. There are four fans to cool us in summer. We all take care of our classroom and try to keep it neat and clean every day. We all maintain discipline and sweep our classroom ourselves by turns. The class representative is very sincere to keep us under discipline. We never write on the desks and benches. To scribe on the walls and doors is strictly prohibited.
Conclusion: We are proud of belonging to such a neat and clean classroom. 0 0 0
Introduction: The name of our school is Barbala H. S. School. It is situated about six kilometres northward from Barpeta town. In the north of it, there is a Masjid, in the east, there is a public road which runs from Kaljhar to Barpeta town. Towards the west, the river Palla is flowing down gently. In the south, there is a public health centre.
Description: Our school has four buildings each containing three rooms. Two rooms are used as Teachers’ Common room. One is used as a library. Our classroom is very neat and clean. Every room contains six windows and two doors. In addition to those rooms, there is a big hall which is used for seminars and meetings. All the rooms contain good ceilings made of bamboo. They are well painted.
There are about four hundred students in our school. There are thirty teachers including the principal. Our teachers are good, ideal and amicable to us. They teach us very attentively. Our Principal is a strict disciplinarian. He often punishes the students who break discipline.
We have a well stock library. We have got a spacious playground in front of our school. The school has been producing many highly educated citizens.
Conclusion: I love my school very much. I am proud of being a student of this esteemed school. 0 0 0
MY NATIVE VILLAGE
Introduction: The name of my native village is Kamalpur. It is situated about seven kilometres northwards from Barpeta town. It is a small village.
Description: There are about three hundred families and about three thousand inhabitants in our village. They belong to different castes but they have been living peacefully and happily.
Most of the villagers are cultivators. Their economic condition is very bad. There are some businessmen and servicemen also. But their number is very few.
The transport means are very woeful. The government has taken no step to construct our roads. We are also deprived of the advantage of electricity. The climate of our village is usual- very cool in winter and very hot in summer.
There are two Primary Schools, one M. E. School and one High school in our village. There is a post office also. Most of the population belongs to the religion of Islam. We have three small Masjids in the village. We pray to God five times a day.
Conclusion: Though our village is poor, we love it very much. We have been trying hard for the development of our village. 0 0 0
Introduction: The name of my town is Howly. It is a small town but very neat and clean. It is situated about ten kilometres northwards from Barpeta town.
Population: The town is thickly populated. There are about ten thousand people of different castes living in the town. We live in perfect peace and harmony.
Public Institutions: There are five Primary Schools and three High Schools- one for the girls only. There are two Junior Colleges. There are seven Masjids and five temples to worship God. There is a Town Library. It is full of books on various subjects. There are two hospitals, two post offices and two veterinary dispensaries. The Police Station is on the west side of the town. It is one of the most important business places in the district of Barpeta.
The Bazaar is the nucleus of business of the town. The market is famous for the business of tamul-pan. Large numbers of people come from the nook and corner of Assam for purchasing tamul and pan. Wednesday and Saturday are the market days. On the market days, the town becomes over and overcrowded.
The main attractive and praiseworthy thing of the town is the Rash Mandir. It is famous all over Assam. During the observation of the Rash Festival, people from distant places come to sanctify their heart and soul.
Conclusion: Our town is a grand one. I love it the most. I shall try my best to lead this town to the path of more glory and development. 0 0 0
THE NATIONAL FESTIVAL OF ASSAM
MY FAVOURITE FESTIVAL
Introduction: The Bihu is the national festival of Assam. There are three Bihus in a year as-Rangali Bihu, Kati Bihu and Bhogali Bihu.
Rangali Bihu: The Rangali Bihu starts from the last day of the month of Chot and it continues for seven days to the sixth day of the month of Bahag. The young boys and girls dance in the open fields in a festive mood. It is also called the Spring Festival. It symbolizes the youth of life. Some customs are observed. People take new clothes. Gamoshas are presented to the kith and kins. Cows are worshipped. In the Rangali Bihu people enjoy much and it lasts for a week for which it is called the Great Bihu.
Kati Bihu: The Kati Bihu begins on the last day of the month of Ashwin. In this Bihu, the fields remain bare. Foods and grains found scanty. So it is called Kangali Bihu (Bihu of Scarcity). Only the lamps are lit in the paddy fields as a mark of worshipping Laxmi Devi.
Bhogali Bihu: The Bhogali Bihu starts on the last day of the month of Puha. It continues for seven days. In this month the granary of the peasants is full of harvested crops. So many sorts of delicious dishes of foods as- pithas, cakes, sweets, laddus are prepared. People eat them up to their greed. Kith and kins are invited and offered delicious items of foods. In this Bihu, people eat plenty of food. So this Bihu is called Bhogali Bihu (Bihu of Food). Mezis made of straw and bamboo is burnt for amusement.
Conclusion: The Bihus are the part and parcels of Assamese culture. It is the symbol of peace, love, harmony and life. The Assamese are very proud of the Bihus. 0 0
Newspaper is a set of paper giving the latest information on various fields of knowledge and data. It is the easiest means of communication.
There are different types of newspapers such as- daily, weekly, bi-weekly, fortnightly and monthly. Fortnightly and monthly papers are called Magazines.
The modern newspaper was originated in 1536 in Venice of Europe. At first, it was a periodical publication called Gazzetta. In Germany, by the end of the 17th century, there were published three daily newspapers. Hence the newspaper spread in different countries of the world. In India newspaper came into being in 1780 published by James Augustus Hiki.
There is immense usefulness of newspapers. A newspaper publishes varied information that includes politics, economics, literature, sports, scientific etc. The reading of newspaper increases our store of knowledge. It develops a human relationship. It evolves our linguistic ability. Some people read the newspaper for recreation. In building public opinion newspaper has no alternatives.
The newspaper industry is now very developed. It gives us news in an artistic getup. It also publishes photographs and cartoons. Almost every newspaper publishes an editorial on important news.
But unfortunately, every good thing has also a bad effect. Most papers are seldom impartial. Sometimes some baseless and false news are published which bewilder the reader community. So some amount of carefulness should be maintained while reading news in a newspaper.
Considering the overall significance of the newspaper, its bad effects are comparatively less.
LIFE OF A GREAT MAN
THE MAN I ADMIRE MOST
Introduction: The man I admire most is Sri Sankardeva. He was the founder of Vaishnavism, a prolific writer and a social reformer.
Birth and Parentage: Sri Sankardeva was born in 1449 in the village called Alipukhuri in the district of Nagaon, Assam. Kushumber Bhuyan was his father and Satya Shandhya was his mother. He lost his parents in his childhood. Then he was brought up by his grand-mother, Khershuti.
Education: At the age of twelve he was taken to the tool of Pandit Mahendra Kandali. There, under Kandali, he learned Sanskrit and Sanskrit scriptures, Byakaran and some other Sastras within a very short period.
Pilgrimage: He was a descendant of the noble Bara Bhuyan dynasty of Assam. After the death of his father, he inherited his father’s property. But he was indifferent to worldly matters and soon he handed over his property to his uncle and set out for pilgrimage.
For twelve years he travelled throughout North -East India and visited many sacred places like Dharaka, Mathura, Brindaban etc. Returning from his pilgrimage, he began to preach Vaishnavism in Assam.
Why I Admire Him: He is my ideal great man and I admire him most for the following reasons.
First, he was a prophet as he introduced a new sect of religion and through it he gave a spiritual unity to a disorderly nation.
Secondly, he was a prolific writer. He composed songs, hymns, dramas and some other valuable books. Kirtan Ghosha is his masterpiece. It is considered to be the text Book of Vaishnavism. His religion is based on Sri Bhagbat Gita. ‘Ek Deva Ek Seva Ek Bine Nai Keo’ (There is none but only one God whom all should worship) is the creed of his religion.
Thirdly, he was a social reformer also. He gave the Assamese nation an ordered life. His religion teaches that all the beings and things are the creations of only one God and we should look on all being with equal eyes. There is no high and low in the eyes of God. His teachings teach us the lessons of love, brotherhood and unity among the human race. He set up many namghars (prayer Houses) in many places of Assam which brought unity among the people of Assam.
Conclusion: Sankardeva is now regarded as the real founder of modern Assamese culture. His contribution to the Assamese nation and culture is unique. he died in 1568 at the age of 119 in Koch Bihar. 0 0 0
LIFE OF A GREAT MAN
A man is called great when he contributes something to the cause of human peace, unity, happiness, brotherhood or fellow-feeling. There is no dearth of great men who have contributed to the growth and prosperity of human civilization. But among them, I have chosen Mahatma Gandhi as my ideal great man.
Mahatma Gandhi’s original name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was born in Rajkot in Gujarat on the 2nd October 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Prime Minister of Rajkot. His mother Putlibhai was a saintly lady.
He took his early education in Rajkot and after passing the Entrance Examination; he went to England and became a lawyer. Gandhi practised law in the Bombay High Court. Then he went to South Africa and joined the bar.
In 1915 he returned to India and took the leadership of Indian National Congress and started several movements against the British. At last under his leadership, India got independence from the British on 15th August 1947.
I admire him the most. It is because he sacrificed his life for the cause of our nation. Besides this, he tried his best to unite Hindu and Muslims.
He was a great social worker also. He tried to banish untouchability and communalism from India. He gave much importance to the development of cottage industry in India. He introduced Basic Education in India. He was a writer also. His autobiography My Experience with Truth is praised by millions of readers. He was assassinated by a fanatic Hindu named Nathuram Godse on 30th January 1948.
We should follow the great ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. 0 0 0
LIFE OF A GREAT WOMAN
On 27Th August 1910 in Yugoslavia, there was born a she-child with a heart full of love, affection and charity whose whole life was dedicated to the welfare services to mankind and became the mother of the poor, sick and afflicted persons irrespective of caste and creed and unanimously was recognized as one of the greatest women of the twentieth century world- the name of that great woman was Mother Teresa.
Mother Teresa came off a poor Albanian family. Her father’s name was Mr Nichola and mother’s name was Mrs Drana. Teresa was the third but the youngest child of her parents. Her childhood name was Agnes.
About the age of five, like other children of her age, she went to a nearby village school where she learnt the A. B. C. of formal education. At the age of seven, she lost her father and then the family fell into extreme poverty. Consequently, she put an end to her formal education at the age of sixteen.
As she grew older, she became more and more reflective, indifferent and restless. She could not make out what to do. At last, to have peace of mind, she decided to serve the poor and the sick. Then she took up the name of Teresa after a French nun Teresa Martin and joined a Christian Missionary of Yugoslavia. With the Missionaries, she came to India in 1929 and settled down in Calcutta. At first, she devoted herself to educating the poor illiterate children.
One morning, during her earlier life in Calcutta, she happened to come by a poor sick old person lying helpless in the footpath of Calcutta and noticing his helpless condition, her heart began to burn within her. Thence she decided to devote herself to the service of the poor, sick and forlorn. This was the turning point of her life that led her to greatness. Then with anxiety, but with much hope and eagerness, she founded the Missionary of Charity in 1949 and began to serve the poor, sick and the forlorn whole-heartedly. Basing upon her Missionary of Charity she founded sixty schools and more than 200 dispensaries in different countries of the world. And through them, she rendered her motherly services to mankind till her death on 5th September 1997.
Teresa was not only the universal mother of the poor, sick and the forlorn but was an ideal symbol of a simple life-style. She was an exemplary disciplinarian also. Besides this, she was a great patriot and an ideal patron of international peace and mutual understanding among the nations.
The world was so much affected and influenced by her services that after the recognition of her incessant services to mankind, the world bestowed many degrees, honour and awards on her. In 1962, the Indian Government bestowed the Padma-Shree title on her. In 1972 she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for international understanding. In 1978 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for world peace. In 1980, the Indian Government offered her the Bharat Ratna honour. In 1993, she was awarded the Rajib Gandhi Probability Award. Moreover, she was shown much honour by many countries of the world wherever she went. All the money she received along with those honour and awards was spent for the cause of the poor and the afflicted.
There were some other women like Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant, Indira Gandhi, Aruna Asaf Ali and some others who were also recognized as the great women of the twentieth century; but Mother Teresa was the greatest of all the greats because her services were much more extensive and universal.
Mother Teresa was so much busy with the welfare services to mankind that she got no opportunity to enter into a marriage bond and remained virgin for all her days in the world. That is why she may be called the Virgin Mother of the world.
We should be inspired by her great ideals. 0 0 0
Introduction: Hazarat Muhammad was a social reformer, law maker, administrator, paragon of ideal personality and above all the founder of Islam, a monotheist religion. He was born about 570 A. D. in Makka, Saudi Arabia. His father’s name was Abdullah and mother’s name was Amina.
Early Days: He lost his father six months before his birth. His mother, Amina, died when he was six years old. Then his grandfather, Abdul-Muttalib, took care of him but unfortunately, he too died two years later when Muhammad was only eight years old. After his grandfather’s death, his uncle Abu Talib took care of him and was a support to him for many years of his adult life. Muhammad did not have any formal education. He travelled neighbouring countries with his uncle in business purpose and learnt some knowledge about people and place. While he was twenty-five he married Khadijah, a wealthy widow who was fifteen years older to Muhammad.
As a Prophet: In 610 A. D. when Muhammad was forty years old, he went to the mountain of Hira near Makka where the angel Gabriel appeared before him and taught the oracles ( divine messages) which become the basis of Islam as a monotheist religion. Along with it, Muhammad was commanded to preach the divine teachings to the pagan people of Arabia.
Preaching of Islam: When Muhammad first started teaching the divine messages to the people, many of the people of Makka, who were idol worshipers, began to hate and oppose him. But there were also people who listened to his preaching and obeyed his messages. These people were the first of the followers of Islam. Leaders of Makka tortured the followers of Islam. Some followers of Islam were executed. Muhammad resisted this and continued to preach Islam.
Migration: Being harassed and tortured vehemently by the idol worshipers of Makka, Muhammad migrated to Medina. The people living in Medina received him with warm enthusiasm. Muhammad wanted them to convert to Islam. They agreed and converted to Islam willingly. Later on, many of his followers migrated to Medina to live in contact with Muhammad. This movement from Makka to Medina is called the Hijrah (migration). The Hijrah was also the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina the prophet built the first masjid, worshipping house.
Conquest of Makka: The people of the Jewish tribe both in Medina and Makka disagreed with the teachings and rules set by Muhammad. Therefore several fights took place between the Muslims and the idol worshipers. The number of Muslims were fewer than the pagans, yet in most battles the Muslims were victorious. At last, after a series of battles over twenty years, Hazarat Muhammad with his followers conquered Makka and established the supremacy and influence of Islam all over the Arabian Peninsula.
The Pillars of Islam: Islam is a monotheist religion. ‘There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is a messenger of Allah’ — is the motto of Islam. Kalema, salat, fast during the Ramadan month, jakat and pilgrimage to Makka — are the five pillars of Islam. All the divine messages he received from Allah are compiled in the book called Koran, the much-read book in the world.
Social Reforms: Hazarat Muhammad was not only the founder of Islam but also a great social reformer of all times. He reformed many social evils like girl child killing, communal discrimination, slavery etc. He also established some madrassas for the dissemination of education.
Death: In 632 AD, on June 8, Muhammad became very sick and died peacefully. He was buried in the chamber of his wife Aisha in Medina. 0 0 0
DR. BHUPEN HAZARIKA
Introduction: Dr Bhupen Hazarika popularly known as ‘Sudhakantha’ (having a sweet voice) was an internationally famed Assamese singer, musician, poet and film-maker.
Birth and Parentage: Bhupen Hazarika was born on 8 September 1926 to Nilakanta and Shantipriya Hazarika in Sadiya, Assam. He was the eldest of ten children of his parents. His father was originally from Nazira in Sivasagar. In 1929 his father moved to the Bharalumukh of Guwahati where Bhupen Hazarika spent his early childhood. In 1932 his father moved to Dhubri and in 1935 to Tezpur.
Beginning of Career as a Singer: In Tezpur that Bhupen Hazarika, then 10 years of age, was discovered by Jyotiprasad Agarwala, the noted Assamese lyricist, playwright and the first Assamese Filmmaker and Bishnu Prasad Rabha, renowned Assamese artist and revolutionary poet, where ten-year-old Bhupen sang a Borgeet (traditional classical Assamese devotional songs were written by Sankardeva and Madhabdeva), taught by his mother. In 1936, Bhupen Hazarika accompanied them to Kolkata where he recorded his first song at the Aurora Studio. His association with the icons of Assamese Culture was the beginning of his artistic growth and career. After this Hazarika sang two songs in Agarwala’s film Indramalati (1939): Kakhote Kolosi Loi and Biswa Bijoyi Naujawan while he was only twelve. He composed his first Assamese song, Agnijugor Firingoti Moi at the age of 13 and began his career as a lyricist, composer and singer.
Education: He took his formal education at Sonaram High School and matriculated from Tezpur High School in 1940. He completed his higher education in Political Science from Banaras Hindu University. For a brief period, he worked at All India Radio, Guwahati when he won a scholarship from Columbia University and set sail for New York in 1949. There he earned a Ph. D. in 1952 on his thesis Proposals for Preparing India’s Basic Education to use Audio-Visual Techniques in Adult Education. At Columbia University, he met Priyamvada Patel, whom he married in 1950. Tez Hazarika, their only child, was born in 1952 and he returned to India in 1953. But their married life became unhappy one as his wife left him after the birth of their first child.
Works: Returning from the USA, he became a teacher at the Guwahati University. But after a few years, he gave up the job of teaching and went to Kolkata where he established himself as a successful music director and singer. During that period, Hazarika made several award-winning Assamese films such as Shakuntala, Pratidhwani, etc. He added a new trend to Bengali music. Bhupen Hazarika composed music for films from Bangladesh too which got international acclaim. He was elected the President of the Assam Sahitya Sabha in 1993. In 1967, Hazarika was elected as a member of Assam Legislative Assembly from Nauboicha constituency.
With Kalpana Lajmi: He was introduced to Kalpana Lajmi in the early 1980s by his friend Hemendra Prasad Barooah in Kolkata. Subsequently, Lajmi began assisting him professionally and personally until the end of his life.
Most of his songs were composed and sung by Hazarika himself. His songs are characterized by humanity and universal brotherhood. His songs, based on the themes of communal amity, universal justice and empathy, have become popular among the people of Assam, besides West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is also acknowledged to have introduced the culture and folk music of Assam and Northeast India to Hindi cinema at the national level.
Death: With the passing of time Bhupen Hazarika became older and weaker and died of multi-organ failure on 5 November 2011. His mortal body was cremated on November 9, 2011, near the Brahmaputra river in a plot of land donated by Guwahati University. About half a million people attended his funeral to show their love and homage to Bhupen Hazarika who made his name a legend during his life-time. 0 0 0
Introduction: Kalpana Chawla (1962 – 2003) was an American astronaut and the first woman of Indian origin in space.
Birth and Education: Kalpana Chawla was born on March 17, 1962. Banarasi Lal Chawla was her father and Sanjyothi Chawla was her mother. As a child, Kalpana liked to draw pictures of aeroplanes. After getting a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, she moved to the United States in 1982 where she obtained a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in 1984. In 1983 she married Jean Pierre Harrison.
A career as an Astronaut: In 1988, she began working at NASA, where she did Computational Fluid Dynamics Research on vertical or short take-off and landing concepts. Her first space mission began on November 19, 1997, as part of the six-astronaut crew that flew the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87. Chawla was the first Indian-born woman and the second Indian person to fly in space. On her first mission, Chawla travelled over 10.4 million miles in 252 orbits of the earth, logging more than 372 hours (15 Days and 12 Hours) in space.
In 2000, Chawla was selected for her second flight as part of the crew of STS-107 and she with his associates performed nearly 80 experiments studying earth and space science. During the launch of STS-107, Columbia’s 28th mission, the shuttle had had minor damage from foam shedding, but NASA managers limited the investigation reasoning that the crew could not have fixed the problem if it had been confirmed. When Columbia re-entered the atmosphere of Earth, the damage allowed hot atmospheric gases to penetrate and destroy the internal wing structure, which caused the spacecraft to become unstable and break apart.
Death: Kalpana died in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, when the Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The disaster took the death of all of seven crew members along with Kalpana Chawla. Chawla’s remains were identified along with the rest of the crew members and were cremated and scattered at National Park in Utah.
Conclusion: Kalpana Chawla though died young, had left behind her a legend of becoming successful female astronaut of Indian origin. The young generation of ours should be inspired by her life. 0 0 0
Discipline is training to act according to some rules and regulations. It implies complete obedience to the order of an authority. Discipline is a must in every walk of life.
The training of discipline begins at home. Every member of a family must obey the head of the family to maintain peace, order and happiness.
In school, discipline is of great importance. The students must obey their teachers and the rules and regulations of the school. Otherwise, no education is possible.
In the playground, every player must obey the captain. The players must maintain certain rules and regulations imposed upon by the authority. If anybody disobeys the order of the captain then success is impossible.
Nowhere is discipline as necessary as in the army. An army without discipline is no army, but a disorderly crowd. “Do or die”- is the motto in the army. The soldiers must obey the commands of their commanders without any objection.
Discipline is the key to success in every walk of life. It is the root of all other virtues that adorn human life. 0 0 0
Hobby means one’s leisure time favourite activity. It is a means to divert our mind from humdrum daily life. Hobby differs from person to person. I have also a hobby and it is gardening.
I am a lover of trees. So I have chosen gardening as my hobby. We have a spacious outer courtyard. I have divided the courtyard into four parts. I have planted some wood trees around the north side of the plot. In the front part of the plot, I plant various kinds of seasonal flowers. In the second part, I plant vegetables and in the third part, I plant and nurse young trees.
Every evening, after coming back from school, I spend about an hour nursing and watching my garden. My younger sister helps me often. My garden provides us with the necessary vegetables for us. We sell surplus production in the market and thus we earn some extra money.
Every morning I take a walk in the garden. When I see the bloomed flowers dancing in the wind, my heart leaps up with joy. Thus gardening is my best means of recreation. I wish that everybody should take up gardening as his hobby. 0 0 0
Introduction: Friendship is an intimacy between two persons who share each other’s joys and sorrows, fortunes and misfortunes. In other words, to say, friendship is an affectionate attachment of one for another.
Kinds of Friends: There are two kinds of friends- a false friend and a true friend. False friends are they who share only our joys and fortunes. They forsake us in times of sorrows and misfortunes. They are fair-weather friends. On the other hand, a true friend is one who shares both joys and sorrows equally. He never deserts us in time of misfortunes. True friendship must know and understand the feelings and wants of each other. The proverb says, “A friend in need is a friend indeed.”
Value of Friendship: Man is a social animal. His instincts long for the company of others. But when one succeeds in selecting and getting a true friend it becomes a blessing. It has much value in life as- friendship helps in developing noble virtues. It develops our tolerance, sympathy and affection. One can lay bare his heart to one’s friend. True friends are sincere to each other and they wish each other’s success. A poet says:
“Society, friendship and love
Divinely bestowed upon man.”
Conclusion: True friendship is a blessing in one’s life. To be happy in life, we must have friends. But we must be very careful in selecting friends. A true friend is a light in the darkness. He guides, encourages and enlivens one and remains a well-wisher of his friend throughout his life. 0 0 0
MY SCHOOL LIBRARY
The library is room or building where books on different subjects are kept for study. A library is a necessary condition without which a school can never be a perfect school. Our school has owned a spacious library.
Our school library is adjacent to the Teachers’ Common Room. It is a big room with almost all modern scientific facilities. A senior teacher of our school is in charge of the library. There are some hard and fast rules for managing our library.
There are more than ten thousands of books in our library. Besides school books, there are many books on different branches of human knowledge. The school authority provides newspapers, magazines and journals for our study in the library. Books are issued for a period of fifteen days. Our library authority lends five books to poor students at a time. I am a regular reader of our library. I spend my leisure hours in the library reading literary magazines.
Our library has been serving students since its establishment in 1971 and thus it has been exercising its roles in disseminating knowledge and wisdom. 0 0 0
SCIENCE IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Systematic and analytical knowledge of anything is called Science. The modern age is an age of science which has affected our every sphere of everyday life. The inventions of science have made our life more secure, easy and comfortable.
Science has entirely transformed the transport system in the world. Nowadays we have motor-cars, aeroplane, electricity, telephone, mobile phone, telegram, radio, television etc. which have quickened the transport and communicative systems of the modern world.
In the field of Medical Science, the gift of science is immense. Nowadays almost every disease is a subject of cure and remedy due to the use of science. We have x-rays, Xerox, ultra-sound and many other instruments to examine our body. Thus science has made our life-span longer and happier.
Science, to say, is a faithful servant to a modern man. The alarm clock wakes him at any hour he likes. The electric oven prepares his meals. The cooker cooks his food. The television, radio, internet etc. give him daily news and information.
The use of science makes us know and reveal the mystery of the universe. By means of science, scientists have become able to send rockets to remote planets.
There is no doubt that science has made our life more and more comfortable. But it has also made our life complex and artificial. But the benefits of its use outweigh its ill. 0 0 0
SCIENCE AND MANKIND
Science means special and systematic knowledge of anything. The first systematic and special knowledge of mankind was the use of fire and production of fire by rubbing two pieces of flints together. This was the beginning of science on human life. But with the passing of time, mankind has acquired so much knowledge on things by means of systematic study that it has invented and discovered many things and has revealed many mysteries to make our everyday life more easy and comfortable. From a small fountain pen to an artificial satellite science has contributed so many things that without the contributions of science everyday life of mankind is beyond imagination.
After having a deep sleep at night we get up in the morning and take a brush and some paste to clean our teeth and mouth. The brush, the paste and even the tap of water are the contributions of science.
Secondly, after having our hand and face washed in the morning, we sit to take our breakfast. We take tea, cake, loaf, biscuits or something else. All the things, even the plate and spoons are the contributions of science.
Thirdly there was a time when men used the bark of trees and the skins of animals as their garments. But nowadays men don’t depend on such coarse things and instead of such things we wear plain, clean and velvety clothes which are the inventions of science.
Fourthly, the use of science which has affected our life is Printing press. Nowadays the knowledge we gain is through printing books. Only five hundred years ago it was a very painstaking effort to have a book at will. But nowadays we can have a thousand copies of a book without any difficulty due to the invention of the printing press.
Fifthly, in the field of agriculture, science has done many contributions for which today it has become possible to produce a large number of goods to cater to our foods.
Sixthly, in the field of amusement and recreation science has contributed many things as- radio, television, telephone, mobile phone, computer and so on.
Thus in every sphere of our life, we are sunk under the contributions of science and it seems that hardly can we get a thing that is not the invention of science. Science has affected our daily life so much that science might be thanked as our god. But such an assumption is foolish because too much of anything is bad. It seems that too much dependence on science is going to make mankind a good for nothing fellow.
At last, it may be said that if we use science sparingly and with our conscience then our life will be more and more comfortable, ease and meaningful and then our desired peace will be had in our hand. 0 0 0
SCIENCE AND WAR
SCIENCE AND ITS BAD EFFECTS
The modern world is called to be the world of Science as it has affected the modern world so much that no man living in human society can live a moment without the aids of science. Everything that we handle and use from morning till evening and even the things on which we sleep at night are the contributions of science. Thus science is associated with every walk of our life. Besides this, science has not fallen back to affect war that the nations do against each other. Though almost all the scientific implements of war are invented during the last two centuries, yet science is associated with war like a fierce lion to suck the blood of mankind. The things and implements that are used in wars are guns, cannons, tanks, missiles, atom bombs, hydrogen bomb, lethal gas etc.
In the very ancient time, we see the use of science in the war between Hiero, the king of Syracuse and the Romans. During their war-time, the scientist Archimedes had invented some scientific implements after the request of King Hero. Among some other things, he invented a special kind of mirror by which the king Hiero destroyed all the warships of the Romans.
In the war of Kurukshetra, the second Pandava Bhima had used a kind of implement called Club from which explosive fire came out when struck with it. In the modern age, the club of Bhima is equivalent to modern hand bomb.
In the middle ages the scientist like Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo had been engaged to the government services by the Duke of Milan and the Duke of Tuscandy respectively because of their contributions to science. Thus during the time of the French Revolution the chemist Lavoisier was compelled to prepare explosive materials. From such instances, we see that even the kings and political leaders patronized the scientists to use scientific implements in war.
But the first systematic use of science and scientific inventions was made and used in the war of Crimea in 1854. In that year the British soldiers built the railroad to use in war.
In India, in the war of Panipat, the Mughal Emperor Babar used cannons against his enemy Ibrahim Lodi.
During the twentieth century, the world has experienced two World Wars in which science had shown its front teeth to the civilized mankind. The most dreadful use of science is seen in World War II. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, two cities of Japan, are the worst instances of the bad effects of science. In recent times, we have faced another deadly war between Iraq and America in which almost every kind of war implements are used.
Thus we see that where there is war there is science. Now a question may arise that whether the use of science in war is bliss or curse upon mankind. To its answer, we must admit unanimously that the use of science in war is a curse, not bliss. Because war can do nothing, except devastation, death and decay, sorrow and sufferance. It seems that one day if the use of science is not cut off from war the world would be destroyed forever.
We hope that a time will come when all human being would give up all the harmful and jealous intentions against each other and will live peacefully forgetting the talk of war. 0 0 0
MY DAILY LIFE
Introduction: From my childhood, I have been brought up through strict discipline by my parents. And from my grandfather, I have learnt the lesson of simplicity in every sphere of life. Hence my daily life is very simple and disciplined. I have divided the day into four parts- morning, noon, afternoon and night. I usually spend these parts of a day in the following ways:
Morning: I get up from bed early in the morning and wash my hands and face. Then I pray to God and after this, I do some physical exercises for about fifteen minutes and then I sit down for my study. First of all, I read English and then other subjects. I continue my studies till 8.30 a. m. Thereafter I take my bath and then I take my meal. At about 9 o’ clock I start for my school with my books.
Our school sits at 9. 30 a. m. I am never late in attending my class. I hear very attentively what my teachers say in the class. At leisure time I play with my classmates. At 3 o’clock in the evening, our school breaks and I go home straight.
Afternoon: I reach home at about 4 p.m. After changing my school dress, I get my hands and face washed and then takes my tiffin. After this, I take rest for sometimes and then I sit down to do my home works. After this, I go out for a walk in the open field with my friends and return home just before the sun sets.
Night: After returning home I wash my hand and feet and I sit to pray to God for sometimes. Then I take a cup of either tea or milk and then begin to read. I continue my studies till 10 p.m. and then I take my meal and about 10. 30 p.m. I go to my bed and sleep.
On Holidays: I do not follow this routine on holidays. During holidays, I read some out books, besides my school books. In the evening I play some outdoor games with my brothers, sisters and friends. At the afternoon I work sometimes in the garden. Sometimes I listen to the radio and watch television. On every Sunday evening, I visit the village library and read various magazines.
Conclusion: Thus I spend my daily life. I always try to keep up my daily hours doing my routine duties because I think that disciplined life is the best life to be happy and successful. 0 0 0
HOLIDAYS AND HOW I SPEND THEM
Holiday means a day of rest from our day to day routine life. The word ‘holiday’ is very pleasing to everybody.
The object of holidays should be great and we should spend the holidays meaningfully and wisely. During our working days, we are occupied with our duties. We have no time to stand and stare. But it is a holiday which gives us opportunities to refresh our body and mind. We can make use of holidays in the following ways:
We can visit new places during our holidays. It will be easy to meet our relatives during the holidays. Visiting friends and relatives act positively on our mutual understanding and cooperation.
During the holidays the students can revise old lessons. Besides this they should read out- books also to increase their store of knowledge.
During holidays we should devote ourselves to some social works like repairing village roads, cleansing temples or doing household works. The students may help their parents in their agricultural or other works.
During holidays the students may take to some extra-curriculum activities like practising arts, music or any other technical works so as to get practical experience.
If one can spend a holiday meaningfully, it will seem to do a lot for our body and mind. It can add vigour and zest to our life. 0 0 0
COTTAGE INDUSTRIES OF ASSAM
Cottage Industries are the industries where products are produced at homes by the members of a family with the help of some simple tools. Cottage industries are there all over India. They vary from state to state. In Assam cottage industries have special importance. Some of the important cottage industries of Assam are as follows:
Sericulture and Silk- Weaving: Assamese women are very skilled in the art of spinning and weaving. The cottage industry is the first requirement of every Assamese family. Some lakhs of handlooms are in use in Assam. Different varieties of clothes are produced in it. The tribal women are also expert in this art. Ari, endi, mega, silk, pat etc. with handloom woven-design are some of the important varieties. Sualkuchi is famous for producing pat at their looms.
Cane and Bamboo Works: It is the second important cottage industry of Assam. Chairs, tables and other beautiful furniture are made of cane and bamboo. This industry is practised by all Assamese people at their homes.
Brass and Metal Industry: In these industries, Assam is famous all over India. Hajo and Sharthebari, in the district of Kamrup, have earned a reputation for these industries. Sarai manufactured in these industries is the symbol of Assamese culture and tradition.
In addition to these industries, Assam is not lagged behind in woodworks, goldsmithy and blacksmithy. Some lakhs of people are involved in these industries.
In the economy of Assam, these industries are rendering a better contribution since the advent of the Ahoms. But nowadays the cottage industries have been facing keen competition from merchandised industries. The products of cottage industries require much time and energy and consequently they become costlier than the merchandised products. For such reasons, most of the cottage industries of Assam are on the verge of death.
The development of our economy depends largely on the improvement of the rural economy. To improve the country’s economy this cottage industries must be developed and improved and the government must come forward to protect and develop these industries. 0 0 0
FIFTY YEARS OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
GOLDEN JUBILEE OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
After being governed for about two hundred years, India got freedom from the imperial yoke of the British on 15th August 1947. On that day, all the Indians had jumped up with a jubilant heart full of self- belief and with a glaring face of hope for a bright and prosperous future of independent India. One by one free India has trodden on its fifty years on 15th August 1997 and has celebrated its Golden Jubilee in the nook and corner of the country. During these fifty years of independence, it has progressed and developed considerably in one hand, but on the other hand, it has fallen back considerably.
When India got freedom it dreamt of a prosperous India and laid emphasis on science and technology and imported many foreign aids and implements with which many industries were founded. There is no doubt that India has many industries but the standard of the produced goods are comparatively lower than that of other countries such as-China, Japan, Sweden, America, German etc.
In the field of agriculture, though many modern technologies are introduced, yet agricultural productions have not increased considerably. It is because of the lamentable ignorance of the average peasants and farmers.
To compare the communication system of free India with that of British India, it must be admitted that free India has developed praise-worthily; but the matter of sorrow is that the communication system of the rural area is yet underdeveloped. The transport media such as- motor car, train, ship, the aeroplane has been increased considerably no doubt but on the other hand, the amount of accident have increased beyond imagination which have been taking away thousands and thousands of lives every year.
In the field of education, free India, during this fifty years, has done much progress and established many schools, colleges, universities and many technological institutions but the standard of education is still in the bud. The present education system is more theoretical and less technical for which the education system of free India has increased the unemployment problems and due to this problem, the social and economic condition is lamentable.
During these fifty years, literature as a branch of fine arts has done unparalleled progress in poetry, novels, drama and short story but the standard of poetry has fallen down beyond imagination.
In the Constitution, India has firmly declared that it would be a secular country, which would patronize no religion, but put emphasis to keep unity, brotherhood among all religions. The fifty years of free India has proved that the creed of secularism is futile.
The last but the most striking affair of independent India is its politics. With independence, India declared that India would be governed by no king but by people themselves. It is no doubt that India has got freedom from the English but its freedom is limited only to some political brokers. It is white truth that the law and principles of administration are unique but its proper application, in reality, is the lowest. In the history of Indian Democracy such leaders like- Narashinha Rao, Laluprasad Yadav, Deve Gowda, Harshad Mehta, Joy Lalita etc. are stains of corruption forever. Almost all the political leaders that India got after its freedom are corrupted persons either personally or politically or by traditionally for which the condition of free India is lamentable in every field.
To conclude it is to say that, during these fifty years, India has failed lamentably to keep up its aim that it took at the time of its freedom. Now if it wishes to fulfil its aim of making a prosperous India all the Indians must raise a revolt strongly and unanimously against all corruptions. 0 0 0
Husband and wife with their children living together are called a Family. Family is the first unit of society. Every man belongs to a family. There are two types of family-Small (Single) Family and Joint Family. In a Joint Family, more than one family of the same clan live together with parents, brothers and children. I also belong to a family. My father is the head of our family.
Our family is a small family. We are only five members in our family. My parents, I, one younger brother and sister consist of our family.
We live in a village far from the town. My father is a peasant. He earns our livelihood exerting hard labour in the field. On my holidays I help my father in the field. We have a small fishery also. The younger brother of mine nurses the pond. My mother is an ideal housewife. She along with my younger sister performs household works and besides this, she cultivates vegetables in the backyard of our house.
I am still a student and am reading in high school. My younger brother and sister are also reading. They are in an M. E. School.
We are not well-to-doing economically. We often fall into poverty. But my mother tackles the family with much tact and patience.
Sometimes my father becomes disheartened and loses hope in life. So he often admonishes us to pursue technical education so as to take to jobs earlier. My aim is to become a journalist. If I can reach my aim, I would serve the country with true and impartial news and information and lead the country to a better position.
Though we are poverty-stricken yet we have been living happily in our small family. 0 0 0
THE PRIZE DISTRIBUTION DAY AT MY SCHOOL
A MEMORABLE DAY OF MY SCHOOL LIFE
The Annual Prize Distribution Day of the last year is a memorable day of my school life. The Prize Distribution Day is always the happiest day to us in school. The Annual Prize Distribution Ceremony of the last year was held on the 7th November 2011.
In the morning of the day, the students of the school gathered in the school campus and decorated the school building. The school gate was painted and a special gate was constructed to welcome the guests and the visitors. A spacious pandel was built for the ceremony. Local guardians and distinguished persons were invited. The function was begun at 1 p. m. The Principal of our school presided over the function. Most guests came on time. The local M. L. A. also gave his gracious presence. The ceremony was opened with an opening song. After this, the principal read out the Annual Report of the school. The boys and girls who stood first in the song competition were asked to sing again to entertain the visitors. After this, the principal requested the chief guest to give away the prizes.
The principal read out the names of the prize winners. They came one by one and received their respective prizes from the hand of the chief guest.
The day was especially a memorable day for me because I got three prizes. One was received for being first in the debate competition; one for securing the highest mark in the school and the other for extempore speech.
At 4 p. m. the prize distribution was over and the chief guest delivered a laudable lecture addressing to the students which inspired us all to maintain discipline in every walk of life. The local M. L. A. also gave a brief but praiseworthy lecture emphasizing on the necessity of moral lesson in education. After this, the President gave concluding speech encouraging the students to try their best to win prizes the next year.
At 6 p. m. the ceremony came to an end. Everybody may forget the day, but I will remember it forever.
IF I WERE A LAKHPATI
IF I WERE THE WINNER OF THE FIRST PRIZES OF A LOTTERY
Every state of our country has introduced a lottery. In our state, it has been introduced in the 1970s. Some people are crazy about the lottery. Some purchase ticket for entertainment, some purchase it for testing his luck but most people buy it with the sole intention of winning prizes so as to become rich within an overnight.
I have some weakness for lottery and sometimes purchase one or two tickets. Though I have won no prize till today, yet I desire that if one day I win the first prize in the state lottery and become a lakhpati then I shall do the following things:
First of all, I shall build a small house to live there comfortably. I shall divide the house into three rooms. In one of the rooms, I shall make a small library and for that, I shall make some almirahs, a spacious table and some chairs. In my library, I shall keep all the best books in the world. As my hobby is reading books, so I shall make the room filled up with every kind of books. Though it will be my private library, yet I will keep a special provision so that needy students may borrow books on the condition of returning them within a specified period.
After building and making my house and library, if there remains some spare money, I shall buy a bigha of land to make a garden of plain trees as I am very much fond of green trees.
So when I purchase a ticket, I pray to God that He might help me in winning the first prize. 0 0 0
RESPONSIBILITIES OF STUDENTS
DUTIES OF STUDENTS
The children who go to school or any educational institute with the sole aim of acquiring knowledge and building themselves as responsible citizens of their motherland are called Students. Student life is the best part of a man’s life. It is the period of pursuing knowledge with devotion. The life of a student is usually free from all worries, anxieties, wants and troubles faced by a grown-up man.
Though the foremost aim of a student is to devote him to study for acquiring knowledge and ways of living, yet he has some other social responsibilities as follows:
It is said that today’s students are the citizens of tomorrow. They are the future leaders, administrators, philosophers, social workers, Parliamentarians etc. of the country. To become such a leader proper education is necessary for them. Along with acquiring knowledge, the students should have some political responsibilities. But there are some people who do not like any kind of involvement of students in politics. They argue that students should not be associated with political activities. But they are wrong- as the students of today are the citizens of tomorrow, so they must have a certain political background. They must prepare themselves with some political views and knowledge. In a democratic country like ours, future leaders will come out from the student community. So our students must acquaint themselves with political events. They need some training and understanding of politics. The theoretical knowledge of politics will develop a sense of patriotism and a sense of consciousness of their responsibilities to the country. But it is harmful if the students involve themselves in practical politics.
Besides this, the greater duty of the students is the duty to society. Social service, nowadays, is considered as a part of education. It develops in him a sense of humanity. In the holidays, groups of students can go to the interior villages to do some services for the welfare of society. They may come out to improve the roads, to cleanse the temples; public tanks etc. Social service enables the students to realize the dignity of labour.
Thus the students should have duties towards society and country besides their first duty. 0 0 0
MY LAST DAY AT SCHOOL
It was 29th December 2011 that became my historic last day at my school. The result of our Test Examination had already been out and all the students who were going to appear in the H. S. L. C. Examination from the school were invited by the General Secretary of the school on 29th December to bid them farewell.
At 1 p. m. the Farewell-meeting was held over which the Headmaster of our school presided. Just before the start of the meeting a group photo of the students with the teacher- staff was taken. The meeting started with a song in chorus. As the meeting progressed, I felt uneasy at the thought of leaving the school where I had been reading for six years.
The General Secretary of the Students’ Union spoke out the purpose of the meeting. Some junior students of the school addressed to the meeting first. They expressed their best wishes to the examinees and requested to forgive their faults in dealing with us. Then our turn came. The first boy in our class stood up first. He expressed his gratitude to the teachers who enabled us to appear in the examination. Secondly, I stood up. At first, I had to stammer because my heart was paining with the thought of separation from my teachers and school-mates. I begged of my teachers to excuse us for our conscious and unconscious wrong dealings and finally, thanking the students for their grand arrangements to honour us by holding this meeting, I stopped my fare-welling speech.
At last our respected Headmaster stood up and wished us to do well in the examination. He warned us to avoid unfair means in the examination. He also admonished us to be good citizens along with becoming good students in life. After the presidential address, the meeting came to an end.
After the meeting, we were entertained with sweet-meats. In this way, my last day at school was a day of mixed feeling- a feeling of sadness and pleasure. I shall remember this day all my life. 0 0 0
THE BUSIEST DAY I EXPERIENCED
It was the first January of the last year that remains ever fresh and green as my busiest day. On that day we were going to celebrate New Year’s Day. The celebration was held under the patronage of Green Valley Self-help Group. I was the General Secretary of the group. I, with the other active members, was busy round the clock to make the celebration a grand success. On that day I left home for the office of the S. H. Group after my breakfast. I, with all my friends and co-workers, arrived at the office at 7 o’clock.
The first thing we were to do was to make a temporary stage for arranging our cultural function. I was busy to make and decorate the gate. Some of my friends were sent to the nearby market to buy a piece of clothes and some flowers. The gate was ready by 10 a. m. By that time we had our tea. Then I went to fetch the microphone and other gadgets. The office compound became lively with songs on the microphone. We got the grounds filled up with tables, chairs and benches. The local people and children began to pour into there.
The meeting was held at 2 o’clock. Our auditorium became lively with the children and invitees. Some volunteers were engaged to maintain discipline. The honourable local M. L. A. was our chief guest. He arrived on time. We escorted him to our office. There he was entertained with tea and sweet-meats.
The meeting opened with a chorus. The President of the S H. Group presided over the meeting. I explain the purpose of the meeting. A modern song followed it. Then the turn of my reading out the Secretarial Report came. I read it out and made an appeal to the students to maintain peace, harmony and cooperation among us to strengthen our democracy.
The chief guest made a very praiseworthy speech. The prizes were distributed among the winners of sports competitions held on the last day of the year. I helped the president in handing over the prizes to the winners. Fortunately, I was awarded a prize for becoming first in the extempore speech. After the Presidential Speech, I conveyed gratitude and thanks on behalf of the Group to the chief guest for his gracious presence.
After that, the Secretary in charge of the cultural function did everything for the grand success of the cultural show. Some reputed artists participated in the function. The cultural function came to an end at 1 p. m. though I was tired I felt fresh and ecstatic for the success of the function.
That was the busiest day of my life. It remains ever fresh and green in my memory. 0 0 0
FLOOD IN ASSAM
Introduction: The overflowing of water beyond what is usual is called Flood. Among the Indian states, Assam is one of the most flood-prone states. From time immemorial Assam has been being affected pathetically by flood. It is a spontaneous natural calamity of the state.
Causes of Flood: Many resources are responsible for the flood in Assam.
First, the heavy rain caused by the Monsoon may be called the main cause of flood in Assam.
Secondly, Assam is a land of hills and mountains, rivers and rivulets. In the Summer Season, the snows in the mountains, especially in the Himalayas, melt and provide with over water to the Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
Thirdly, the defective system of embankment and drainage and the roads with inadequate bridges and culverts of Assam also cause a flood.
Bad Effects: The effects of flood in Assam are far-reaching. It destroys crops, ponds, orchards and thousands of houses. It damages roads, bridges, railways causing disruption to transport and communication. As a result, it makes the people of Assam suffer indescribable miseries.
Relief Measures: Flood affects the people of Assam every year and every year relief measures are taken both by the Government and the voluntary organizations. But such measures are like a single chilli in a basketful cabbage. The little relief given by the Government does not get at the affected public; instead, it goes to the selfish belly of the corrupted officials.
Attempts to Control Flood: To control monstrous flood in Assam the Government must take some permanent measures, as-
First, the mighty Brahmaputra must be dammed scientifically so that its water resources can be utilized for other works.
Secondly, the embankments must be constructed scientifically and very strongly so that flood may not flow in the fields.
Thirdly, natural outlets should be improved. The building of dams and water reservoirs may also help in controlling flood.
Conclusion: If the flow of water which causes a great flood in Assam can be controlled, then Assam will contribute much to the economy of India and then Assam would smile upon the world as a healthful region of the earth. 0 0 0
I am a student and study is my sole duty. I read books to learn and know matters so as to mould myself as fitted and successful citizens of the world.
Though the study is my sole duty, yet I do not keep myself busy at study all the time. After the advice of my English teacher, I have made a timetable of my study which I follow strictly. During my school-going days, I read my curriculum for three hours in the morning. And at night I spend three to four hours studying Science, Mathematics and English textbooks.
But during holidays, I do not follow this time-table strictly. I am a curious student and to meet my curiosity, I read books other than my school books with much interest. Among the out books, I read literary and historical books. I also like autobiographies and travelogues. Already I have read out the complete works of Laxminath Bezbaruah, Rajanikanta Bardoloi and Satyanath Bora. Besides these, I like to study the scriptures of world religions.
Through study, I have been benefited in various ways. From the study of books, I have learned many valuable lessons which have not been taught in school. Moreover, the study has taught me scientific outlooks towards life. It has broadened my store of knowledge and has been leading me from narrow- mindedness to broad-mindedness.
I pray to God may He keep my mind and body hale and sound so that I can continue my study throughout my life and can spread the outcomes of my study to the welfare of humanity. 0 0 0
MY AIM IN LIFE
‘Aim’ means ‘a goal to be achieved in life.’ Every man should have an aim in life. An aimless man is like a boat without an oar. But a man should determine his aim in life according to his taste and aptitude.
After much careful selection, I have fixed my aim in life and it is to become an ideal and perfect teacher. I have a great interest in English and after passing the H. S. L. C. Examination I wish to do my B. A. with honours in English. After getting my B. A. with honours, I wish to join the University of Guwahati for the Master Degree in English.
I have noticed that an ideal teacher gets much honour and value in society. He is an object of pride in society. I want to be an ideal teacher not only in the teaching school curriculum but also in teaching the ideal ways of living. Nowadays society feels the scarcity of ideal men whom everybody can follow. I want to be such a teacher. I think that a teacher should be a friend, a guide, a philosopher and above all a prophet who can build men worth the name. I have been practising simple, plain and humble ways of life so that I can teach my students and to all who come into my contact the lesson of human qualities as- honesty, sincerity, perseverance, simplicity, dutifulness, punctuality etc.
The future of a country depends on the students. And the responsibility of making ideal men depends on the teachers.
But to become successful in my aim I have been trying my best to become a good student first and then a good and ideal teacher. Let God bless me in fulfilling my aim in life and offer me the opportunity to serve my people. 0 0 0
Early-rising means the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. The proverb says:
Early to bed, early to rise
Makes a man perfect and wise.
There are many benefits of early rising. It helps us improve our health. In the morning the air is fresh and pure. It soothes our body and refreshes our mind. An early riser gets plenty of time to work for the whole day. He never gets short of time. The habit of early-rising teaches us the lesson of punctuality as it is the first step of maintaining discipline.
Early-rising is many beneficiaries for the students. A student, who gets up early in the morning, feels calm and quiet in mind. This freshness helps him to do his work properly. In a calm and fresh environment, the student can concentrate his attention in his study. So the habit of early-rising should be maintained by all students.
Later risers are often seen to complain of bodily disorder. They are always in want of time. It is known that most weak (both bodily and mentally) students are later risers.
Everybody should cultivate this habit of early-rising from his childhood. 0 0 0
THE VALUE OF TIME
There is a popular proverb that-Time and tide wait for none. It is a universal truth that time is a thing that never learns to stop. It is flying all the moments. Time once passed cannot be regained. It is so valuable that no money can buy a past time.
Everybody should be very mindful to the proper use of time because life is a collection of time. We should do the right things at the right moments. The student should make good use of time in reading and acquiring knowledge. Businessmen should use time in such a manner that they may prosper in their business. Success in every sphere of life depends on the proper use of time.
Idleness is said to be the killer of time. Those who spend time in idleness must suffer in life. We should not waste the precious moments of life in idle talk, in reading bad books or doing things that have no good effects.
Human life is precious. The value of life is counted on the deeds one performs in life and the great deeds are performed by them who take care of every moment in life. Time is flying fast. We must seize it before it flies away and put it to our best use. In brief to say, we all should maintain punctuality in life. 0 0 0
The games that are played in the open field are called Outdoor Games. Football, volleyball, cricket, hockey, badminton, lawn-tennis are some of the outdoor games.
It is said that play is a part of education. As the study makes a man wise, so play makes a man healthy and keeps a man fit and active. Playing outdoor games is a kind of physical exercise.
Outdoor games help us in various ways. It teaches us the value of discipline, obedience, unity and order. It teaches the virtue of team-spirit and sense of cooperation.
Outdoor games should be included in the school curriculum as it is a part of education. But every game may not suit everybody. One should take up to play outdoor games according to his taste, age and interest. None should ignore the importance of outdoor games; because only work and no play make one melancholic and heavy in mind. Outdoor games make us social and more humane.
Every school should have a playground to promote the cause of outdoor games. 0 0 0
A PICNIC PARTY SHARED BY ME
Introduction: Picnic means feasting for pleasure with one’s friends, colleagues or relatives taken out of home. After the Half-yearly Examination, we the students of class X decided to go for a picnic. On our headmaster’s advice, we decided to go and have a feast at Kaziranga.
Time: Our Half-yearly Examination ended on the 30th of June 2011 and we started for the picnic on 1st July. We had thirty students and two teachers with us. We started very early in the morning. We took necessary food-staff, utensils and firewood with us.
Description of the Venue: We contracted an omnibus to carry us to Kaziranga. We arrived there at 1 p. m. Kaziranga is a region of natural beauty. It is full of all kinds of flora and fauna. We enjoyed heart-attracting beauty in and around. We enjoyed the sights and sounds of various kinds of trees, herbs, birds and animals. We saw a lion and a tigress with her cub, besides many others. We enjoyed the leaping and dancing of a pair of peacocks. We had enamoured of the murmuring sound of the brook flowed down from the hills. Our English teacher played on violin which added more joys to our merriment.
Food and Refreshment: On reaching the place we had tea with loaves and bananas. After this, we enjoyed the natural sights of that place. After 4 o’ clock in the evening, we took our meal with great rejoice.
Other Entertainment: After meal, we took rest for a while. Some of us danced and sang Bihu songs. Thus we enjoyed the whole day enjoying all sorts of merriment.
Conclusion: At 6 o’clock in the evening, we got on the bus and started our return journey. Our hearts were pained to leave such a place of natural beauty. I shall remember the joys and experience of this day all my life. 0 0 0
JOURNEY BY TRAIN
Introduction: A journey either by boat or train is always exciting for me. I have several experiences of the journey by bus and boat but one experience of the journey by train which have been taken recently from Guwahati to New Delhi.
Occasion and Preparation: One of my cousins is an employee of a multi-national company. He works in Delhi. During the last Summer Vacation, I received an invitation from my cousin to visit him and without making any delay, took the chance of it. I took Raja, one of my bosom friends as my companion.
Description of the Journey: We started our journey from Guwahati on the 1st June of the last year. We had our reservations in the first-class compartment by the Rajdhani Express. For the first time in my life, I was travelling beyond Assam and it gave a kind of thrill of awe and joy from the start of the journey.
As it was an express train it made stop only in important stations. After running two and a half hours, it reached Bongaigaon where two passengers boarded the compartment that became friendly with us. We came to know that they were students of Guwahati Medical College and they had to take the journey from Bongaigaon to Howrah. From their conversation, we came to know many things about Calcutta as they had been there several times. After running about ten hours it reached Howrah and there they got off the train.
In our compartment, there was a jawan of Indian Army who had been on the way to join his company. We had a series of conversation with him from which I got a pre-knowledge of Delhi. The train began to cross the stations one after the other. Through the window, we saw the outside world moving quickly behind us. About twenty-four hours of our journey the train reached Delhi. We got off the train with a tired body and mind. My cousin suddenly appeared before us and received us affectionately. He took us directly to his quarter.
We stayed there for about two weeks and during our stay, he took us around the whole of Delhi. We enjoyed The Tajmahal, The Qutub Miner, the Red-fort and so many other historical monuments of the Mughal Emperors.
Conclusion: Thus the train journey was very exciting and pleasant for us. I learned many new and new things about people and places. Thus this journey which was my first train journey remains still a thrill of joy for me. 0 0 0
VILLAGE LIFE IN ASSAM
An area away from city or town commonly inhabited by the naive and simple non-educated or less educated people whose occupation is mainly agriculture is called a Village. Assam is an Indian state which is primarily village-based. Ninety per cent of the total population of Assam live in the villages. The village life of Assam bears some peculiar characteristics. We can enumerate them briefly as below:
First, the village life of Assam is especially based on agriculture. Every village of Assam consists of vast fields for producing crops of various kinds. As the soil of Assam is fertile, almost all kinds of crops grow abundantly. Assamese people living in the villages may be called self-dependent as they produce all their necessary food staff in their fields. The agricultural products of the villages of Assam contribute the lion’s share to the economy of the state.
Secondly, the villages of Assam are rich in cottage industries. Assamese women are skilled weavers. They weave their necessary clothes for themselves and in addition to meeting their needs, the surplus goods are exported to the other states of India. The Assamese people living in the villages are skilled in handicrafts. They manufacture household furniture with bamboo and canes which have given peculiarity to the culture of Assam.
Thirdly, the village life of Assam is full of difficulties. As almost all the inhabitants of a village of Assam comprise of peasants, farmers, weavers, crafts and labourers so the village life is full of hard labour. The peasants earn their livelihood with sweat. They suffer more physical hardship than that of those who live in cities or towns.
Fourthly, the village life of Assam is free from the artificiality and corruption which is seen in city life. The inhabitants of the villages are simple, naive and their heart is full of fellow- feeling which is visibly absent in city life.
Fifthly, the villagers live in direct contact with Nature. Assamese villages are rich in horticulture. They work in their own orchard, gardens and fields and enjoy the uncorrupted natural environment.
Comparatively the village life of Assam is happier than that of city life, though most villages are deprived of the modern amenities of city life. The inhabitants of the villages are united by love and fellow- feeling. They stand by one another in times of needs. Most of them live in joint families, the members of which are held together by the bonds of hearty affection. 0 0 0
THE DURGA PUJA
The Durga Puja is the grandest and pompous festival of all the Hindu festivals. It is observed in the season of autumn. The Durga Puja symbolizes the victory over evil powers.
In the Hindu Mythology, Sri Durga is represented as Divine Mother who is believed to come down the earth with the blessing of power and help to all. Durga is said to have ten hands with weapons in all the hands and offers herself to save her devotees from the forces of evil. Buffalo is her chariot and she comes down sitting on it. She has two sons with her on both sides Kartik the General and Ganesh the visible embodiment of wisdom and success. She brings also her two daughters- Lakshmi and Saraswati. Lakshmi is said to be the Goddess of Fortune and Wealth and Saraswati as the Goddess of Learning.
The Indians, especially the Hindus all over the world worship Goddess Durga in memory of the victorious forces of good over those of evil. The worship is held in the season of autumn and hence it is also called Autumnal Festival. It is celebrated with great pomp and splendour. The festival is based on Ram’s worship of Durga for overcoming the powerful Demon-king Ravana of Lanka.
The worship of Durga lasts for four days. The first day’s ceremony is called Bhodan (invocation). The puja proper begins on the 7th day of the moon and lasts till the end of the 9th day when Ravana is said to have fallen.
During those days verses from Chandi are recited. The offering of fine rice, fresh fruits and sweet-meats and flowers are offered to the Goddess. After each puja, edible things are distributed as Prasad among all. The Arati (offering of Light) is held every evening.
On the Vijaya Dashami, the tenth day of the moon, the worshippers bid farewell to the goddess. The image is led through some pompous procession and in the evening it is taken to the neighbouring river for immersion.
Nowadays the Durga Puja has become the universal festival of Hindus all over the world. In India, all the Indians irrespective of caste and creed take part in the festival. It is not only a festival but an integral part of Indian culture and a means of love and brotherhood. It makes us forget the differences among us and unite us with the bond of fraternity. 0 0 0
Introduction: The computer is one of the most wonderful inventions of modern Science. First, it was called ‘Counting machine’ as initially it was made for performing the task of counting things rapidly. But with the passing of days, its scope of functioning has got increased beyond imagination.
Its Origin: The computer is not an invention of any single person. Many scientists have contributed to the evolution of the computer. But Charles Babbage is called to be the father of the modern computer as he initiated its evolution with rapid success.
Its Functions: Computer is said to be the alternative of the human mind. By it, we can make a rapid solution of any numerical problems. But the only difference between the human mind and computer is that it cannot think fundamentally as a man does. Its function is limited only to the data and information put into it by man.
Nowadays the scope of its function is so much increased that with the help of a computer we can do almost everything of our everyday works. It is used in banks, in industries, in the shops, in the stations and even in the bathroom to perform respective works as it is suggested. In the field of education, medical treatment, in controlling vehicles and even in sending rockets in the space computer is used. In brief, to say, the modern age is the age of computer.
Conclusion: Computer is a very useful thing in this modern age of Science. Let the computer be used for the benefits of human being. 0 0 0
Introduction: Television is a modern invention of science. It is a chief means of entertainment as well as the easiest means of communication. In television, we can see and enjoy events along with speeches taking place somewhere in the world.
Origin and Functions: Television was invented by an English scientist named John Baird in 1925. There are two types of television as: black- white and colouring. It is a very strong means of communication as it broadcasts news, cinemas, songs and many other branches of entertainments. In preaching advertisement it plays an important role. In building public opinion, it plays a significant role.
In some countries the governments have undertaken a new policy to spread education through television. It is hoped that the education spread through television would enable the young generation to face the complexity of the present-day world with much skill and enthusiasm.
Its Bad Effects: As almost all the inventions of science bear both good and bad sides so is borne by television also. many times television exhibits some false news and rumours which bewilder its spectators. Moreover, all the news are not always impartial. Many programmes are run by television but all the programmes don’t suit to everybody. So some amount of carefulness should be maintained while enjoying the programmes. The students should watch those programmes only which are suited to their age and mind. They should not use it as mere means of entertainment. in addition to these, too much watching of television is harmful both to the eyes and mind.
Conclusion: Television is a necessary thing of the civilized world. But we should use it avoiding its bad effects. 0 0 0
TRAVELLING TO A HISTORICAL PLACE
Introduction: A place having historical background is called historical place. By instinct, man feels an eager curiosity and desire to see new places, he desires to learn new facts and more he desires to see the monuments bearing the testimony of the past happenings. And to quench this curiosity he takes travelling to far off places.
My Travelling to Sonitpur: I have also a weakness for travelling to historical places and since my boyhood I have been carrying some pet dreams of seeing the ancient monuments of India. Already I have paid a visit to Sonitpur, a historical place of Assam and here I am telling about that travelling in brief.
Its Significance: Sonitpur was the capital of Bana, a king of ancient Kamrup. We have read in history that the king Bana had a beautiful daughter named Usha Devi. To keep her safe from the touch of man he built a castle called Agnighar near the capital. Some armed forces were in the guard of her safety. But one night she dreamed of Anirudha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. In dream she fell in love with him. Usha had a friend named Chitralekha. With the help of Chitralekha she called in Anirudha and fled with him. On the other hand, the king Bana hearing the news of her elopement with Anirudha seized Anirudha and put him in jail. Shri Krishna, having being informed of his grandson’s captivity attacked the kingdom of Bana. Bana was a devotee of Lord Shiva. In such a time of peril Lord Shiva came forward to help his disciple Bana. Resultantly a battle took place between Lord Krishna and Lord Shiva. Shri Krishna won the battle and rescuing his grandson Anirudha along with Usha Devi went back to Dharaka. In history, this battle is called ‘The Battle of Hari-Har.’ It is called so because the battle took place between two gods as Shri Krishna (Hari) and Shiva (Har).
Description of My Visit: I had a long hope to visit the Agnighar where Princes Usha was kept in isolation. Last year during the Summer Vacation the chance came and I seized it without failing. Fortunately one of my cousins happened to stay there for someday. I told him about my curiosity to visit the place and he immediately agreed to accompany me. on the first day of July, we started our journey by a night super. we reached the place next day at about 9 o’clock in the morning. I spent there a week. My cousin took me to many historical spots of Sonitpur.
Sonitpur is a very beautiful place with charming natural scenery. The place is so neat and clean that I got astonished. We saw the Agnighar, the Maha Bhairabi Mandir and the relics of the capital city of King Bana.
Conclusion: Thus enjoying the historical monuments of Sonitpur I quenched my long-nursed curiosity and returned home after a week. The memory of this visit will remain fresh in my mind for long. 0 0 0
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (OF ENVIRONMENT)
Our surrounding both natural and man-made is called environment. It includes air, water, trees, animals, rivers, hills, houses, factories, industries etc. The human being is not only the slave of the natural environment but also the dependent on it. Without the use of natural objects, human life is impossible. Nature is the sole resources of all energy for a human being. When our surrounding remains unaffected by human activities then it is called a sound environment. But with the increase in the human population, the natural environment has been deteriorating rapidly. As a result, natural sustainability has been decreasing rapidly day by day. The decrease of the natural standard of the environment is called environmental pollution and this pollution has stood as a menace in the face of human civilization. The environmental pollution may be classified as – air pollution, soil pollution, water pollution and sound pollution. But the human being is not conscious of this degradation of the natural environment for which human being has been facing some fatal problems. Already UNESCO and some countries of the world have become conscious of this degradation of the environment and resultantly some measures have been taken for the protecting environment by the governments which may be summarized as follows:
First UNESCO has declared 5th June as World Environment Day and has invoked all the countries of the world to take certain measures to make people conscious of the degradation of the natural environment. On that day some seminars are held in the educational institutes and concerned government departments where the teachers, students and officials along with common people talk about the environmental problems, the effect of environment on flora and fauna and thus people are going to be aware of the fatal effects of the degradation of the natural environment.
Secondly, our country has passed a law concerning the development of natural sustainability of the environment. The uses of all kind of chemical fertilizers that can spoil the natural stamina of soil are prohibited from using on the crop fields to save soil from being polluted.
Thirdly, the government has taken some bold steps for social foresting the main objectives of which is to plant trees in the village areas and uncultivated lands. The government has opened a scheme of providing financial assistance to the sapling nursery industries with a view to encourage social forestation.
Fourthly, many of the forests have been nationalized and declared as protected sanctuaries. Many saplings have been being planted every year in the reserved lands.
Fifthly, hewing of trees is prohibited strongly. To decrease the dependence on wood for fuel, the government has taken steps to popularize the use the solar energy and other conventional resources of energy in household affairs.
Sixthly, under Industry Act the government has taken some steps so that the concern authorities must take some measures to reuse the refuse and it is highly suggested that the refuse might not fall into the soil and water that may cause degradation of their natural standard.
Seventhly, in the school curriculum, a subject or topic on environment has been prescribed to be read by the students in order to make them conscious of the degradation of the natural environment and to make how to safeguard earth from being polluted.
Eighthly, sound pollution is another menace to the face of human society. The main sources of sound pollution are sounds issued out of automobiles, microphones, radios, televisions, fireworks and the sound issued out of the factories and industries. The air pollution mainly effects on our ear-drum, lung and brain which resultantly cause harm to our organism. According to Indian Council of Medical Research the sound issued out of the radio, television, microphone should be from 35 to 45 decibel. And the sound issued out of factories and industries should not be more than 85 decibels. But in our country, it is seen that this standard has not been maintained. For this, of late the government has taken steps to control the sound pollution. In some countries for example in Japan, decibel meters have been set up in the towns and cities to see that the propensity of sound does not break the prescribed limit.
Ninthly, the government has promulgated a law through which every municipality has been ordered to maintain to use spittoons and dustbins in the cities to keep it clean.
All these measures have been taken by the government to control the pollution of natural environment. But in India, the laws are often ignored because of people’s illiteracy and corruption of the governmental officials. But it is worth praised that the government has become conscious of the fatal menace faced by human society because of environmental degradation. If the steps taken by the government can be enforced effectively then the menace, we have faced due to environmental degradation, may be overcome in the days to come. Of course the government of every country of the world must come forward willingly and co-operate with each other in solving this deadly problem. And only then we would get an earth free from pollution to live with healthy and sound body and mind. 0 0 0
THE ROLE OF MOBILE PHONE
The mobile phone is a wonderful invention of the late twentieth century Science. Now-a-day it is the most used necessary tool used in the world of human communication.
There are lots of benefits of the use of mobile phone.
First, the mobile phone makes our communicative system more easy and comfortable. By means of a mobile phone, we can contact any person around the world within minutes.
Secondly, we can share text messages with beautiful photos and video clips with our friends and relatives easily.
Thirdly, we can enjoy video games in mobile phone. Apart from that, we can listen to music also at our convenience.
Fourthly, of late internet facility is provided through mobile phone taking advantage of which we can watch TV programmes, read rare books and download lots of data at any time.
Thus. the mobile phone provides us with so much service that it may be called a unique boon of science upon mankind.
In spite of such advantages of the mobile phone, there are some disadvantages or bad effects of the use of it as:
First, mobile phone while used creates certain radiation which falls negative effect on our health. Much use of it may cause serious diseases as cancer, heartbeat, deafness, tumour, visual disturbance etc.
Secondly, the use of mobile phone interferes with people’s activities. For example, while calling or receiving call distracts the attention of the nearby people who may be busy in some important business.
Thirdly, some people misuse it by calling or sending unnecessary messages to people which may harm them.
Fifthly, report says that juvenile crime is increasing because of the misuse of mobile phone.
To sum up, as most things have some negative effect so has the mobile phone but we can assure that its advantages outweigh its disadvantages. 0 0 0
CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES OF ENERGY
Energy refers to the ability of something to make things happen, whether it is moving something, heating it up, or changing it in some way. Energy exists in many different forms including electricity, sound, heat and light. All resources of energies are classified into two types as– Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy is the energy of moving objects, while Potential Energy is energy that is stored, ready for use. Human life is possible because of the use of energy that we get from different resources. There are some resources of energy which are called Conventional Sources of Energy such as- the sun, wind, wood, water, cow dung and some others. They are called so because they are used conventionally (from generation to generation). The use of conventional sources of energy may be described briefly as follows:
The Sun is the most used conventional source of energy. Man uses its heat and light in performing all the day to day works as drying up woods, crops, clothes, preparing foods and so many.
The wind is another source of energy which is used conventionally. By means of wind people sailboats, ships in the rivers and seas. In winning chuffs from grains wind is also used. Besides these, some people use wind as a means of drifting away things from one place to another.
Wood, coal cow-dung etc. are other resources of conventional energy. People use them as fuel and in cold countries, people burn coals for keeping their houses warm.
Nowadays the emphasis is given on the use of conventional resources of energy because of the scarcity of electric sources. Besides these, the scientific or electric energies have some side effects as they cause environmental pollution. It is seen that some developed countries like Japan, German, France, and Switzerland have passed laws in favour of using conventional sources of energy to lessen the propensity of environmental pollution.
But people are not conscious of the benefits of the use of conventional sources of energy. The government may take necessary steps to popularize the use of these conventional sources of energy. 0 0 0
KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK
Kaziranga National Park, a site for world heritage is situated in the districts of Golaghat and Nagaon, Assam. Its land area is 430 square kilometre. The nearest city to Kaziranga is Jorhat, Tezpur. It is declared as a national park by the Indian Government in 1905. It is especially famous for one-horned rhinoceros. The park hosts two-thirds of the world’s one-horned rhinoceros. The term ‘Kaziranga’ is derived from the Karbi word ‘kajir-a-rang’ which means ‘the village of the Kajir’.
According to a popular traditional belief, once the locality of Kaziranga was ruled by a Karbi woman named Kajir and after her name, the area ruled by her was called by Kaziranga.
Through the bed of Kaziranga two rivers- Difu and Vengra and many streams have been flowing from east to west. Its soil is fertile done by the mud of the mighty Brahmaputra. Kaziranga is the habitat of many precious wild animals, birds and trees. Of the total area, the 28 per cent is covered by a variety of trees, 66 per cent is grassland and 6 per cent is covered by marshy area.
Among its trees, there are shal, Shishu, cotton, jamu, ajar, kabai, sunaru, teak and many others. Among its animals, there are rhinoceros, buffalo, elephant, deer, monkey, porcupine, cats, jackal, leopard etc. The park is full of many kinds of birds among which mention may be made of cock, ducks, vulture, goose, wren, crow, pigeon, bulbul, parrot, kite, heron kingfisher and so on.
Kaziranga now has been facing a menace of poachers. Every year many rhinoceros have been poached by the poacher because of its horn, many elephants are killed for its teeth. Another menace the park has been facing is the cutting of its trees and deforestation caused by the explosion of population. Every year many acres of land of the park have been deforested and occupied by the homeless people ignoring the law. In addition to these, the great flood has been doing great erosion to the park every year besides taking away the lives of many birds and animals.
The Kaziranga National Park is maintained by the Government by Assam. But in time to time, the Indian Government also renders financial assistance and suggestions for its conservation and development. For its maintenance, there is an especial forest force with modern facilities.
Kaziranga is now a world heritage and many tourists from other states and even from foreign countries come to Assam to enjoy the wild animals especially world famous one-horned rhinoceros and its natural beauty. To visit the entire Kaziranga there are a departmental elephant, cars, boats etc. In Kohera there is an inn for the tourists. Every year the Assam Government has been earring a lot of royalties from the Kaziranga National Park.
Kaziranga is not a forest or park only but also a resource of bio-diversity. The people of Assam as well India are proud of it. We should protect this world heritage from the hand of the poachers, smugglers, and illegal intruders and to bring about this into reality the local people must co-operate with the government. 0 0 0
HOW I SPENT MY LAST SUMMER VACATION
The students generally have a great weakness for holidays. As the Summer Vacation is big and long in span of all holidays so the students keep waiting for its arrival very eagerly. Every year our Summer Vacation generally falls on 1st July and it lasts till 31st of the month. During the last summer vacation I had postponed my usual daily routine and made an especial routine to spend the month meaningfully as follows:
I usually got up very early in the morning and had a long morning walk along the bank of the river Pallah. The morning walk took about half an hour and then after returning home, I got my hand and face washed. Then I took my breakfast and sat down to read books. As I am weak in Mathematics so I spent more than two hours in studying Mathematics and at 10 o’clock, I took my bath and after having food, I watched some educational programmes in the television till 12 o’clock. After this, I did either some household works or helped my father in the field for two hours.
In the afternoon, from 3 o’clock, I sat down to read my books again, especially English and Science. Sometimes I read some out books besides my school curriculum. I kept busy in my studies till 5 p.m. and then I went to the field to play cricket with my friends. Sometimes I played badminton also.
I returned home just before the sun setting and washing off my hand and face I prayed to God with my father and then after having a glass of water, I sat down to study my books. I continued my studies till 10 o’clock. After having finished my studies, I took my super and for about an hour I watched scientific channels, especially National Geography in the television. At about 11 o’clock I fell on my bed and had a sound sleep.
But on every Saturday and Sunday, I did not follow the above routine. On every Saturday morning, I attended my music school. Our music lesson continued till 10 p.m. After this, for the whole noon, I kept myself busy doing household duties. In the evening I went to the village library and read magazines, newspapers and books on general knowledge. Sometimes I played with my little sister and brother.
On the 15th July, I along with my mother went to my maternal grandmother’s house which is about ten kilometres away from our home. We spent five days there. My grandmother fed us some variety of delicious food items like fried rice, flattened rice, laddos, cakes, besides feeding us chicken meats.
Thus I spent the last summer vacation and enjoyed the days fully. 0 0 0
Physical exercise refers to bodily movement or the use of the parts of our body in order to keep our body active and healthy. In other words, to say, physical exercise is a course of activities followed regularly for good health. Walking, riding, swimming, running, playing etc. are some forms of good physical exercise.
There is a great value of exercise. It improves our health. It makes our body sound, strong and active. Physical exercise falls a good effect both on our body and mind. It is said, ‘Health is wealth.’ A sound mind in a sound body is a source of happiness. Those who ignore physical exercise become weak in mind and health. A man of weak health suffers in life. He is attacked by many diseases.
There are many people who refuse to take physical exercise and grow up to suffer a lot in life. The students should be very careful about their health. They should remember that the time spent on exercise is never wasted. They should take part in games and sports. Health is the source of all happiness and bliss. If we lose health, we lose precious wealth in life.
There are many forms of exercise. But all forms of exercise are not suitable for all. Strong men can take almost all forms of exercise but the weak and the old cannot do so. Of all forms of exercises, regular walking up to at least three kilometres is considered to be a good exercise.
To keep our body and mind healthy, active, strong and fit there is no substitute for physical exercise.
Resources like air, water, sunlight, forests, land, rock, soil, minerals, metals etc. obtained from Nature are called Natural Resources. Natural resources are extremely necessary for the survival of any organism including human being.
Categories of Natural Resources:
On the basis of availability, natural resources are divided into two categories: Renewable Natural Resources and Non-renewable Resources.
The resources that are either reproduced naturally or can be reproduced or increased with the efforts of human labour are called Renewable Resources. These resources are plants, fresh air, water, land, animals etc.
On the other hand, Non-renewable Resources are those which are limited in quantity and can never be reproduced with human endeavours. The quantity of such resources is decreased with consumption. For examples: petroleum, coal, minerals, metals etc.
In addition to these two categories, natural resources are again divided into two categories, as Biological (Biotic) Resources and Abiotic (Non-living) resources:
Biotic Resources are the natural resources derived from the biosphere and contain life-saving flora, plants and animals.
On the other hand, Abiotic (Non-living) Resources are the resources that include non-living things like air, soil, water, mineral, metals etc.
Importance of Natural Resources:
All living beings are dependent on natural resources for their survival. Without the use of natural resources, no life is possible to survive on earth. Different resources have different importance in human life such as we need oxygen to take a breath. Sunlight gives us the heat that we need for our daily needs. Growth of plants requires land, soil and water. The tree gives fruits, vegetables, wood, etc. Using wood, we make paper, built house, bridge and various types of furniture. We need water to drink, wash clothes, to grow plants etc.
Other natural resources like petroleum, minerals, coal etc. are used for various purposes. Different types of energy can be produced by different sources such as solar energy can be produced by sunlight, hydroelectric power is produced by using water, electricity is produced by coal and water is burned by burning coal to produce electricity.
Minerals and metals are found deep beneath the soil and are used to make coins, gold, steel and many other things needed for our day to day life. Petroleum is used as fuel for transportation.
Availability of Natural Resources:
Some renewable resources are very limited and rarely available in the world, such as petroleum and metals. In India, hundreds of minerals are produced in various places, which is very important for financial gain. We export these minerals to other countries and import some other minerals not available in India. In the case of petroleum, each country has a different percentage of the production of petroleum and they import or export petroleum as per their requirement.
Impact of the Destruction of Natural Resources:
With the increase of human population, the impact of natural resources has also increased. To meet the daily needs and comfort of human being, the natural resources are being consumed without considering their availability. People cut trees and clean forest to get arable land and to build human habitation. Resultantly the balance of nature has been degrading. For want of sufficient trees, the natural environment is being degraded. The cultivators use chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase the quantity of food-grain which in turn has been deteriorating the natural stamina of soil. Likewise, the industrial refuse and debris have been polluting the water resources.
If we still do not understand the importance of natural resources, the consequences are risky for everyone. Without fresh air and water, people’s lives will become impossible in the future. So, to avoid this catastrophic situation, we should be conscious of the considerate and sparing use of natural resources. 0 0 0
Children’s Day in India is an annual event celebrated on 14 November. It is celebrated on the birth anniversary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India.
Pandit Nehru shared a very cordial relationship with the children and was always vocal about their psychological and physical needs. In his opinion, the progress of a nation is determined by how well its children are raised. He also emphasized that children’s education is compulsory and should be provided compulsorily.
Respecting Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s love and views on children, we celebrate Children’s Day on his birthday. Before his death in 1964, Children’s Day in India was observed on 20 November as ‘Universal Children’s Day’. After the death of Pandit Nehru on November 14, his date of birth is designed to celebrate as ‘Children Day’ in India in his honour.
Children’s Day is celebrated enthusiastically by children across the country. Although it is not a public holiday, most classes are suspended to allow time for events. Children participate in many recreational and entertainment activities that their teachers have organized for them.
Some of the activities include gifts, tanga (horse chariot) rides, swings, magic shows, etc. Children love to hang out and cherish those moments, remembering their ever-loving uncle Nehru for thinking so rationally about their welfare.
Some schools also organize speech programs, in which children are asked to give speeches on Pandit Nehru and Children’s Day. They know about the works and thoughts of Pandit Nehru and confirm their belief in him.
Children’s Day is a very essential event and is like an awareness program for the welfare of children. 0 0 0
National Integrity implies that all the people of a nation are equal regardless of their interests, religion, race, sex and class. To build a strong nation, it is very important to have national unity or a sense of unity among the people.
Maintaining national unity is essential for every country. A nation will be great only if it is successful in maintaining unity among the diversity of the people of the country, but this is possible only when the people living in that country have awareness, intelligence, tolerance, new ideology, positive thoughts and generous heart.
Despite having different religions and castes, the thing that takes our country on the path of progress is our national unity. That is why we must understand the true meaning of “unity in diversity” in India. It does not mean that the nature of integrity should be due to racial and cultural equality here. Rather, it means that despite this difference there is unity. India has the second-largest population in the world.
People of all major religions of the world live here with different languages. In spite of all differences, we should live in peace with each other without any political and social dispute. We should enjoy unity in this great country where everything is diversified to fulfil the purpose of national integration. Therefore, looking at these reasons, we can say that if we want to develop our country fully, there is a need for national unity among us.
There are many factors that act as barriers in creating national unity, as:
The first factor is Communalism. Communalism is allegiance to one’s own ethnic group rather than to the wider society. It thinks that other communities and their beliefs are inferior. Communalism is the main threat to the unity of our country.
Terrorism is a serious challenge facing the world today. People with terrorist ideology want to express their views through fear and terror. At present, terrorism is constantly trying to break our national unity.
Despite the existence of communalism and terrorism, the national integrity of India is worth praising. 0 0 0
‘Teacher’s Day’, in India is celebrated on 5 September every year to thank the teachers for their contributions to the nation. It is celebrated enthusiastically by students to commemorate the birth anniversary of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
In our school too, Teachers’ Day is celebrated with great joy and gaiety. Students take all necessary precautions for their performances and other events.
Speech rehearsals are also very common during Teacher’s Day, as students give speeches commemorating Dr Radhakrishnan and thanking their teachers.
In our school, Teachers’ Day is celebrated like a school festival and students are at liberty to choose and summon a distinguished personality as the chief guest.
Our school suspends regular classes on Teacher’s Day so that both teachers and students can make the most of the day and enjoy it. The money for the stage and other decorations are voluntarily collected through donations by the students.
On Teacher’s Day, the celebration is inaugurated by the chief guest and the principal together. The opening ceremony is followed by dance, singing and speech performances.
Once the performance is over, the host calls the teachers on stage and presents them with gifts, cards or flowers by their students. The teacher who receives the maximum gifts is coined as “Teacher of the Year” and he is presented with a memorandum.
The Teachers’ Day would be more and more meaningful if the teachers on that day take a vow to be more sincere and ideal for the students. 0 0 0
Rainy Season or Rainy Day
In India, the rainy season generally falls during the months of June and July. However, like summer and winter, the rainy season also comes with its negative and positive effects to us.
There are some positive effects of the rainy season as:
First, during the rainy season, the rainwater can be collected for various useful purposes. This helps prevent the problem of water scarcity.
Secondly, rain is necessary for proper growth of crops. Farmers wait for the rainy season to see their crop bloom.
Thirdly, the trees and plants get adequate water and become greener.
Fourthly, the rainy season gives much-needed relief from the heat of the summer season.
Along with the positive effects of Rainy Season, there are some negative effects of it also:
First, there is a lot of waterlogging due to the malfunction of the drainage system. This causes a traffic jam. Going to work during this time becomes a big task.
Secondly, mosquitoes thrive due to waterlogging and resultantly diseases like malaria, typhoid, cholera etc. break up.
Thirdly, the trees are uprooted due to the strong winds during this season. This causes a lot of damage.
Fourthly, power cuts happen more in this season.
Fifthly, the rain gives way to moisture which is very difficult to deal with.
Sixthly, heavy rain causes most sufferance to the people living in slum areas.
Thus, while the rainy season is favoured by almost everyone, its disadvantages cannot be ignored. 0 0 0
The National Festivals of India
The festival celebrated nationwide is called ‘National Festival’. In India, many festivals are celebrated of which Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti are considered to be the most significant. The national festivals of India are celebrated in schools, colleges and in some government offices across the country. They play an important role in the lives of its citizens. The celebration of these festivals brings young minds closer to the country in their unique ways and motivates them to work for its betterment and development.
Among the three significant National Festivals of India, the Republic Day is one. It is celebrated on the 26th of January every year. It is a day to remind the students of the enforcement of the Constitution of free India. It stirs the hearts of the students with a sense of responsibility for the country. Essay, quiz and debate competitions are held on this day. On this occasion, those who drafted the Constitution of India are commemorated, praised and honoured. Many students also get the opportunity to participate in the nationally organized Republic Day program at Rajpath, New Delhi.
The second national festival of India is Independence Day. It is celebrated on August 15 every year. On Independence Day, the heroic deeds of the freedom fighters are commemorated. In schools and colleges, the students celebrate it with some cultural programmes as Poetry recitation, essay writing competition, quiz competitions etc. and realize the sacrifices of the freedom fighters. In some schools and colleges, the students dress up as freedom fighters to celebrate the occasion. Many educational institutions organize kite flying competition as a symbol of expressing freedom.
The third national festival of India is the Gandhi Jayanti. It is celebrated annually on the 2nd of October every year, commemorating the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of India. Gandhiji was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar, Gujrat. He was a freedom fighter, great leader and advocate of Non-violence Policy in gaining a goal. Under his leadership, India got freedom from the hand of the British on August 15, 1947. Considering his contribution to the nation, he is hailed as the ‘Father of India’ and his birth anniversary is celebrated every year as ‘Gandhi Jayanti’. On this day the students are seen dressed as Gandhiji. Speeches are made in praise of Bapu. Painting, debate, quiz and essay competitions are also held on this day.
Thus, the celebration of national festivals in schools and colleges inspire students with a sense of patriotism. Students wait for these festivals throughout the year and participate to them enthusiastically. 0 0 0
Gandhi Jayanti is one a national event of India. It has great significance in the lives of every Indian. It is celebrated annually on the 2nd October, commemorating the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of India.
Gandhiji was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar, Gujrat. He was a freedom fighter, great leader and advocate of Non-violence Policy in gaining a goal. Under his leadership, India got freedom from the hand of the English on August 15, 1947. Considering his contribution to the nation, he is hailed as the ‘Father of India’ and his birth anniversary is celebrated every year as ‘Gandhi Jayanti’. Gandhi firmly believed in truth and non-violence. Not only Indians but foreigners also were inspired by his ideals. In 2007 the United Nations General Assembly announced that 2 October would be celebrated as ‘International Non-violence Day’.
The President and Prime Minister of India celebrate this day by visiting the tomb of Mahatma Gandhi at Raj Ghat in New Delhi. They then pray there along with other political leaders of India. Since Gandhi respected all religions in India, that is why people from different religions gather at the Raj Ghat and pay homage to Mahatma Gandhi.
Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated by people throughout the country as a national festival. Since it is a national festival, schools and colleges remain closed on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti. On the day of Gandhi Jayanti, some cultural programmes are also held in schools and colleges where the students take an active part.
Along with celebrating the Gandhi Jayanti, we should take a vow to be inspired by the noble ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. 0 0 0
Love refers to the intense feeling of affection or interest in something. Love is the highest expression of the human heart. Besides humans, the feeling of love is also present in other beings of nature.
There are different forms of love as love to man. love to the motherland, love to nature, love to God, love to some concrete thing, love to abstract ideas etc. In love, one does not see the other’s faults.
Among the different forms of love, the love to the opposite sex is said to be the extreme form of human love. It is an instinctive feeling of the human heart.
Love to birds and wild animals is another form of love. For love, people domesticate cats, dogs, birds and so on. It is love for which the poets like Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, Raghunath Choudhuri wrote poems in praise of wild birds.
Love is also felt for nature and the natural environment including trees, flowers, forests, mountains, rivers etc. We find a heart-touching description of nature and natural objects in the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore, Rudyard Kipling, Shakespeare and so on.
There is another form of love which is called patriotism. It is the love for one’s motherland. For love to the motherland, some people even sacrifice their lives.
The love of God is the highest form of love. He who loves God become a devotee to Him and practise some religious creeds and rituals and become inspired to lead a pious and virtuous life.
Love does not require any grand deeds for its manifestation. Love can be shown in small things. Love can also be expressed in thoughts and words.
The love between humans is expressed in different ways in different relationships. Parents love their children. The love of parents for their children is selfless. Parents love their children without any expectation. Children also love their parents very much.
In a family, members love each other. This creates harmony and joy in the family. Brothers and sisters love each other. There may be small differences between brothers and sisters in a family, but love binds siblings very strongly together. In marriage too, it is love that keeps husband and wife together in harmony and happiness.
Love is also shared between friends. Good friends are well-wishers with whom a person shares thoughts and feelings. This is how friends share a relationship of love and happiness.
To conclude it is to say that in matters of love we should be sincere and honest. 0 0 0
The trees are said to be the friends of human beings. Humans along with other living beings depend on trees for their survival. Without trees, we cannot imagine the existence of life on Earth. Once before the advent of human being, the earth was full of trees. But with the increase of human population, the number of trees have been decreasing which has fallen an adverse effect on the lives of humans and animals.
Trees play an important role in ecological balance and by protecting trees and growing more and more trees we can ensure the balance of the ecosystem.
The planet Earth is home to humans and millions of other terrestrial and aquatic life forms. Earth is capable of sustaining all forms of life. Earth has air to breathe for life, as well as water and vegetation to provide us with food.
Plants and trees that grow on Earth are valuable for all life forms. Edible roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds are food for humans as well as all vegetarian animals and birds. We also get necessary things like wood, fuel, shade etc. from trees.
The trees are inhabited by many wild creatures. Birds make their nest in trees. Reptiles and insects also live on trees. The forests are home to many big wild animals like tigers, lions, rhinoceros and elephants.
Trees and forests also help maintain the hydrological cycle. They help in maintaining the rainfall pattern and the monsoon cycle. Trees are useful in making the environment pollution free.
Destroying the forest leads to the accumulation of greenhouse gases which causes an increase in the temperature of the atmosphere. This leads to the harmful effects of global warming and climate change.
Trees do not only provide our food and necessary things but also add charm and beauty to nature and the environment. So we should plant more and more trees and encourage our children to do the same for our own benefits. 0 0 0
A doctor is a person who is qualified and trained to treat people who are ill. In other words, to say, a doctor is a qualified and trained medical professional who can diagnose and treat the various health condition of people. In our everyday life, we need the help of a doctor.
The doctors render the noble service of curing the sick and injured persons. The doctor’s work can mean the difference between life and death for a person. Doctors work in clinics and hospitals and sometimes medical camps are also organized where the doctors render their services free of cost.
Some doctors get specialized in a particular disease. The specialists can treat the diseases of particular parts of the human body. For example, an orthopaedician is a specialist in the branch of human bones and treats bone diseases. Likewise, an ophthalmologist treats eye diseases. Similarly, an ENT specialist treats the conditions of the ears, nose and throat. Likewise, a diabetologist treats those people who suffer from diabetes. There are also surgeons who conduct surgeries on patients to cure and repair certain parts of human limbs.
A doctor’s service to human being is so great and noble that he can give life to a moribund patient. Some people regard the doctors to be next to God. We should show sincere respect to the doctors. 0 0 0
Science is a systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation, analysis and experiment. There are three main branches of science as Physical Science, Earth Science and Life Science. Again all these branches of Science have been classified into many sub-branches for better study.
Physical Science studies the inanimate natural objects and the laws that govern them. The physical world includes the Earth also where humans and all other living organisms as the plants, animals, insects etc.
The study of different parts of the physical world comes under different branches of Science.
Geology is a science that helps us learn about the Earth and its many layers and their formation. Physics and Chemistry help us understand the phenomena around us. For example, the phenomenon of lightning and thunder can be understood from the study of physics and chemistry.
Similarly, the phenomena of light, sound, heat, and electricity have been explained through various theories of physics.
Chemistry helps us understand various chemical reactions and the products made by it.
Zoology and Botany help us learn about the animals and plants that we see around us. Medicine is also a science that helps us find out how the physiology of man works.
There are different types of instruments that help us in scientific study. Tools help us understand observations and facts by conducting experiments in the real world or in laboratories. Microscopes are devices that help us study very small life forms as well as invisible life forms such as bacteria.
At the other end, there are telescopes that help us learn more about the heavenly objects in the sky such as stars, planets and galaxies that are far away from us.
In brief, to say, Science is that vast branch of knowledge studying which we can know the inner truth of things. The impact of scientific knowledge on us is so immense that it has drastically changed our lifestyle as well as our outlooks towards life. 0 0 0
Honesty is the Best Policy
Honesty is a set of qualities of a person which includes truthfulness, sincerity, dutifulness and just behaviour. The phrase ‘Honesty is the best policy’ reflects the value and importance of being truthful, sincere, dutiful and moral. It is one of the universally recognized and accepted statements. Honesty is one of the most appreciated characteristics that a person can have. An honest person avoids all kind of lying, cheating, flattery and everything that is immoral and loathsome. Honesty is a lesson which is learnt from the people we live and deal with.
We grow up watching our parents, teachers, and others around us. Honesty is a sign of strength and gives us long-term benefits. An honest person is one who acts as he says and is thus more reliable and credible.
The importance of being honest is immense. There will be more confusion and chaos in our society if everyone keeps lying and cheating with each other. For example, if one gets high marks by copying matters in the exams instead of studying hard, then there will be no importance of having knowledge. Or if we get fake degrees and get jobs then hard work will be of no importance and it will lead to inefficient work performance which can result in many adverse consequences.
Therefore, in every aspect of life, it is important, to be honest. An honest person can lead a more confident and respectable life. The fruits of honesty can be enjoyed for a long time. We all should live an honest life and inculcate this virtue to our children from their cradle. 0 0 0
‘Digital’ is the adjective form of the word ‘digit’ that means any of the numerals from 0 to 9 especially when forming part of a number. In modern technology, the word ‘Digital’ refers to the electronic technology that generates, stores, and process data in terms of positive and non-positive states. Modern world is termed as ‘digital world’ because of the availability and the use of digital tools to communicate on the internet through digital devices like computer, smartphones, i-phones etc.
Digital India initiative is a very meaningful program launched by the Government of India to improve digital connectivity and make governance in the country more transparent. Digital technologies are increasingly being used in day to day life.
This technology is used for bill payment, booking tickets, transferring money, etc. It is being used in retail stores, educational institutions, government offices and almost everywhere. They help us in online transactions, connect with each other and share information from anywhere in the world.
Digital India is transforming India and revolutionizing people’s lives through various aspects of the program. There has been tremendous growth in the various services and sectors that make our country a digital one. It aims to train rural people, make them digitally literate and provide various job opportunities in rural areas. With the effective implementation of e-governance, information technology can reach the common man.
There is no doubt that Digital Technology has revolutionised the world of ours and has been transforming our lifestyle tremendously yet it has some disadvantages also as: security issue, terrorism, complexity, social disconnect, work overload, plagiarism, fake data, addiction etc.
In conclusion, it is to say that the advantages of the use of digital technology outweigh its disadvantages. 0 0 0
‘Drug addiction’ is a complex neurobiological disease. People who have drug addiction experience compulsive, often uncontrollable craving for their drug of choice.
Drug addiction is not an immoral code of conduct but a chronic disease that has various direct and indirect effects on the addicted person. The severity depends on the use of a specific drug and the quantity of the usage. It can lead to changes in mood, changes in appetite, weakness, blood pressure, etc. There are other more persistent effects like mental illness, cancer, heart disease, lung disease, etc.
There are a lot of indirect effects on the addicted person and the people around him. This can include affecting a person’s sleep, nutrition and decision-making ability, education, employment, social relationships, family status and can lead to violence, injury, engagement in illegal activities, unprotected sex, HIV and other transmissible diseases.
Drug addiction results in the following effects on the addicted persons:
Drug addicted people often lose their consciousness that can lead to unprotected sex. It greatly increases the chance of contracting HIV and other transmissible diseases.
The Drug addicted people easily develop mental health issues like depression, paranoia, anxiety disorders and aggressive behaviour.
One might get into criminal activities to meet the daily need of drug supply in case of the financial crisis.
It may lead to cardiovascular conditions like abnormal heart rate and heart attacks. It can also cause infections of the blood vessels and heart valves.
Chronic use of some drugs like heroin and steroids can cause severe damage to the liver and can also lead to liver failure.
So, there are several undesirable direct and indirect effects of drug addiction that can relapse. Such addiction for a long term can damage one’s personal and social life completely.
It is wise to avoid such fatal habit for a secure, better and healthy life. 0 0 0
Road safety refers to the methods used to prevent road accidents and to protect road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, bikers and other vehicle passengers and drivers from being injured or killed on the road.
The major goal of road safety measures is to reduce the impact of speed affecting the severity of accidents. It is estimated that approximately 1 million people die in road accidents each year.
This issue is more important in developing countries. Severely high speeds cause serious injuries. The speed of the vehicle should be limited to reduce the impact of speed which can cause serious injuries to the victims on both sides.
Other factors that can cause accidents are driver’s illness or fatigue, drink and drive, brake failure or steering failure and poor roadside to name a few.
Safety can be improved by following responsible driving and traffic rules and by designing vehicles to reduce the intensity of accidents. Traffic calming measures are used to improve road safety. The modern paradigm of road safety replaces the Killed or Seriously Injured (KSI) rate with the accident rate i.e. accident per million vehicle miles.
Along with improving road construction, several safety-related methods and systems have been devised to improve road safety.
In conclusion, it is said that the drivers should avoid the taking of drugs and narcotics of any kind and should follow the traffic laws strictly for the safety of themselves, pedestrians and passengers. 0 0 0
Knowledge is Power
Knowledge is knowing things, facts, information, skills and awareness regarding something gained through experience and education. It is a theoretical or practical understanding of the subject under study.
Knowledge is important in every aspect of life. We are rarely aware of what skills or information we need. It is important to stock up a wide range of subjects and to acquire skills that we think will be useful in the future.
Man is not strong enough like a tiger nor can run fast like a horse nor can they fly like a bird, yet he is the most powerful species on earth due to knowledge. A tiger is physically strong but on the contrary, man is more powerful in mental capacity and thoughts. Physical strength is important but when we combine it with our mental strength we get a better understanding of how to use it better.
Knowledge helps us to transform our thoughts into action. Humans can domesticate birds and animals, train and rule them and use them with skills because humans are mentally superior to them.
Knowledge is the real power gifted to humans by nature. It distinguishes them from other beings. Humans can acquire, learn, understand, experiment, research, perform, share and enhance their skills and knowledge. The more knowledge they acquire, the more power, capacity and authority they gain.
Man has progressed and developed to a great extent by his intelligence. He has physical as well as intellectual strength. With mental capacity, it is possible to advance and achieve superiority when physically strong.
Knowledge can be used both in positive deeds and negative deeds. When we use our knowledge, we should act wisely avoiding its negative or harmful effects. 0 0 0
Poverty is the lack of adequate finances, status and possession of other things which are necessary to live a peaceful life. It refers to deprived economic and social conditions. This indicates the low income and inability to obtain basic necessities such as food, shelter, clothing, education and healthcare.
There is a term called ‘Cycle of Poverty’. It refers to an event where poverty persists for at least three generations. There are limited or no resources for such families.
There are five primary factors which are responsible for poverty in a family or in a state, or in a community. The factors include ignorance, disease, apathy, dishonesty and dependency. These factors, in turn, contribute to the secondary factors such as poor infrastructure, lack of market, wrong leadership, bad governance, under-employment, lack of skill, lack of capital and some others. According to an estimate of the World Bank, 220% people of India live under the poverty line and 36% of the world population have been living in extreme poverty.
Poverty is a curse upon society. It demoralises people and undermines the qualities and skill in them. By adopting proper and honest measures, poverty can be driven away from society. For this, the Government must take the initiatives and strengthen the infrastructure like providing proper cropland, necessary finance, proper market to sell products, education, modern tools, transport etc.
It is a matter of shame for us to live under the poverty line in this peak age of science. As long as there is poverty in any region of the world, humanity can not claim to be civilised to the true sense. 0 0 0
Technology is the practical use of machinery and pieces of equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge and invention. The 21st century is empowered with the gift of technology such as the Internet, smartphones, super-fast computers, smart TVs, artificial intelligence (robots) etc. Technology has become a part and parcel of our everyday routine and has revolutionized our lives in unimaginable ways.
In almost all the sphere of our daily life, technology has been playing a vital role without which the machinery of the modern civilisation would cease to survive.
Technological innovations have made man’s life convenient, easier and better than it was yesterday. This has made it possible to connect people from all over the world via smartphone, email, video call etc.
Technology has replaced the traditional modes of transport and provided us with swift cars, trains, aeroplanes, jet plane, etc. Medical Science has also developed beyond imagination. Today almost all the deadly diseases are under cure. Today we have technological innovations such as Ultra Sound, MRI scans, surgical pieces of machinery and other advanced tools.
Technology has now become the most integral part of the development of any nation. Technology has also revolutionised the agricultural production beyond imagination.
I n the field of education also, Technology has been being widely used and nowadays it is possible to acquire knowledge on anything with the press of a key button only.
Though technology has revolutionised the age of ours, yet it has given rise to some negative effects also. For example:
It has produced a vicious cycle of cyber warfare, hackers, terrorist attacks, social tensions and so on.
It has made people addicted to social networking making them dull and ignorant. Modern technology is eroding the creativity of human hands and brain.
For too much use of technology in every field of human activity, the natural environment has been degrading day by day.
The world of today is so much technology dependent that it is quite impossible to come out its net. But we should use it for our fair purpose only so that we can get rid of its bad effects. 0 0 0
Book is a written or printed work in any language giving information on anything consisting of pages sewn or glued together along one side and bound in covers.
It is said that the tradition of writing books began in ancient Egypt. Then the books were written by hand on the barks or leaves of trees called papyrus. But with the invention of the printing press in Germany by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century, a new revolutionary turn came to the world of books and the production of books became cheap, easy and available. Again with the beginning of the twenty-one century, a new revolution began in the world of books and since then the books have been taking a new shape called ‘Digital book’ or ‘Electronic book’. Digital books are available only in digital devices like computer, smartphones, iPhones etc.
There is various kind of books on a variety of subjects. But all the books are classified broadly into two categories as Fiction and Non-fiction. Again on the basis of theme, subject matter, form and style books are classified into some branches as Poetry, Essay, Novel, Short Story, Drama etc. Over again, books are categorised subjectwise also as: Literature, Science, Mathematics, Geography, History etc.
Books are said to be the best carrier of knowledge and civilisation. The great messages and teachings of great philosophers and thinkers are recorded and preserved in books for the next generations and thus the mobility of knowledge has become more and more flexible and easy.
All the great inventions of science and the progress of mankind have become possible for books. It is seen that the nations which produce more books and study more they become more developed and civilised.
A book has thousandfold benefits. Books are our best friends. A book can make us happy when we are alone or unhappy. It can change our mind and give meaning to our life. Books are a treasure of knowledge. Books can take us anywhere in the universe through words and pictures. We can learn about the world of matter and spirit in reality and through the imagination of the author.
There is no alternatives to books. We should form the habit of reading books from our childhood. 0 0 0
When a child under the age of fourteen is put to work in an industry or in any business or in a household for monetary purpose depriving of their regular schooling and freedom is called ‘Child Labour’. Child labour is illegal and considered exploitive.
In spite of the existence of law against child labour, in many countries of the world including India, child labour has been going on both in the cities and the villages.
Child labour is a deeply rooted social evil which has, in turn, led to other social issues such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage, severe and forced labour at low cost and many more.
Some of the other acts include hiring children under fourteen for such activities like prostitution, pornography, production and smuggling of drugs etc. Al these acts are not only illegal but also immoral, inhuman and anti-social. The engagement of children in work harms their health, development, safety and morality.
According to the Constitution of India, children under the age of 14 are absolutely prohibited to engage in any kind of factory, quarry or other hazardous employment. They should be provided free and compulsory education by the government. They should not be misused and forced by economic necessity. They should be given full opportunities and all necessary facilities to develop in a healthy way. Despite all these rules and regulations, there are many industries and businesses that are using child labour.
It is rightly said that the children of today are the citizens of tomorrow. If the children of today are exploited and are deprived of their proper growth, education, development then the future of the nation would ruin and the humanity would be degraded lamentably in the hand of immature, inadept, weak and immoral citizens. So the child labour must be eliminated erelong enforcing the law with all its rigidity. 0 0 0
Christmas is an annual festival of the Christians celebrated on December 25 every year. Though it is primarily a festival for those who follow Christianity, yet in course of time, it has become popular among all sects of people. There is a lot of attraction in India for this festival because it brings lots of fun and enjoyment. Children enjoy Christmas very much as they get gifts, sweetmeats etc. from their elders. Many Indian states such as Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh show especial attraction for this festival.
Christmas is also popular in Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal because Kolkata (Calcutta) was the capital city during the reign of the East India Company.
Christmas is celebrated to commemorate the birthday of Jesus Christ. During Christmas, people forget their enmity and come together to celebrate their beloved Lord’s birthday with great zeal and enthusiasm. By distributing sweets and gifts, people spread the message that our actions should be equally fruitful and be devoid of hatred or enmity.
The Christmas tree and Santa Claus are an essential part of this festival. A huge cedar or cedar tree is decorated with glitter, chocolate, gifts, sweets, etc. Cities are illuminated by different types of light. The passion and charm of the Christmas festival have been increasing year by year and has now become one of the national festivals of India.
We should not take the festival as a means of fun and entertainment only but we should also be inspired by the noble ideals and teachings of Jesus Christ. 0 0 0
Clearing a forest off its trees and vegetation is called ‘Deforestation’. The land thus obtained is then used for constructing residential or industrial areas or for the practice of agriculture or for laying roads or railway tracks. In this process, many development goals human being are satisfied. But the ecosystem and environment are irreversibly damaged due to deforestation.
Trees and vegetation in a forest take a long time to grow. Although a forest takes years to grow, man’s desire and greed can destroy it in minutes. Trees and forests play a very important role in our ecosystem. Forests have a great floral variety that includes trees, creepers, climbers, grasses, shrubs, herbs etc.
Many wildlife species like mammals, birds, reptiles and insects live in the forest. There live large animals such as elephants, rhinoceros and tigers, and smaller ones such as foxes, jackals, antelopes, rabbits etc.
There are many types of birds endemic or native or migrants found in forests. There are many varieties of snakes, butterflies and insects that also live in the forest. All these wildlife species depend on forests for their food.
These species lose their homes and food when forests are cleared. Thus we lose wildlife diversity by cutting down the trees of the forest. It is from deforestation that we have lost wildlife like leopards and many others and the lives of many species are endangered. Some species have got extinct so far.
The scientific report says that humans are in imminent danger and ruin due to the adverse effect of their foolish acts towards nature. For want of ample forest land, global warming is increasing. The climate is changing. Drought and untimely flood are now common phenomena. All these foretell that the future of the Earth as well the living organisms on it are facing a drastic menace in the imminent future.
Therefore if we want to keep our mother-earth habitable and congenial to us and to other living beings we should prohibit deforestation and must take to plant more and more trees. Let us protect the forest, let us live like humans. 0 0 0
‘Manner’ refers to a person’s outward way of behaving towards others. Again ‘ Good Manners’ refers to the manners which is polite, just and morally correct. Good manners are reflected in how we conduct ourselves in our daily life. We can also show good manners at home, at school, on the playground, and in any other place, whether we are travelling on a bus or flight, or enjoying an excursion or vacation.
Our parents and teachers help us to develop good manners. It is best to learn good manners in childhood. If we have good manners, we are appreciated and loved by our family, teachers, classmates and friends.
Respecting elders is good manners. It is also good behaviour to show courtesy to our elders. We show good manners by what we speak and the way we complain. Our body language can also reflect good manners. If we are polite our words should also be polite.
Good manners don’t support rude, profane and egoistic behaviour. We can show humility when we speak using sweet language. Speaking slowly and mildly is a feature of good manners. On the other hand, speaking loudly and being rude is bad manners. It is good that we say thanks to those who help in our need. Likewise, it is humility to justify forgiveness.
Being polite and considerate is good behaviour. For example, closing a door on a person’s face is a bad manner. Being considerate towards the sick and physically disabled is good behaviour.
Our manners express our personality. If our manner is good then our personality is said to be good. Good manners also consist of speaking truth and being honest. Because without the qualities of truthfulness and honesty our dealings towards others would be fake and artificial.
Good manner can make our social life more and more fine, peaceful, brotherly and co-operative. Therefore we should practise the habit of good manners from our childhood and the parents should give emphasis to inculcate good manner to their children. 0 0 0
‘Independence’ means the state of being free from dependence. From the sixteenth century, many countries of the world had been losing their independece in the hands of some imperialist countries like England, French, Portugal, Spain and some others. India also became a victim of the British occupation in the eighteenth century and they governed India till the first half of the twentieth century. But under a series of struggle, India got its freedom from the grip of the British on August 15, 1947. Then a gazetted holiday is declared to commemorate this date every year. Hence the celebration of the Independence Day on every 15th August becomes a great national festival of India.
The celebration of Independece Day is inaugurated with hoisting the National Flag at 7 o’clock in the morning. It is celebrated with great pomp and entertainment. The Prime Minister of India delivers a lecture addressing the people of India from the Red Fort, Old Delhi. In every school and college, Independence Day is celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm.
On this day many cultural programmes are held in schools, colleges, clubs and some government offices. Some competition is also held.
In some institutions, a special meeting is also held where the teachers and students deliver lectures commemorating the freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives for our motherland.
Independence Day inspires us to be ever ready to love our country and sacrifice our lives for our honour and integrity.0 0 0
Holi is a popular ancient Hindu festival of colour and fun. It is celebrated with great enthusiasm in every nook and corner of the country. It is celebrated predominantly in India and Nepal but it has also spread to some other Asian countries through diaspora from the Indian subcontinent.
People perform the ritual of ‘Holika Dahan’ night before the colourful Holi in the myth of burning all their sins of the last year. ‘Holika Dahan’ or ‘Holika Jalana’ belongs to King Hiranyakashyap and his son Prahlad.
There is a big story behind the festival of Holi. Prahlada the son of Hiranyakashipu was a worshiper of Lord Vishnu but was forced to worship his father (Hiranyakashyap). Prahlad refused. His father was very angry and decided to kill his son in various ways. One way was to kill his son through his (Hiranyakashyap’s) sister Holika by sitting in the fire as a boon to keep him alive. Unfortunately, due to the blessings of Lord Vishnu, Prahlada was saved, but Holika (her aunt) was burnt alive. Since that time, people celebrate ‘Holika Dahan’ by burning their sins and stay healthy and happy. The next morning, they celebrate colourful Holi to show their happiness.
After celebrating ‘Holika Dahan’ people celebrate the arrival of spring in the Hindu calendar. It seems to be celebrated with a colourful, messy and chaotic party. For many, it has become less synonymous with religion but more a sport with colours. In its celebration, powder of colour is thrown over everyone and everything. In this festival, old clothes are worn because the power of colour spoils the clothes.
No doubt, holi is a festival of fun and joy but we should be careful in throwing the powder of colours to everyone so that they can not harm us. 0 0 0
Among the significant National Festivals of India, the Republic Day is one. It is celebrated on January 26 every year. It is a day to remind the enforcement of the Constitution of free India. It stirs the hearts of people with a sense of responsibility for the country.
It is celebrated schools and colleges by organizing educational, cultural and sports activities. People put a lot of effort in organizing programs and activities to commemorate the Republic Day. A grand parade is organized by the Indian Army in New Delhi on the Rajpath to honour the Indian flag. This includes special performances by the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force.
A wreath is laid by the Indian Prime Minister at the Amar Jawan Jyoti at India Gate to honour and remember the great soldiers who have fought bravely for the cause of the nation. The Indian Army salute the President of India during the parade. There is a flypast program by the Indian Armed Forces through fighter jets.
Along with celebrating Republic Day, we should be inspired by the ideals of democracy and should take a vow to render our best service to the nation. 0 0 0
My Summer Vacation
‘Summer’ is synonymous with the holiday because we get a full month off from school during the hottest time of the year. I like the summer vacation very much because I can do many interesting things during the vacation. I get enough time during the vacation to develop my hobby and do all the fun activities that I shouldn’t have to do during my school-going days.
I do not sleep late because morning hours are the most productive time of the day. So I wake up early and go for a morning walk with my younger brother to a nearby park. Many other joggers also visit the park. It is refreshing and to go for jogging. After returning from the morning walk, I wash my hand and face and sit down to read books. I also do some additional practice in English.
I also like to play badminton. So I spend the evening hours with my friends in the playground.
I enjoy eating cool salads during the summer. I like to be creative and make salads with raw vegetables like onions, tomatoes and cucumber.
Summer is also the time when we can visit interesting places. My parents take my sister and me for fun activities like river rafting. We also go to the house of our grandparents who live in the village and spend a week with them. My grandparents love us and when we meet them, they treat us with a lot of goodness.
Sometimes I read the biographies and autobiographies of the world personalities. During my summer vacation, I frequent the public library of our locality.
I enjoy my summer vacation doing things on my own accord. 0 0
‘Unemployment’ is a situation where someone of working age and ability is not able to get a job though he is willing to be a full-time employee. Unemployment is an issue that confuses governments around the world.
Unemployment occurs due to many reasons. Despite often being educated there is a high level of unemployment. This may be due to the lack of association between education and the requirements of jobs or job profiles.
Our education system is such that gives emphasis to producing high degree holders but cannot ensure jobs or occupations for them. Educated youth, therefore, remain unemployed, although they have the physical, mental and intellectual capacity to obtain jobs.
The unemployed are often poor and destitute. They lack resources to access food, clothing, shelter and medical facilities required for themselves. For being jobless they become completely dependent upon the resources of others for survival.
Unemployment gives rise to many problems. An unemployed person, due to lack of finance cannot take nutritious food and consequently become prey to various deficiency diseases which can be fatal. Without a roof over their heads, people who are unemployed may have to turn to the streets to live a low life. The number of homeless and street dwellers, therefore, increases day by day. Unemployment and the poverty caused by it also increases the level of a beggar.
People who are unemployed and have no means of livelihood will also not have mental well-being. They may suffer from mental conditions such as depression requiring medical help.
At present unemployment has become a deadly issue throughout the world. Even in the first world countries like the United States of America, Japan, German, France, Arabia etc., this problem have become a principal national issue.
There is no doubt that unemployment is a curse upon society but if the governments of the consisting countries take some decisive measures honestly, we think this fatal problem must be solved.
Man is the supreme being of all the beings created by God. It appears as if a man has been created to rule the rest. Man is the most blessed creation of God. He is the most intelligent and powerful of all beings. But man is an inseparable part of the world of Nature. The world of Nature works according to certain rules and its own principles. Being a member of the vast world of Nature, man has certain duties and responsibilities towards the rest of the world of Nature. God created the world of Nature in such a design that every object and creature is maintained in norms and balance. Therefore humans have certain responsibilities towards other beings.
These creatures are victims of nature and human attacks. Innumerable varieties of creatures die in natural disasters and many are killed for their food, profit and enjoyment.
These helpless creatures are offered as sacrifices at the altar of the gods and goddesses. Human beings have been indifferent to these creatures since time immemorial. Some of these creatures are used by men. Camels are used by men in the desert as a means of communication. Horses are used to travel quickly. Elephants are used to dig and lift wooden logs. Cows and buffaloes are used for ploughing land, driving carts etc. They are our friends and we should think of their protection.
Different countries have different types of wildlife. A country can maintain its unique uniqueness only through its wildlife and their destruction means losing one of the distinctive characteristics of that country.
India is proud of its wildlife. The most notable among them are elephants, lions, tigers, rhinoceros, species of birds, snakes and insects. The Himalayan region, the Sundarbans and some forest belts of north-east India are areas where tigers are found. We have rhinoceros and elephants in North-East India and lions in the Gir region. All species of birds are found in India. Peacock is the national bird of our country. Snakes and insects of various varieties are found also in abundance in the forests and woods of India.
Unfortunately, some species of birds, animals and snakes are going out of existence. Without any love and sympathy for these helpless creatures, men kill them for food, pleasure and profit. In Assam, rhinoceros become the helpless prey of profit-monitoring hunters.
Wildlife of a country is a valuable asset. It attracts visitors, foreigners and scholars for various purposes. If these creatures are allowed to go out of existence, then our Earth will lose the natural charm, beauty. Many foreign visitors come to India every year to see its wildlife. This helps India earn foreign exchange. If we let our wildlife die, India will lose its distinction and wealth. The distinguishing feature of a country is conditioned by its geographical location, its people, history, religion and natural resources. God has created different creatures in different areas to maintain balance in the scheme of things of the world of nature. Thus, at any cost, we should not allow the extinction of our wildlife.
It is indeed a pleasant sign that our country has made plans and schemes for the conservation of its wildlife. In every state of our country, various departments consisting of experts have been set up to look after wildlife.
Laws have been passed banning the killing of wild animals. The forests are demarcated for the safe habitat of birds and animals. A project named ‘Tiger Project’ has been created for the conservation of tigers.
There are many forests in our country which are reserved for wildlife. Kaziranga and Manas in Assam, Rewa and Kanha in Madhya Pradesh, Gir in Gujarat, Corbett National Park in UP, Hazaribagh National Park in Bihar and so on. The UNO has been providing financial grants for the conservation of wildlife. Thus a worldwide wave is working to conserve this natural wealth.
Modern civilization and industrial advancement have distracted the world of Nature. We should make every effort to maintain balance in the world of Nature in its various fields. Wildlife is a part of nature. Therefore, we should strive for its protection. We should extend our support to various departments created for this noble cause.
Introduction: The camel is a four-footed large, calm animal. It is generally found in the deserts and used as a beast of burden.
Description: It is about eight or nine feet high. It has a long neck, a small head and four slender legs. It is strong and thick. It has a hump on its back. In some countries, there are two humps of a camel. Its body is rough and covered with grey hair. Its legs are wide. It has a long hairy tail. Camel stomach is very large. It contains a large amount of water. So the camel can go without drinking water for several days.
Camel is found in lands where there are great deserts. It is used in the deserts of Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, Egypt and India.
Camel is very adventurous and is famous for its patience. It can travel several miles across the desert. It does not get tired easily. When it travels in the desert, it cannot drink water or eat grass and no shade is found for rest. It drinks a lot of water before starting and can go on without drinking for about a week. It can see things from afar. It can smell water from long distances. It is gentle and painful and it does not harm us. But sometimes, it gets furious and bites us if we tease it too much.
Usefulness: Camel is a very useful animal. It is a beast of burden. The camel carries men and their goods through the burning desert. No other animal can do this. So, it is called the ‘Ship of Desert’. The camel is one of the valuable assets for the people of the desert. People ride on its back and move from one place to another. They can carry goods of trade with the help of camel. They drink his milk and eat meat. The Arab considers it as a sacred animal and takes great care of it. Camel is useful for men both in life and death. Thin brushes and a kind of cloth are made from its hair. Its skin is made in leather.
Conclusion: Nowadays with the invention of various means of advanced communication the demand of a camel seem to be waning. But, as a strange beast of nature, we should preserve it.
Introduction: The monkey is a wild animal. It is generally found in the continents of Asia, Africa and America.
Description: It has four legs. It runs on all fours but sometimes it stands on the hind legs and uses the fore-legs like hands. The monkey is like a man in shape and appearance. Its feet, head, eyes, eyelids, teeth and lips are like that of a man. It has fingers and toes like men. Its body is covered with hair. There is not a single hair on the face and palms. It has a long tail. There are many types of monkeys. Black-faced and red-faced monkeys are commonly seen in India.
Food: The monkey lives on the fruits, roots and leaves of trees. It takes rice and vegetables also. It eats almost all types of fruits but is very fond of bananas and mangoes.
Nature: Monkeys live in soldiers in the forest. The monkey is an intelligent animal. It can jump from one tree to another very quickly. There is great unity among the monkeys. Monkeys cannot build nests. When teased, monkeys become obedient to their master. The monkey is fickle. It sucks the young like a human mother.
Usefulness: Monkey is not so much useful as a cow, cat or dog is to man. It often mischiefs us. It can be trained to show tricks. This can confuse us by showing rickshaws. Many poor people train monkeys to show such tricks. In this way, they earn their bread.
Conclusion: The monkey, like humans, is a creature of Nature. Though it is not so much useful to us yet we should preserve this creature for the balance of biodiversity and natural beauty.
Introduction: The rhinoceros is a ruminant (grass-eating) large animal. It is found in the jungles of Africa and India. The largest type of rhinoceros is found in the forests of Assam. Kaziranga forest in Upper Assam is famous for its rhinos.
Description: Rhinoceros live on grass, leaves, branches and roots of trees. It does not take meat. Rhinoceros like to live in mud. It is a peace-loving animal. Generally, it does not attack other animals. It uses its terrible horn in its defence. Its sense of smell is very curious. Generally, it sleeps during the day and roams about at night. Its life-span is about forty to fifty years. Rhinoceros do not move in herds like elephants.
Usefulness: Shield is made from the skin of rhinoceros. They can protect us from bullets and swords. In ancient times the shields made of rhino skin were widely used in battle. Cups, toys and many useful and wonderful things are made from the horns of rhinoceros. Some tribal people seem to eat their flesh. Rhinoceros is a source of income of the government.
There is a blind faith that the horn of a rhino has the healing power of some diseases and hence some profit-mongering hunters kill it mercilessly. Now, the existence of the rhinoceros is in stake because of poachers.
Conclusion: The rhinoceros is considered a unique animal of Nature. The Government of Assam has taken it as the symbol of the state and has taken various steps to protect it from the hand of the illegal hunters. We should cooperate with the Government to protect this unique creature.
Introduction: The horse is a four-footed useful animal. It is very beautiful to see. The horse is found in almost every country. A race of the wild horse is found in Tartary and America. The horse lives on gram, grass and vegetables.
Description: It has a long body. Its legs are long and thin. Its ears are erect and pointed. Its body is covered with short and shiny hair. It has long hair on its neck. It is called mane. It has a long and flowing tail. Its hoofs are not cloven.
Horses vary in size and colour. There are many types of horses as the Arabian horse, Australian Horse, English Horse, Russian Horse etc. The Arabian horse is very sharp and most beautiful. The Australian horse is very large. The English horse is the most hardworking. The ponies of Burma and Manipur are very small animals.
Nature: Wild horses live in herds of four to five hundred. When trained, they become useful and loyal and obedient servants. It is an affectionate animal and is very much in love with its owner. The horse is often referred to for its allegiance. There are many stories about the honesty of the horse of Rana Pratap of Mewar.
Usefulness: The horse is very useful for humans in peace and war. In ancient times, the trained horses were used in war. Horses are used for riding, hunting, driving and carrying loads. Horses are used in fighting also. In Europe, some people use the horse to plough the land.
Conclusion: We should take care of such useful animals.
Introduction: The lion is a ferocious wild animal. It looks like a giant cat of majestic presence. It is very grand to see. It is called the ‘king of beasts’.
Description: The lion has sharp and powerful claws and teeth. It has soft pads under the feet. Its body is covered with smooth hair and its legs are very strong. Its head is large, eyes-balls are big and vivid. It has a long tail with hair at the end. It has a mustache. The lioness has a long mane. The skin of the lion is light brown. Its height is four to six feet. It lives up to forty to fifty years.
The lion is an animal of prey. It is a fleshing-eating animal and hunts almost of all kinds of animals. It never eats the flesh of its kind.
Nature: Lion is a fearful animal. It is very brave and strong. It also springs on very large elephants and tigers. There is some nobility in it. It does not kill an animal if it is not hungry and if it cannot catch prey with a spring. It can carry a large animal on its back. It sleeps during the day and hunts at night. It roars like thunder. Hearing the roar of the lion, men and other wild animals trembled with fear. The lioness gives birth to two cubs at a time.
Usefulness: Lion is not very useful for us. The lion’s fur makes a good posture. The lion is trained to play in the circus. It shows many tricks and games with its master.
Conclusion: The lion adds beauty and charm to natural. It also attracts visitors from abroad. With the increase of human population, the forest land has been decreasing day by day for which the lions with other wild animals are in a stake. So we should take steps to protect this animal.
Introduction: The tiger is a beautiful, gorgeous and ferocious wild animal. It is a kind of giant cat. It varies only in colour and shape from the cat. The tiger lives in warm countries. It is found in India and other hot parts of Asia. The Royal Bengal Tiger is the largest of all tigers. It is found in the Sundarbans of Bengal.
Description: It has sharp claws and strong pointed teeth. With them, it tears the body of the animal on which it lives. It has soft pads under the feet. It has brown hair on its back and sides but white hair under the legs and abdomen. Its pale skin is covered with black stripes. It has a long tail. Its eyes are large and bright and it can see in the dark. It has a cat-like mustache. It is almost as strong as a lion. It is a beautiful and gorgeous animal.
Food: The tiger is a carnivorous animal. It preys on cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, deer and other animals. But it does not usually attack men unless offended. It is very fond of blood. It first sucks the blood of its prey and then eats the flesh.
Nature: In nature, the tiger is a ferocious animal. It is stronger and more formidable than a lion. It can see at night. Therefore, it sleeps during the day and hunts at night. The tiger roams slowly in the forest and suddenly roars at its prey. It can easily carry a cow or buffalo. The tiger lives in the forest, but sometimes at night, it comes to men’s homes and also takes pet animals. The tiger does not like strong sunlight. It is not great like a lion but is very clever and ferocious. It kills animals even when they are not hungry. The tiger is a good swimmer but it is not a good climber. The tiger produces four cubs in one birth.
Tiger Hunting: Tiger hunting is done by men. Tiger hunting brings happiness. But this is a dangerous job. Hunters sometimes lose their lives while hunting. Tigers cannot be tied. It is trapped in a trap.
Usefulness: Tiger is not very useful for us. Its skin makes fine rugs and seats for Indian sages It is trained to perform tricks in the circus. Thus it earns money for its owner.
Conclusion: For want of much forest land, the existence of the tiger is at stake. For the balance of biodiversity, we should protect this gorgeous species of animals.
The Domestic Pets
Introduction: Domestic pets refers to those animals which are kept in human households for their benefits or entertainments. Every man has a natural love for domestic animals. Some are judged for their virtues, some for service, some for beauty and some out of pure love. Among the domestic pets mention may be made of cow, horse, buffalo, goat, dog, camel, sheep, cat, monkey, rabbit ad some few others. Some people are fond of birds like peacock, hen, duck, dove, pigeon etc.
Service Provided: Of all animals, the cow is most useful to humans. She gives us milk, pulls carts and ploughs our field. The cow is a gentle and harmless animal. The buffalo also gives us milk, pulls carts and ploughs our fields. The goat gives us milk and its flesh is eaten in all countries.
The dog watches our homes at night. The cat kills mice and rats and plays with children. Some people are fond of raising dogs and cats. The camel is used to carry loads in the desert.
Some people are fond of birds. People usually raise ducks, chickens, parrots, pigeons. Ducks and chickens lay eggs. Cats, rabbits, peacocks usually kept for their beauty. Some people nurture fish for beauty in ponds or in glass jars.
Keeping and rearing pets is not difficult. Some pets are left free and others are put into cages. They require food by men. Gentle animals are allowed to roam freely, cruel ones are chained. Birds are usually kept in cages. Pigeons fly about by day and sleep in wooden boxes at night. Ducks swim in ponds. Pets are usually clean. They are loved and cared for. Pets become devoted to their owner. Lower animals are useful to humans. If we love and care for them, they become very attached to us. They like our family members.
Conclusion: We should be kind to domestic pets and treat them well.
The Honey Bee
Introduction: The honey bee is a type of small insect. It is reared by humans for its sweet honey.
Description: It has two wings and six legs. It is of golden colour with dark spots on its body. Its head and eyes are small. It has a sting.
There are three classes of honey bees. They are drones of male bees, queen bees and workers or honey bees. The last two are made up of women only.
Nature: Thousands of bees live together in a hive. They store honey in the hives for food. It is very interesting to see how they work. The hive is well maintained. Each hive has a Queen. Only the Queen bee lays eggs. Workers do not lay eggs. Thousands of workers collect honey from flowers and make hives. Some of them are soldier bees and they defend the hive and the queen bee. The queen bee flies about the hive and inspects it. Drones are passive and do nothing.
The number of working bees is very large. They are active and do all the works. They make a beautiful hive and collect honey. They work from sunrise to sunset and collect honey from flowers. They make the hive in multiple cells. In some of them, the queen bee lay eggs. Bees are clean and hygienic. They build their hives on trees or in the holes of the earth. When people try to break their hives for honey, they attack with their sting.
Usefulness: Bees are very useful to humans. They give us honey which we eat and use in medicine. Bees make wax and with wax we make candles. People rear bees for honey and wax. Bees are hardworking. We can learn a lesson of hard labour by seeing the workings of the bees.
Conclusion: Of all kinds of bees, the honey bees are the most useful for their honey which is full of the healing power of various diseases. We should take care of our pet bees by providing with their food crops nearby.
Introduction: The crow is a black, ugly and shrewd common bird. They are found almost everywhere of the earth, but mostly seen in the tropical countries.
Description: The craw has two legs with claws, two small but keen eyes and a hard beak. Generally, two kinds of crows are seen: one is a common crow and the other is called ‘raven’. The common crow is smaller in size and its neck is of grey colour. Its wings, beak and legs all are black. Its voice is harsh.
The raven is larger than the ordinary kind. The feathers of the crow are smooth and shining. Its eyes are very clear.
Food: The crow is a very greedy bird. The crow rises very early. It caws at dawn about our home. All-day long it flies about here and there in search of food. It often kills small birds and steals their eggs. It is very cunning.
It does great harm to us. It is a great thief. It carries away small pieces of food from the hands of children. There is unity among the crows. If one crow is caught, many crows flock thee. It builds its nest in a large tree.
In some countries, the crow is regarded as a bird of ill-omen. If the crow caws at noontime in any man’s house, people believe that some evil will come upon the house.
Usefulness: Though people do not like this bird, it is of some use to us. It caws at dawn about our homes and tells us that it is time to get up. The crow eats rotten food and nasty matter. Thus it helps us to keep the villages and towns clean. In this respect, it is a good sweeper and prevents many diseases.
Conclusion: Like other birds, the crow is also a creature of Nature. Though seemingly, the crow is a less useful bird to us, yet it contributes to the keeping of balance of biodiversity of the natural earth. So we should not be cruel and negligent to this blackbird.
Introduction: Rose is a very beautiful flower. Its smell is very sweet. For its sweet smell and beauty, it is called the ‘Queen of Flowers’.
Description: There are many types of roses. Some are red, some white and some yellow. Roses grow on small thorny plants. No flower garden is complete without roses. Rich men grow it in their gardens. The gardeners take great care of it. When the roses bloom, the entire garden looks grand and filled with a sweet fragrance.
It is said that that rose was first cultivated in Persia and in ancient time, Persia was called the ‘Land of Roses’. It is now grown all over the world. It thrives best in warm climates. Rose is found in almost all the gardens of India. It is found in large numbers in Kashmir. The largest rose is found in Iraq.
Usefulness: The rose delights us with its beauty and sweet smell. We decorate our parlour and bedroom with roses. We make flower bouquets and garlands. Rosewater is prepared from the honey of roses.
Conclusion: In every garden, there should have roses and the gardener should take great care of it.
Introduction: The coconut is a kind of sweet fruits. It is a big fruit. It is found in India, Ceylon and in some other parts of Asia. Among the Indian states, coconut grows in abundance in Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Description: The coconut trees thrive well in saline soil. It is planted on the banks of tanks or and other water resources. In some places, there are large coconut gardens. The coconut tree is very beautiful in appearance. It is a tall tree. It has no branch. There are long leaves at the top. Fruits grow in clumps at the top. Each bunch has many fruits. The tree produces two crops a year. The fruit has a hard shell inside its outer shell. Inside the shell, there are kernels and milk.
Usefulness: Coconut is a very useful fruit. Green coconut gives us delicious drinks in summer. It is very good for patients. Coconut kernel is a nutritious and useful food. Different types of sweets are prepared for it. Coconut oil is also prepared from the kernel of it. Coconut oil is used as hair oil and in some places, it is used in cooking. The coconut tree is also very useful for us. The trunk of the tree is used as a beam and fuel. With the fibres of its outer shell, people make ropes, brushes and mattresses. Some people make hubble-bubble, buttons, cups and other items with its hard shell. The coconut tree is a source of income for its owner.
Conclusion: We think every household should have coconut trees and people should be aware of its usefulness.
Introduction: The mango is a type of luscious fruits. It belongs to the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Its scientific name is ‘Mangifera indica’.
Description: It varies in size and colour. Some are oval and some are flat in shape. Marigold mangoes are green and ripe mangoes are golden, yellow or slightly red in colour. The ripe mangoes look beautiful.
Mango is usually found in hot countries. It is widely grown in India for which it is called the ‘Indian fruit’. In India, it grows abundantly in the states of Maharashtra, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal and Assam.
There are many varieties of mangoes such as Lengra, Fazli, Kishanbagh, Mohanbhog, Himsagar etc. There are other local varieties.
Mango trees bloom in late January. In late March, these flowers turn into small green mangoes and gradually grow larger. In the months of May and June, they become mature and ripe. People take mango by removing the skin. There is a hard seed inside the mango.
Usefulness: Mango is a very tasty and nutritious fruit. We also eat green mangoes. The taste of green mango is usually sour. But some mangoes are sweet even though they are green. Indian people prepare chutney from green mango and preserve to be used in any season.
The mango was almost unknown in England till the sixteenth century. Nowadays mangoes are exported to other countries of the world from India and Bangladesh. Mangoes are cheap in India. But in Europe, they sell at a much higher price. Mango orchards give good income.
The mango tree is also useful for us. The mango tree is large and tall. Its branches and leaves are spread. The tree gives us a pleasant shade. The tree trunk can be made into planks. Mango trees are also used as fuel.
Conclusion: We should plant the mango tree in our orchard and should take to eat this luscious fruit.
Introduction: Bamboo is a type of fastest-growing grass belonging to the Poaceae family. It is hollow and round.
Description: Bamboo grows in abundance in India, China, Japan, Burma and Australia. There are different types of bamboo. Burma’s bamboo is superior to Indian bamboo in many respects. Bamboo usually grows in an enclosure and do not require any care of planting.
Usefulness: Bamboo is a very useful plant. Pallet houses in Bengal and Assam are mainly built with bamboo. The Indian peasants make walls and posts of the houses with bamboo. Thus, a poor man can build a house at little cost. Bamboo is used in homes and gardens. Various useful furniture, boxes, home decorators, coffins etc. are made of bamboo. Thus, it serves the purpose of wood and iron. Thin and hard bamboo are used as sticks. Fishing rods and canopy rods are also made of bamboo. Farmers make ladders from bamboo. Paper is made from bamboo pulp. Bamboo is also used as fuel. In China, beautiful things like utensils, cups, spoons, brushes are made out of bamboo.
Conclusion: In the north-east Indian states, bamboo is used in multiple purposes. It is a shame for an Assmsese house if there is not a bush of bamboo plants.
Introduction: Rice is a type of corn. It is obtained from paddy. Paddy plants are like grass. The plant has a thin stem. There are long leaves at the top. Paddy’s ears emerge from the top of the plant. There are about two or three hundred paddy grains in each ear. The ripe paddy grains appear golden.
Where to plant: Rice usually grows in warm countries. Moist soil is suitable for this. India, Burma, Sri Lanka, China, Japan and Egypt are the major rice-producing countries. In India, rice is grown in almost all states.
Kinds: Three types of paddy are commonly grown in Assam. Bao kind cut in the spring. Ahu is available in the rainy season and Sali variety in winter. Sali rice is better than Ahu and Bao rice. Ahu and Bao rice are thick but sali rice is fine.
Description: Ahu is grown on dry and high land. The soil is first tilled with a plough. When the soil becomes soft, paddy seeds are sown on it. Small plants grow in a few days. Gradually, paddy ears start coming out from above. When it ripens, the corn is harvested.
Sali paddy grows well on low land. This requires more care. First, a small plot of land is ploughed well and made muddy. Paddy seeds are sown on it. Seeds grow here in plants. Meanwhile, large filed is prepared and then the plants are taken to it and planted there. After about three months we get paddy.
Bao is grown on marshy land. It thrives well in water. The plant is tall.
How Rice is Obtained: When the corn is ripe, it is cut with a sickle. The corn stalks are then thrown and the paddy is separated from the straw. This paddy then is dried in the sun and we get husk and rice.
Utility: Rice is the staple food of the people of India, Bangladesh and Japan. Many types of cakes are made from rice. People also prepare Muri, Chiara, Akhai from paddy or rice. Assamese people made a type of country liquor from rice. Its straw is used as fodder and fuel.
Conclusion: The countries where the principal food is rice, should grow more rice to provide sufficient food to their people.
Introduction: Cotton is a white soft thing like wool. It is a product of cotton plant and cotton herb. Some cotton plants are short and some are tall.
Description: The cotton herb grows to a height of three to five feet. The cotton plant and herbs bear green leaves and yellow flowers. After some days the flowers wither and fall down and young pods emerge in their place. When the pods are ripe, they break and cotton is found in them. Cotton has seeds. The fibre has to be separated from the seeds. The raw yarn is then threaded. This thread is woven into cloth.
Cotton is grown in high land. It is now cultivated almost worldwide. It grows extensively in India and America. In India cotton grows in abundance in the states of Punjab and Bengal and Assam.
Use of Cotton: People of India have been using cotton since ancient times. They made cotton clothes. The fibres were separated from the seeds by hand, the threads were spread by hand-working spindles and then woven on hand-looms.
Nowadays, spinning weaving is done with the help of machines in the mills. Earlier cotton was exported abroad to make textiles and other cotton goods. We had to depend on Europe for our clothes. But now, there are not many cotton mills in India. Indian weavers still make cloth in their hut.
Usefulness: Cotton is as important as rice or wheat. We cannot do without food and clothes. Therefore, the cotton industry plays an important role in the world market. We get our clothes from cotton. Cotton is used to make clothes, quilts, mattresses, cushions and even furniture. The thread is also used for sewing. A kind of oil is prepared from cotton seeds.
Conclusion: We should try to grow more cotton and weave more cloth for ourselves.
Introduction: Tea is the most popular of all drinks in the modern world. There are many people who can go without food but not without a hot cup of tea in the morning.
Description: Tea plant is grown from seed. It is cultivated by men. The plant usually grows to a height of six feet. It is shrubby and bears many leaves. The leaves are one to two inches long. These leaves are collected by the porter four times a year. Hundreds of coolies, both men and women, work in a tea garden. After collecting the leaves, they are dried on fire and rolled. These are now black and ready for use. Black dried leaves are called tea. Tea has various properties. Buds and young leaves make the best kind of tea.
How to Prepare: The dried black leaves are soaked in warm water for a few minutes. The leaves are then separated from the water. Milk and sugar are mixed with these brown hot water. In this way, tea is prepared and we drink this preparation. It is a refreshing drink.
Where Found: Tea was first cultivated in China. It now grows in India, Sri Lanka and in some other countries. Assam is the main tea producing state of India. Plants grow well in sloping land. So, tea is grown in the mountain slopes. Humid soil is not suitable for its growth. The Europeans started tea cultivation in India. Now many Indians have got tea gardens too.
Uses: Tea is a major source of national revenue of the Government of India. India gets a lot of money by selling tea abroad.
Tea was first used only in cold countries. Now many people in our country drink tea and it has become a habit. The sweet drink is refreshing after labour. But if we take more tea, we feel less hungry and it can cause many diseases. Te is also used for dyeing.
Conclusion: Nowadays, it seems that many people can go without food but cannot go without a cup of hot tea in the morning. So, we should grow more tea to provide with our people.
Introduction: Paper is a thin material that is used to write something on. Before the invention of paper, people used to write on the leaves and the barks of some trees. Palm leaves were generally used for writing purposes. Even now some holy books of the Hindus are written and printed on palm leaves.
How to Make: Paper is made from old rags, grass, straw, bamboo and wood. Old paper is also used to make newspapers. First, rags, grass, woods etc. are reduced to dust in a paper mill. The dust is then boiled and becomes mud-like. This is called pulp. The pulp is purified and then whitened. The pulp is spread in a thin sheet. It is then dried and cut into pieces of different sizes. This is how we get paper. In the village, the paper is made only by hand. Such papers are thick.
Types of Paper: There are different types of paper such as writing paper, packing paper, drawing paper, printing paper etc. There are many varieties of paper. Some are cheap and some are expensive. There are papers of different colours. Some colour is mixed with pulp to make coloured paper. Thus, we get red, yellow, green or blue paper. Some papers have been fine and polished and others are thicker.
Utility: Paper is a very useful thing. It is designed for various purposes. We use it every day. It is used for writing, decoration, printing, packing, parcels etc. We write letters on paper. Books and newspapers are printed on paper. Thus it has helped in the spread of knowledge and civilization. No office or school can go without paper. Paper has been used to decorate the walls. Even water pipes can be made of paper. In Japan, some homes have been built with paper for fear of earthquakes.
Conclusion: There are many paper mills in India. Some papers are exported abroad from India. There are many paper mills in Assam and Bengal. Paper is one of the most useful things in the civilized world. Therefore, we should try to establish more paper mills.
Introduction: Sugarcane is a species of tall grasses belonging to the family of Poaceae. It is primarily cultivated for its sweet juice.
Description: It has a long stem but has no branches. The stem is filled with joints and has long leaves at the top. The plant grows to a height of six to eight feet. It looks like a thin, small bamboo. There are different varieties of sugarcane. Some are brown in colour and some are yellow. Some fat and some are thin,
Where to plant: Sugarcane is grown in abundance in India, Egypt, America and many other countries. It is cultivated extensively in India. Sugarcane cultivation requires labour and care. Sugarcane does not grow from seed. The upper part of the plant is pruned and planted in moist soil.
Usefulness: It is full of sweet juice. The juice is a refreshing and nutritious drink. It quenches our thirst. Sugar is made from sugarcane juice. The full-grown sugarcane is cut and the long stem is made into small pieces. Small pieces are placed between the wooden or iron rollers and the juice is squeezed out of them. Then juice is heated in a large tank. A little lime is added to make the juice clean. After the water evaporates, the condensed juice is left behind in the pan. When it cools, the crystals of sugar are formed. The crystals are deep and dirty. Lime, alum and other things are used to make them clear and white.
We eat sugar or jaggery in our everyday meals. The dessert is mainly made with sugar. We chew pieces of sugarcane. Horse and cow eat sugarcane. Dry stems of sugar are used as fuel.
Conclusion: With the increase of population of the world, the demand for sugar have been increasing. So we should grow more sugar-cane to meet our need.
Introduction: Salt is a mineral consisting primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is a well-known thing of our everyday use.
Description: Salt is obtained from the sea-water. First, the sea-water is boiled or dried in the sun. When the water dries up, the salt is left behind. This salt is later refined.
It is also obtained from mines. It is called rock salt. Sedimentary salt is obtained from salt mines in Punjab. Salt easily dissolves in water and other liquids.
Salt Manufacture: In England, salt is produced in large quantities. Salt is also prepared in the sea-floor of India. The government can do it alone. Private individuals can prepare salt with the permission of the government.
Utility: Salt is a very common thing but essential for all rich and poor. We can’t do without it. We use it every day in our food. Food is made delicious with salt. It helps indigestion. It is used by men as well as animals. It kills germs of the disease. Salt is used in preparing some medicines. Salt does not taste good on its own. But it can give flavour to other things when it is properly mixed with them. A vegetable cooked without salt becomes tasteless.
Conclusion: Salt is so much useful and necessary that the government should allow the common people to prepare it from sea-water in order to make it more cheap.
Introduction: Iron is a metal of grey colour. It is found in the mine. There it remains mixed with earth and other things. In this state, it is called ore. It is then melted into a fire and purified. Pure iron had a silver lustre. It rusts when exposed to moisture.
Types: There are three types of iron: cast iron, pure iron and steel. Cast iron is easily melted. It can be moulded into various shapes. Pure Iron can be beaten in sheets. All sharp tools are made of steel. Iron is used manually in its form.
Where Found: Iron mines are usually found near coal mines. Iron is mostly found in England, France, Sweden, Germany, North America and India. In India, iron mines are found in Bihar and some other places.
Usefulness: Iron is a common metal but the most useful of all metals. Knives, razors, rails, engines, pin, hooks etc. are made of iron. Many items of iron, which we require daily, are produced in factories and mills. Railways, steamers, ships, swords, ploughs etc. are all made of iron. It is impossible to calculate all the uses of iron. We can’t do without it. Although it is of much lesser value than gold, it is a hundred times more useful than gold.
Iron mines are a great source of wealth. In India, many iron factories have been established. The most important of them is the Tata Iron and Steel Company of Tatanagar in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. It is one of the largest factories in the world.
Conclusion: Iron is a natural metal. Men can not grow it. So we should use it sparingly.
Introduction: Coal is a mineral material. It is shiny black in colour. It is hard-brittle.
How it is Formed: Long ago, there were many forests on Earth. Over time, these forests were made underground by some natural causes. After ages, underground trees and vegetables became a hard thing. We call this thing ‘coal’.
Where Found: Coal is found in mines. It is contained in layers. Coal is largely found in Great Britain, the United States, Africa, Germany, Russia, France, China, India and many other places in the world. In India, the major coalfields are in Taniganj, Giridih, Ledo, Margarita, Singareni and Jharia.
How it is Got: Men dug coal from mines. Miners dig deep into the ground. They move into the dark mines and come out of them with the help of engines. Coal-mining is dangerous work. Many people die from accidents. The miners carry security-lamps with them and pick up coal with the help of an engine. Sometimes coal is buried at a depth of two thousand feet.
Utility: Coal is a very important thing. It has many uses. It is used as a fuel. The gas used for lighting and cooking. Without coal, modern civilization would have been impossible. Coal is used to melt iron from mines. Steam engines, mills, factories cannot run without coal. We get tar from coal. In cold countries, coal is used to heat homes. Commerce and industry have increased due to coal. Some become rich if it has large coal fields.
Conclusion: With the invention of electricity, the use of coal is seemed to be decreasing, but yet it is used in some small industries immensely.
Introduction: Rain is the condensed moisture of the atmosphere falling visibly in separate drops.
How it is Formed: In the heat of the sun, the water of the seas, rivers, lakes. tanks etc. rise up in the air in the shape of vapour. Vapour is lighter than air. Thin clouds are formed from that vapour in the sky. When the air cannot hold more vapour, it falls down as rain. The clouds do not remain in the same place. The wind blows them in all directions. The air in the mountains and forests is very cold. When the clouds come near mountains or forests, they dissolve there and fall as rain.
When Rain Falls: In the summer season, the heat of the sun is very great. At that time the wind blows towards land from the seas. When the water vapour reaches cold places, it falls as rain there. In India, rain generally falls heavily in the months of June, July and August.
Usefulness: Rain is a blessing to us. It makes the land fertile and helps trees and other vegetables grow. Crops grow when the rainfall is good. Rain is good drinking water. It is the purest form of natural water. On hot days, rain cools us. It washes away all dirty things. In many places, cultivation is not possible without rain. Farmers eagerly look at the sky for rain. In the dry season, rain gives life to the earth.
Bad Effects: Too much rainfall is harmful. Sometimes heavy rain destroys the crops and as a resultant famine breaks out. The roads and fields remain underwater. Men and cattle suffer a great deal. The rivers, ponds and canals are filled with water and many diseases break out.
Conclusion: In the present-day world, there seems a scarcity of pure water. Rainwater, being pure, we should harvest and use it as much as possible.
Introduction: The river is a natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, lake or another river.
Description: In the hills and mountains, the rainfall is heavy and rainwater comes out of their edges in small streams. On its way, it connects to other rivers. A river gets its water from rain or melting snow.
The place from where a river rises is called its ‘source’ and the place where it falls is called its ‘mouth’. The part of the river that rises from another river is called the branch river or ‘tributary’. Rivers never run straight.
Usefulness: The river is a blessing to people. It helps us in many ways. It gives us water to drink. It is used for bathing, washing and growing crops. It makes the land fertile. A river is a natural drainage for rainwater. The river helps in the growth of communication and trade. People can go or take their articles to distant places in boats and ships. The river is a source of fish supply to the people. A river is a beautiful sight. It is very pleasant to walk along the river. The cool breeze of the river gives us health.
Harms: Rivers sometimes cause us a lot of harm. In the rainy season, some rivers drain their banks. Many people become homeless and helpless. Floods cause damage to crops and homes.
Conclusion: Though there is some bad effects of the river, yet its good effects outweigh them.
Introduction: Water is a colourless, odourless, transparent liquid that forms the seas, lakes, rivers and rain. It has no taste. Smell or colour. It is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen.
Description: Water is found in three forms: hard, gaseous and liquid. As a hard form, we find it in snow and ice. As a gaseous form, we find it in vapour and moisture. The simple liquid form is water.
Water is a very common thing. It is found everywhere. Two-thirds of the Earth is water and only one-third is land. Water is found in the sea, rivers, ponds, canals, waterfalls etc. Our body also contains water. When we feel the desire for water in our body, we drink water. Ocean and seawater are salines. Many impure things are mixed with the water of rivers and seas. The water of the springs is very spectacular. It helps digestion. Rainwater is the purest form of natural water.
Utility: Water is a very valuable thing. No animal or plant can live without water. It is very useful for us after only air. Coldwater refreshes our body. It quenches our thirst. Water is used for cooking. Bathing in cold water is very pleasant. We wash our clothes and other things with water. Water makes our land fertile.
Sometimes many impurities and germs are found in natural water. Drinking unclean water can make us sick. We should use filtered and boiled water. In towns, filtered pipe water is used. The germs of diseases are killed when water boils. We should use pure drinking water.
Conclusion: There is so much use of water that without it no life is possible. So We should use not wastewater and use it with consideration.
Introduction: The Sun is a star of medium size. It has its own light and heat. It is many times larger than the Earth. The sun is some millions of miles away from the Earth. So it looks like a small round body in the sky.
Description: The sun has eight planets that revolve round it. We see it rise in the east and set in the west. The sun with its eight planets is called ‘Solar System’ or ‘Solar Family’.It looks red and beautiful in the morning and evening. Its heat is very spectacular. At noon it becomes so bright that we cannot look at it. In summer we are close to the sun. In winter we stay away from the sun. So the heat is not so much in this season. The sun’s rays have seven colours.
Utility: The sun gives us light and removes darkness from the earth. Without sunlight and heat, nothing can grow on Earth. Men, animals, plants and vegetables cannot live without the heat and light of the sun. Sun rays are good for health. They kill germs of diseases. The sun removes the cold and makes us warm. The sun’s rays are pleasant in cold countries. We dry our clothes, food grains etc. in the sun.
Conclusion: The sun is the basic source of energy for our earth. Without the sun the existence of the earth is impossible. The Hindu worships sun as a god.
Introduction: A clock is a device for measuring time. It tells us the time of the day.
Description: The clock has a flat round face. There are numbers from one to twelve on the face. Typically, a watch has two spikes, one short and the other long. They tell time. The long spike is called the ‘Minute Spike’ and it indicates the minutes. It moves more quickly. The short spike is called the ‘Hour Spike’ and it indicates the hours. It moves from one number to another in an hour.
In larger watches, there is a round thing at the bottom. This is called a ‘pendulum’. It rotates and sets the wheel at a definite speed.
In some watches, there is a third hand (spike). It is called ‘Second Spike’.
Kind: There is a kind of small clock. It is called ‘watch’. It does not strike. We can keep it in our pocket or tie it to our wrist. Nowadays, a clock runs on batteries.
Usefulness: The watch is a very useful thing for us. It enables us to work on time. It tells us that time is more valuable than money. It is equally valuable for men of all classes. If we want to do our work in due time, then we must have a watch or clock in our homes. The watch does its job. It teaches us to be regular and punctual.
Conclusion: Proverb says.’ Time and tide wait for none.’ If time is passed we cannot regain it. So everybody should have a clock and abide by the timetable of his daily work.
Introduction: A bicycle is a vehicle with two wheels. It is the cheapest but popular means of communication.
Description: The bicycle was first invented in France. It was first made of wood. The present-day bicycle is a great improvement over the first invention. It is now made of metal. The front wheel of the bicycle is movable. It can be rotated from the handle to the right or left. The rear wheel is fixed. There is a leather seat. The rider is placed on the seat. The rider rotates the paddle and drives the wheels. The rear wheel is connected by a chain with the paddle. The wheels have a thin tube inside the tyre. It is pumped and filled with air. A bell is fixed to the handle. The cyclist rings the bell and warns people. The rider can stop the bicycle by the brake.
Usefulness: The bicycle is a very useful thing. Now it is common in any town or village. This saves time. We can go fast from one place to another. It is cheap and is called ‘poor man’s car’. It is very widely used in India, Bangladesh and France. It is used in interior villages where roads are not in good condition. Cycling is a kind of exercise. It improves our health. Bicycles are often used as a means of sports, recreation and sight-seeing. People travel by bicycle. The bicycle is very useful for doctors, businessmen and telegraph peons. We can enjoy a lot at affordable prices and visit many places with a bicycle. The expert cyclist shows the gait on the bicycle.
Conclusion: The bicycle is so cheap that even a poor man also can buy it. It does not need any fuel. We can use it almost everywhere where there is nor a fine road. It does not produce any pollution. We think everybody should have a bicycle and take to use it extensively.
Introduction: Motor car is a kind of popular vehicle in the present-day world. It is run by fuel like petrol, diesel, gas or solar energy.
Description: The motor car was first invented by a Frenchman. It is now made in many places in the world. The motor car engine is in front of the car. Petrol is converted into gas. Due to this gas, the engine works. The motor car has four wheels with rubber tyres. Motor car is more convenient than other means of communication. Hence it has replaced the cart drawn by bullocks, horses, buffaloes etc. It can run at a speed of forty or seventy kilometres per hour.
There are many types of motor cars. Some are light and small and can carry only a few individuals – two to four. There are motor buses and motor lorries. A large motor bus can carry forty to fifty passengers. Motor lorries are used to move goods from one place to another.
Usefulness: A motor car is a very useful vehicle. It is the fastest of all other types of vehicles except aeroplanes. It is extensively used in cities and towns. This saves time because it runs very fast. Therefore, it is very useful for busy men. Traders use lorries to carry their goods because lorries run faster and can carry heavier weights than bullock carts. It is cheaper to travel in a bus. Therefore, motor buses are very much in use nowadays. Rich people keep motor cars as an object of luxury for their comfort and convenience.
Drawbacks: Motor cars are very expensive. It is not possible to buy a motor car for everyone. It is also expensive to maintain. The driver demands high pay. If the car moves at a high speed, accidents can occur. There are some rules for driving a car in cities and towns. Despite precautions, every year, many people are killed by motor cars. The smokes emitting from a motor car add pollution to the air.
Conclusion: Though the motor car is the most popular means of communication yet we should use it abiding by the rules and regulation laid down by the Government to avoid accident and pollution.
Introduction: An aeroplane is a vehicle that flies into the air. It is the fastest means of popular communication invented by science.
Description: From the earliest times men have tried to fly above the earth. We have read in the Purans that our forefathers travelled in chariots. Before aeroplanes, balloons and zeppelins were invented to fly in the air.
The aeroplane was first invented in America by two Wright Brothers: Orville Wright and Wilber Wright. The Airplanes appear like birds flying in the air. The pilot directs the machine. At the head of the machine, there is a thing as an electric fan. This is called a propeller. The aeroplane can fly due to a propeller. The propeller moves very rapidly in the air and produces loud noises. In front of an aeroplane, there is room for pilots and passengers.
Kind: There are different kinds of aeroplanes. Some are called monoplanes and some are biplane. Monoplanes have one pair of wings and biplanes have two pair wings. The seaplane can fly in the air and can also go over the ocean. Two types of aircraft are used in warfare. The bomber aircraft is larger and can carry more weight and it bombs. Fighter aircraft are lighter and can move more quickly.
Utility: Presently, the aeroplane has made a lot of progress. We travel some hundred miles by aeroplane within an hour. The aeroplane takes mail and passengers from one place to another in a very short time. Aeroplanes are used in warfare. It carries war material, drops bombs and watches the movement of enemies. Aeroplanes are also useful for the purpose of commerce.
Conclusion: The aeroplane is a wonderful invention of science no doubt, but travelling by it so costly for the common people. To make aeroplane popular, travelling by it must be cheap and secure.
Introduction: Railway means a road with iron rails. The train runs on the rails. The engine works with steam. James Watt was the first to invent a steam engine. George Stephenson is credited with using it for driving on the rail. In India, the railways was first constructed during the Viceroyship of Lord Dalhousie.
Description: The head of the train has an engine. Behind it, there are some vehicles called a compartment. The train runs on a pair of iron rails. The rails are parallel to each other and they sleep on some thick wooden planks called ‘sleepers’. The engine derives its power from the steam that comes from the water in the boiler. There are three sections of railway lines. The widest is called the ‘Broad Gauge’, the second is the ‘Metre Gauge and the third is called the ‘Narrow Gauge’.
Usefulness: Railways have been rendering a lot of services to us. It has helped in the development of human civilization on earth. This has shortened time and distance. Railways have made travelling easier, cheaper and comfortable. We can move quickly from one place to another. It has helped in the development of trade and commerce also. More cargo can be transported from one place to another via railway. Export and import have become easier and cheaper. Railways are used a lot during famines and wars. They move provisions and troops quickly to the affected areas. Through the railways, students go to various places for higher education. Thus travelling through train has broadened our knowledge and experience.
Disadvantages: Railways have some disadvantages. Many times serious accidents occur and cause many deaths. Goods, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. are sent from the villages to the town by rail routes. So the villagers cannot get those things at cheap prices. Railways block the natural drainage of a country and sometimes they cause great floods.
Conclusion: Despite its few drawbacks, the railways have changed the features of the modern industrial, commercial and transport systems beyond imagination.
Transportation: Old and Modern
Introduction: ‘Transport’ means sending goods and people from one place to another. Nowadays there are many means of transport as car, bike, train, ship, aeroplane etc.
Old Systems: In the olden days, people had to carry luggage on their head or back if they wanted to go from one place to another. Gradually people of different countries used horses, camels and elephants for transportation. The camel is called the ‘ship of the desert’. Still, in Greenland the Eskimos use dogs and trains drawn by reindeer. Their dogs carry tents and other items as there are no horses for drawing carts. The kings and nobles travel on elephant and horseback or used sedan carried by men called ‘bearers’. After the invention of wheels, the main means of transport became vehicles such as bullock carts and buffalo carts. Boats were used on the seas and rivers. The old methods of conveyance were slow and inconvenient.
Modern System: In modern times, steam, electricity and petrol engines have made a major change in the history of transportation. Better transport has become possible not only on land but also on water and air. According to certain timetables, a lot of things are moved from one to another by means of modern systems of transportation.
Motor cars, steamships, railways and aeroplanes have made the modern transportation system faster and easier. Motor vehicles move quickly. Buses are commonly used to transport passengers. Motor, truck and lorry carry goods from one place to another at a cheaper rate. During the war, trucks are used to transport troops, provisions and materials to various places. Railways have helped in the development of trade and commerce also. More food and passengers can be transported from one place to another via the railways. Railways are used a lot during famines and wars. All major cities have tramways. The aeroplane is the biggest surprise in this era of miracles. It is a flying machine. It covers long distances in a very short time.
Conclusion: Modern means of transport are far better than the old ones. There is no doubt that the modern means of transport are faster, cheaper, easier and more comfortable. But they are not without risk. Sometimes they lead to serious accidents. We should take every step to avoid the drawbacks of modern transport systems.
Introduction: Radio is a type of wireless telegraphy. With the help of radio news, music, speech etc. can be heard remotely. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian scientist invented the radio in the 1890s.
How It Works: Most major cities in the world have radio stations. In a radio station, someone sings or talks before an instrument. There is also a kind of instrument for listening from a distance. This device is kept in men’s homes. If any person sings or talks in a radio station, it is heard from those houses at once.
Usefulness: Through radio, a simple device kept in a house and at a common expense, one can listen to songs, speeches and so on from a great distance. Listening to radio broadcasts is almost as popular as reading newspapers. Even a poor family in a city would be happy to have a radio set of their own. People have realized the usefulness of radio.
Radio has increased the enjoyment of life. We can listen to songs, concerts in our rooms without going to a playhouse. It is used to appease the sick in hospitals. Broadcasting is meant as a medium of instruction and publicity. It helps in group education. Famous men and women often talk to us via radio. Lectures on various useful topics are given on radion and people enjoy them sitting in their rooms. Radio also gives us the news of the day. It is also a medium of advertisement. During wars, radio becomes one of the most useful tools of propagation.
All India Radio Broadcast: All India Radio Broadcast began in 1923. It is under the control of the Government of India and is well organized. The most important All India Radio stations are in Calcutta, Mumbai and Delhi.
Conclusion: With the inventions of the computer, android mobile phones and the internet, the use and popularity of the radio have been decreasing from the last decade of the twentieth century.
Introduction: Cinema means ‘moving picture’. The cinematograph was invented by the famous American scientist Thomas Alva Edison. It is a great gift of science. In cinema, a series of pictures are thrown on a screen by a machine.
How and Where Cinemas are Produced: For a cinema, a series of photos are taken on a ribbon called a film. There are special cameras to take pictures of things. Taking pictures is very expensive. Sometimes it is necessary to go to different places to take pictures of real things. Sometimes artificial objects stand for real things and photos of them are taken. Films are produced extensively in India, America and England. To illustrate the facts of novels and plays, the film company engages good actors and actresses. Earlier cinema pictures were silent but now we can hear the voice of actors and actresses.
Utility: We can know many things in cinema. It is not possible to go and see all the great things of the world but we can see real pictures of those things in cinemas. We can know the history, manners, customs of different countries through cinema. Cinema has great instructive value also. Through talkies, we can hear lectures on many important topics. Cinema is also a source of enjoyment. It entertains us. Therefore, it has become very popular. Today, there is hardly any city that does not have a cinema hall. Besides, it is a source of monetary income also. America and England are making a lot of money by producing films. This is a very useful art indeed.
Abuses: Along with good sides, cinema has some bad sides also. It can be a source of the downfall of young men. Not all the pictures are good. Some photos cause a lot of harm to the students. Not all pictures are viewable by students. Bad photos can spoil their character. Moreover too much of seeing cinema fall bad effect on our eyesight. Too much viewing of cinema turns its viewer into a cinema-addict which is not a good sign for us.
Conclusion: While enjoying a cinema we should be very cautious about its bad sides and try to avoid the cinemas which may fall bad effects on us.
Introduction: Electricity s an essential product of modern science. This is a very dangerous thing. If electricity passes through anyone, he will die instantly. But men have made this powerful thing their slave. They do many things with the help of electricity.
Usefulness: All major cities have electric powerhouses. Electricity supplies the common comforts of citizens. Roads illuminate so well with electric lights that anyone can pick up the needle from the roads. Electric lights are also used in many homes in towns and even in the villages.
In summer, electric fans give us great comfort. We can easily work under an electric fan. With the help of electric lifts, a man can move to the top flat of a several storyed houses within a minute. Electric tramways help people move from one end of the city to another quickly and with very little cost. The Electric Telegraph spreads code messages all over the world. Electricity is also used in printing presses. Likewise, electricity is used in the treatment of patients also. In villages and towns, electric torchlight is of great use. Electricity had made our lives more easy and comfortable. This saves time, hassle and expense.
Conclusion: The cost of electricity generation is gradually decreasing. People are using electricity more expensively. It is expected that electricity will be used for various other purposes in the near future.
Introduction: The Postman is a humble public servant who works in under a post office. He gets a small salary, but his job is significant. He brings letters, parcels, money orders etc. from the post office and delivers them to their owners.
Description: Everyone knows the postman. He wears a khaki dress. It is given to him by the government. He carries a leather bag with him. He keeps letters, parcels, money etc. in it. In the village, the postman carries postcards, envelopes and stamps for sale. The postman is easily known by hanging his khaki coat, khaki turban and his leather bag below the shoulder.
His Duty: The postman goes carrying on letters, parcels, money etc. sent from distant places, from house to house to deliver them to their addressees. His duty is labourious and sometimes it becomes hazardous. Village roads are not food. He can be attacked by robbers and wild animals. Despite these risks, he performs his duty honestly.
The postman must be able to read and write. He should be healthy and hard-working. He has to move in the sun and rain. The postman must be honest and careful in performing his duty. The careless postman is punished heavily.
Conclusion: The postman is a very useful public servant. He brings news from our friends and relations. Sometimes he brings bad news to us but still he is always a welcome visitor.
The Post Office
Introduction: The Post Office is a government office for sending letters, parcels, money etc. from one place to another. The postal system was introduced in India by the British. Earlier letters, money etc. were sent by messengers from one place to another at a high cost. But the postal system has overcome a major inconvenience and made communication easier.
Description: In every post office there is a postmaster and at least a postman, called ‘peon’ to deliver letters and parcels to their owners. A large post office contains several departments such as money orders, savings, letters, parcels, tickets, telegraphs, telephones, etc. There are separate offices for telegraphs and telephones in big cities. If someone wants to write a letter somewhere, they can buy a postcard or an envelope. After writing the letter, he has to put it in a letterbox in the post office. The postal department takes it to its destination. Apart from letters, other valuable articles can also be sent through the post office. A man can deposit his money in the savings department of a post office. The government will be responsible for protecting the money.
Conclusion: The Post Office is a very useful government institution. People have faith in it. Nowadays there are post offices even in small villages. The post offices of the village are small and have only one postmaster and one postman. The post offices have been rendering great services to the nation.
Introduction: The Hospital is an institution where people suffering from diseases receive medical treatment. In every city, there is at least a hospital. Hospitals are established by the government, municipalities or panchayats. Some wealthy people also set up a private hospital. The charitable dispensary in the village is usually maintained by the panchayats.
Description: Hospitals have two departments: indoor department and outdoor department. In a village charitable dispensary, there is only an external department. Outdoor patients are examined and given medicines free of charge by the hospital authority. They do not stay in the hospital.
At the Town Hospital, there is a system of treatment for both indoor and outdoor patients. In the indoor department, patients have to stay at the hospital. The doctors visit him regularly and the nurses take care of him.
Utility: Hospitals are of great use to us. Some diseases cannot be treated at home. It is absolutely necessary to go to the hospital. Poor men get treatment for free. There are special arrangements for women patients. Persons suffering from infectious diseases and serious injury should be removed from the hospital. Every possible facility is provided to the patients in the paying ward. The patient’s relatives also can stay with the patient to take care of him.
Conclusion: Hospitals have been providing valuable services to humanity. We should try to establish more and more hospitals for the betterment of our suffering people.
The Public Library
Introduction: Public library is a building or room where different types of books are stored for use or for borrowing by the public. It is known that the first library of the world was established in the 7th century B.C. in Iraq. Nowadays there are libraries in every city, town and even in some villages also.
Description: There are two types of library: the Private Library and the Public Library. Private libraries are established by individuals who are fond of books. But a private library is usually small and contains books that are liked by the owner.
A Public Library is established by the government or by volunteer organizations. The Public library contains a large number of books of all kinds. It is open to the public. Everyone can go there and read what he likes and can borrow books for some specified days. In addition to books, public libraries have newspapers and magazines. Expensive books of reference and old records are kept in public libraries.
Utility: A public library is a very useful institution. We can get knowledge by reading books. But it is not possible for a man to buy all the books he wants to read. In a public library, a person reads as many books as he wants. He can also read newspapers and magazines. Poor students, who cannot afford books, can use a public library with an advantage. Public libraries spread education among the common people. Not everyone can study in school or college, but everyone can study in a library. Public libraries help us to increase our knowledge. They are very essential for scholars, writers and common people.
Most public libraries contain a reading atmosphere. There are tables, chairs, almirahs etc. to study comfortably. There is no noise.
Conclusion: There should be a public library in every village and the common people should be taught its importance. This spreads knowledge among people. The Library of Congress, USA is said to be the largest library in the world. The National Library of Kolkata has the largest collection of books. We should be conscious of the importance of the library and take advantage of it.
The Printing Press
Introduction: The ‘printing press’ refers to a machine for printing books, magazines, leaflets, banners, pictures etc. from types or metal plates. The art of printing was first invented in China. The types were made of wood. The modern printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenburg of Germany in 1454. With this invention, the new revolution began in the progress of human civilization.
Description: In England, the printing press was founded in 1491 by William Caxton. In India, Charles Wilkins established the first printing press. Now there are printing presses all over the world. Now the art of printing has been greatly improved. Nowadays we require very little labour. Printing has been made cheaper and easier with the help of electricity.
Printing art is a great blessing to mankind. Earlier books were written by hand. Therefore the number of books was very small and only a few people could buy books. Furthermore, the manuscripts were sold at high prices and only wealthy people could buy them. We gain knowledge by reading books but knowledge and education were limited to only to few people as books were not available to everyone. Then sometimes, it was difficult to read books written by hand. Printing has overcome all these disadvantages.
The art of printing has helped in the progress of civilization. Thoughts of men are recorded in books. From books, we can know the thoughts, discoveries and inventions of great men. The printing press has spread education among people on a large scale. Books disseminate knowledge irrespective of time and space. Every new idea soon spreads to the whole world through books. A large number of copies can be made in a few hours by means of a printing press. Now everyone can buy books at cheap prices. Ideas of the greatest men of all countries and all ages are readily available to all.
Due to the printing press, we now have a lot of newspapers and magazines. They give us news, knowledge and information of all kinds. They increase our knowledge. Sitting in one corner of the world, we get information about the whole world through newspapers and magazines. This was not possible before the invention of the printing press.
Conclusion: During the late twentieth century the printing technology has developed beyond imagination and various types of the digital printing press have made their existence in the market. We should take advantage of such a printing press and try our best to print more and more books to contribute to the easy dissemination of knowledge.
A Village Market
Introduction: A village market is usually a market located in the village area where people from the village and nearby villages gather to buy and sell their daily needs. It is held on certain days of the week. It is usually held once or twice a week. The village market is held either in the morning or in the afternoon and sometimes for the whole day.
Description: A village market is held in an open space. Generally, there are no permanent shops in the village market. Some shopkeepers build temporary sheds and they use them on market days. But in large markets, there are permanent shops. People from neighbouring villages come with some daily necessities for sale. They sit on the ground under the open sky and carry on their business. Some people come to the market only to buy their daily necessities. So people gather to buy and sell goods. The shops are arranged in rows.
The village market is a very noisy place. Every article is heavily negotiated in its purchase. The market authority collects tax from the shopkeepers. The commonly available items in the village market are rice, pulses, fancy goods, vegetables, spices, fruits, milk, curd, betel nut, pan, salt, oil, fish, cloth and some other useful things. Shopkeepers, who use temporary sheds and people who sell things in the open space, go home after selling their things and buying their essentials.
Conclusion: The village market is useful for the villagers. In the village market, the people from neighbouring villages meet each other and learn many lessons and exchange their love and feeling. They learn more about the outside world. The goods and things found in the village market are usually fresh and cheap. The village market represents the way the villagers live.
Introduction: Nowadays many schools have their own magazines. The school magazine is usually published every three months or annually. Very few schools can publish it monthly. The school magazine mainly consists of writings of school students. Its practice is generally limited to school students.
Description: The school magazine is the students’ own concern and is usually run by them. For better management, students take help of their teachers. There is a committee of teachers and students. Typically, some teachers are editors, and one or two students from the top classes are chosen as sub-editors. Articles from teachers and students are invited. The students send their articles to the editor. The committee then selects the best articles. Selected articles are corrected by some teachers and resolve necessary changes to be sent to the press for print.
Each student receives a copy of the magazine and has to pay a subscription. The cost of printing is usually met by students and teachers.
Usefulness: School magazines are very useful in many ways. They contain writings, pictures etc. of teachers and students. One is naturally happy to see his name in print. So they try to write poems, story, essay, comics etc.
They read many new books to write good articles and this helps to increase their knowledge. With practice, their writing style and composition skill improve. To see their name in print, students try to do better in exams and win prizes in sports and other school activities. This inspires others. So, the school magazine has highly educative value. It develops our thinking and writing power and motivates us for better work. Good articles and important information benefit not only the contributors but also the readers. Pupils learn the value of cooperatives and the mode of periodic conduct. Many great writers first practised writing in their school magazines.
Conclusion: It is desirable that each school should have its own magazine. In this respect, the teachers should motivate the students.
Introduction: Many schools and colleges have debating societies. The purpose of a debating society is to arrange debates and discussion with arguments among the students on selected topics.
Description: For a debate competition a topic is selected for discussion. Some students speak in favour of the topic and some speak against it. Therefore a debate has two opposite sides. If the topic of debate is ‘School Life and College Life’, one side will try to prove that the school life is better than the college life and the other side will try to prove that the college life is better than the school life. Finally, the speakers of the judge gave their opinion. The participant that can give better arguments wins the prize.
Usefulness: Debating societies are very useful. They help increase our power to think, reason and speak in public. In a debate, we try to prove that we are right and our opposite party is wrong. So we should study this subject, read more books and gather more information. We also learn new information from our opponents. Through debate, our wrong thoughts and misconceptions are corrected. Therefore our knowledge increases on certain subjects. We learn to reason and develop the power of speaking in front of others. In a debate, we are to talk, think on the subject, give good reasons in clear language and defend our side. So our logic faculty gets improved. We learn to think systematically. We become ready men. Above all, by practise, we learn the art of speaking. The utility of eloquence is very great.
Conclusion: Many students cannot speak anything in a public meeting. They get nervous. They should join a debating society. Debating Societies is the training ground of many famous orators of the world. At first, we cannot speak and people can laugh at us, but with practice, we can learn the art of speaking and become good speakers. In the debate, we can be defeated but we should not be angry and obstinate. We should not try to support our ideas in unfair ways. The discussion should be done in the right spirit. We must accept the right arguments of our opponents.
Introduction: A school is a place of study. Boys and girls receive education and training in school. School life is a very important part of life.
Why School Life is Important: There are many reasons for being school life an important one.
First, school life is the time of preparation for future life. Our habits are formed in our young days. Our future life is what we make in our childhood. School life lays the foundation for future life. In school, a boy has the scope to develop his body and mind.
Secondly, in school, boys and girls learn the lesson of discipline. They have to study and prepare their daily lessons. Every day they have to do certain tasks.
Thirdly, the school teaches us a sense of equality. A rich man’s son and a poor man’s son are treated equally in school. In school, boys have to do their own work. They are under the control of their teacher. Teachers praise the students for their good works and reprimand them for their bad works. There no predilection. At school, a boy cannot do what he likes. He should follow the school rules and follow the instructions of his teachers. In the playground, he is one of the others. He should adapt to his equality.
Fourthly, school life is the happiest period of a person’s life. It is free from all the cares and concerns of the world. We can never forget the old days. Our heart leaps with joy when we find our old schoolmates. We feel immense pleasure in talking about our past happy days at school.
Duties in Schol Life: School life is not as pleasant as it first appears. It has big responsibilities. If they are discharged well then they get success. If we ignore this best phase of life then we have to suffer loss for a long time. The first and most important duty of a student is to read books and acquire knowledge. He should participate in sports and healthy exercises. He should be regular and punctual in doing his work. He should practice on the basis of honesty and the spirit of companionship. He should leave bad companies. In youth, we cannot know what is good and what is bad. Therefore we should always follow the instruction of our teachers and elders. Our future career depends on the training received in the early days.
Conclusion: A school is a place where the future of children is shaped. So we should be fair and attentive to learn the lessons taught at school.
A Cricket Match
Introduction: Nowadays cricket is a popular game and it is played and enjoyed with much excitement. During the last Durga Puja holidays, a cricket match was organized between B. H. College Cricket Team and G. L. C. College Team in B. H. College playground. It was a good match and the biggest crowd I had ever seen. After two days of play, there was a difference in runs between them.
Day 1: The G. L. C. College team lost the toss and B. H. College team took to bating. The first wicket fell in around ten minutes when the score was ten. The second wicket fell on the next ball. It seemed to be a bad omen and the B. H. College team looked nervous. Their captain was caught for forty-five and they were out for one hundred and seventy.
In first innings of G. L. C. College, Tarun scored his century and his captain was caught for forty. It was evening when the last wicket fell and he scored six runs.
Day 2: In the next day, the B H College team was all out for one hundred forty-two runs. The college collapsed in about thirty minutes when the score stood at just fifteen. They got frustrated and were afraid that they would lose the day. Fortunately, with the fifth man, the score increased unexpectedly. His happiness knew no bounds when the score jumped and went over the limit. He was hopeful after scoring thirty runs with two wickets at one wicket for one wicket. His joy and enthusiasm was very good as the score was up to 140 and though one wicket fell. In the end, he scored one hundred forty-six runs and won the shield.
Conclusion: It was a fine and cricket match that gave the audience a lot of excitement and enthusiasm.
Earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground, typically causing destruction as a result of movement within the earth’s crust. It is an untrollable enemy of mankind. We cannot know beforehand when it will happen.
From time to time, there were terrible earthquakes in different countries, which caused heavy destruction to human society. A terrible earthquake struck India in 1897 and it greatly affected Assam. A terrible earthquake struck Japan in 1923 and killed about twenty-two thousand people. A devastating earthquake struck Bihar, India in 1934, which changed the map of the state.
Assam faced a heavy earthquake on August 15, 1950, at seven-thirty in the evening. On that day when the people of India were celebrating Independence Day, this natural disaster occurred in Assam. The shaking was very violent. It became very difficult for a man to keep standing. People tried to run here and there for safety. Houses fell down, trees were uprooted. There were severe cracks here and there and some river dried up. Landslides occurred in the hills. Large scale land eroded and as a result, rivers were blocked.
The earthquake caused major flooding. When the river embankments broke down, the water came running fiercely. There was a big flood. Many villages were washed away. The grounds, gardens, houses all went underwater. Parts of the motor road were cut off. The colour of the river changed and smelled terrible. Lots of fished died. Animals and wooden logs floated in the Brahmaputra. Many died, paddy fields were destroyed. The property was lost. About two million people were affected and nearly three thousand people died. The face of Assam was changed. The suffering of the people knew no bounds.
Army and Assam Police provided all help to the homeless. The Air Force dropped bags of rice and flour into the severed areas. Students of Assam Medical College and some voluntary relief committees from all parts of India rendered humanitarian services to the affected people. People from all parts of the world helped people suffering from money, medicine and other things.
Earthquake is always terrible and undesirable. But, being it a natural phenomenon, we have no control over it. Hope that in future man would be able to control it.
Introduction: ‘Famine’ refers to the extreme scarcity of food. It can occur for many reasons.
First, famine is caused by drought (long absence of rain). For dought, the peasant cannot cultivate their land and resultantly the scarcity of food occurs in a country.
Secondly, it may occur for great flood also which destroys the crops and vegetations of a region and as a result, people have to starve.
Thirdly, growth in population is another cause of famine. Famine also occurs when food is exported to other countries through an incorrect calculation of a country’s requirements.
Fourthly, sometimes insects like grasshoppers destroy crops and famine breaks out.
Its Effects: The situation of poor people become pathetic when famine breaks out. As long as food grains are available, rich people try to buy them at any cost. People live together without food for several days. They try to live on whatever they get. They live on the leaves and roots of trees. People become cruel and selfish and can commit any crime for food. Children do not take care of their parents. Men steal and commit robbery. For want of food, people are reduced to skeletons and can meet an untimely death.
People eat whatever they get and as a result epidemics like malaria, pox, dysentery etc. soon break out and people die like cats and dogs. The rich and affluent villages become like deserts.
Relief work: When a famine breaks out, it is the duty of the government and the generous people of the country to come forward with assistance for the people in distress. People should raise money and help the famine-stricken people with food, clothes, medicine etc. Relief fund should be opened. The government should give loans and employment to the victims. Foodstuff should be sent from all parts of the country to the famine-stricken area.
Prevention: The government of the country should take steps so that there is no famine anywhere in the country. Measures must be taken to prevent floods. Modern better methods of agriculture should be introduced to increase the production of food. The means of communication and transportation should be improved so that the surplus food grains can be sent to the other parts of a country quickly.
Conclusion: Famine of any kind is always undesirable. People should lay by at least six month’s food grain at their houses for use in time of calamity like famine.
Introduction: In Indian Hindu mythology, Saraswati is the goddess of learning and music. The Hindus, especially the Hindu students, worship her every year. She is worshipped at the beginning of the spring season. It is a great joyous festival for the students. A lot of money is spent on the festival.
Description: Saraswati is a symbol of purity and wisdom. Her image is made of straw and mud arrayed with white clothes and the image is put on an altar of lotus. There is a bina (a kind of musical instrument) in her hand. Some books are kept beside her.
Pooja and Bhoga: This image is worshipped by the priest on the festival day. After the worship is over, everyone prays to the Goddess to bless the worshipper with her wisdom. The flowers and leaves of the vine tree are offered to its feet. It is a way of showing respect to the Goddess.
The goddess is worshipped in almost every school and college. The students enjoy the festival with great pleasure. It is a very happy day for them. They decorate the place of worship very beautifully. On that day they take a quick bath and do not take any food till the Puja ends. After the prayer, they take ‘prasad’. The beggars are given food and money. Visitors are warmly welcomed. Entertainment is organized at night.
Immersion: The next day, the statue is taken out in a grand procession and then it is immersed in water. In some places, the image is not immersed but is preserved at home.
Conclusion: Along with worshipping Saraswati, the worshippers should be mindful to their study so that they can acquire wisdom.
Introduction: The Maharam is a great festival of the Muslims of Shia sect. It is commemorated in memory of the tragic death of Hussain, the grandson of Prophet Mohammed. Hussain was a son of the prophet Hazrat Muhammad’s daughter Fatima.
The Story: Hazrat Mohammed, the great Prophet had two grandchildren named Hasan and Hussain. Hasan became Caliph (religious leader) of the Muslims but his enemy poisoned him to death.
Hussain then became the Caliph but his enemy, the Caliph of Damascus, captured his throne. Hussain gathered an army and marched to fight his enemy. Husain and his followers gathered and stayed for ten days in the plain called Karbala on the banks of the river Euphrates. There the Caliph of Damascus sent an army under Yazid. The army of Yazid seized Hussain and his men all around. Consequently, a deadly battle took place between the army of Hussain and the army of Yazid. Hussain’s army was defeated in the hand of his enemies. Most of his soldiers were killed and Hassain was also killed on the tenth day of the month of Maharam. Since then, the Muslims have been celebrating the festival in memory of Hassan and Hussain.
Description: The festival begins on the first day of Amavasya in the month of Maharam (Arabic month) and ends on the tenth day. During the Maharam days, Muslims express sorrow for Hasan and Hussain and they also fast for ten days. On the tenth day, they make a little frame of bamboo covered with coloured paper. It is called a ‘grave’. They fight fakes with clubs and swords in memory of the battle of Karbala. Then the frame of bamboo is taken from one place to another and is thrown into water on the tenth day. After this, the Muslims break their fast. On this occasion, food and alms are given to the poor and sweetmeats are distributed to all the people gathered there.
Conclusion: Along with celebrating Maharam, Muslims should be inspired by the great teachings of Islam.
Town Life and Village Life
Introduction: Proverb says, ‘God created the country and man made the city’. There are many cities in the world no doubt but the number of villages is more than cities. Both, town life and city life, have their own advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of Town Life: In a city, we can live a more comfortable life than we can in a village. We can have a good education in a town. The town has schools, colleges and public libraries. There are many doctors and hospitals. Roads are good and there are good facilities for communication. In the city, we can get pure water supplied by the municipal authority. There are post and telegraph offices at our convenient. We can get daily newspapers easily and promptly. Our lives and property are safe in the city. There are theatres, cinemas and other means of entertainment. We can get all kinds of necessary things at our demand.
Disadvantages of Town Life: There are some disadvantages to town life. The city is full of dust and smoke. We cannot get pure air, green vegetables and fresh things in the city. Natural beauty is unknown to city life. The city is full of noise and the houses are very close to each other. The city life is very expensive and it is not safe for people to walk on the streets comfortably.
Advantages of Country Life: Country life is peaceful. In the village, we can enjoy the beauties of nature. We get pure air, fresh food and uncorrupted things at affordable prices.
In the villages, almost all the necessary things are produced by the villagers and they do not have to depend on others. There is great cooperation among the village people. The people of the country help each other in times of need.
The Disadvantage of Country life: In the country, we cannot have everything even if we have money. Villages are backward in terms of education and cleanliness. There are very few doctors in the villages. Life and property are not secure in a village as there is no police station at our easy reach. The communication system is also poor. Ignorance, prejudice and narrowness of mind are common characteristics of country life.
Conclusion: Though both, the town life and village life, have their respective advantages and disadvantage, yet it can not be denied that village life is more peaceful and less artificial than town life.
Burglary is illegal entry into a house with the intention of theft. There was a time in the past when the burglary was a common crime both in towns and villages. Once a burglary had happened at my uncle’s house the previous year while I stayed there for some days. Here I am sharing the experience as follows:
It was the month of July of the last year. Our school was closed for the summer. My cousin invited me to spend a few days with him in the village. Accordingly, I went there with my younger brother. My uncle and aunt were very happy to see us.
A separate bedroom, attached to drawing-room, was given to us. There were two bedrooms. In one I slept with my younger brother and my cousin slept on the other. After dinner, we went to the bedroom and the three of us were chatting till midnight. We went to bed around 1 a. m. There was a table in the room and I placed my briefcase, money bag, a book and a wristwatch on it. After about an hour, we heard the barking of the dog outside. The dog was tied with a rope in the courtyard. It was around 2 pm.
Suddenly I heard someone opening the door of our room from inside. I jumped down from the bed and called my cousin. But meanwhile, the thief had made a good escape. We ran to him shouting as ‘thief, thief’! It was raining then. After running ahead of a little, he slipped and fell. We ran up to him and caught the thief. He broke into the house and ran away with my briefcase, money bags and wrist-watch. He was confused and fell at our feet but we did not like to show him any mercy.
My uncle and aunt were sleeping in their room but they woke up when we came back with the thief. My uncle called the police on the telephone. The Police Superintendent came accompanying three constables and we handed over the thief to the police. The incident instilled excitement in the neighbourhood.
If I Were a King
Introduction: Democracy is said to be the best form of government. People believe that the best form of government is the government of the people, by the people and for the people. The only road to peace, prosperity and happiness lies in a democratic way of life. Therefore, kings are out of place in the world today. The glory and pomp of the monarchy is a thing of the past. No king can have absolute power. He has to submit to the wishes of the people.
My View of a King: A king owns a kingdom for himself to rule. He has powers, wealth and influence. He has countless servants and attendants. But royalty is not a bed of roses. A king cares and worries. It is said ‘the uneasiness rests on the head that wears the crown’. The state is a big house. The king is its head and the people are his children. It is the duty of the king to look after the welfare and to fulfil the primary needs of his subjects. Vikramaditya, Rama and Ashoka were the ideal kings of ancient India.
If I were the king of India, I would do everything possible for peace, happiness and all-round welfare of my subjects. I have got some plans and I will try to implement them. Some of my plans are as follows:
Government: The form of government will be democratic. The state should be secular. No communal question will ever arise regarding the duties and benefits of the citizens. There will be complete freedom of opinion and worship. Politics would be free form religious predilection.
Food and Clothing: First of all, I shall try my best to provide sufficient food and clothing to my subjects. For this, I shall introduce modern technology in agriculture and give all the facilities to the peasants. There will be no more poverty. We should make our own food. All types of industries would be developed under the control of the state. We can produce our own cotton and get our clothes from handlooms and mills. The mills should be owned by the state.
Education: Education would be free and compulsory. People should be trained in various branches of education: technical, scientific, literary etc. After education, all the students should be able to live a comfortable life and provide useful service to society. Everyone will enjoy equal privileges. Youth should be given compulsory military training. The cleanliness of the country should be improved. Steps should be taken to make the country both physically and mentally healthy. All kinds of social evils have to be overcome. All Indians should have a common language. There should be a system to educate the public and raise their standard of living.
Foreign Policy: Internal peace and prosperity is not enough to make a state ideal. I should also develop international goodwill. I am a lover of peace. Peace will be the primary concern of my foreign policy. Of course, my country will always resist the aggression of any kind. The state will take all measures to protect the country.
Conclusion: These are some of my plans. My idea is to make the country a paradise on earth. Hunger, illiteracy and diseases are traditional problems of India. My aim will be to bring about a holistic improvement of my land-based on Indian culture and heritage. People should live in peace and prosperity. I may not be able to convert all my plans into action, but I will try my best to bring my ideal into reality.
Health is Wealth
Introduction: ‘Health’ refers to the state of being free form illness both mental and physical. A popular proverb says, ‘Health is wealth’. There is a universality of this saying. None can ignore it anyway. Nothing can be achieved without health. Life without health is a burden. A healthy man is ever happy. An unhealthy person suffers from many diseases and his life becomes miserable. So to maintain health, we should be careful from our childhood. To succeed in the world, we have to struggle hard and for this, we need good health.
Path to Health: We should carefully observe the rules of conservation of health. For this, we can follow the following instructions:
First, we should be regular and moderate in our habits. We should breathe pure air. A morning walk in the fresh open air is essential for health.
Secondly, impure water being the source of many painful diseases, we should use pure water. We can purify water by filtering and boiling.
Thirdly, we should eat nutritious food. Our food should be well cooked and chewed well and it should be digestible. We should take our food regularly at certain times. Overeating is harmful to health. We should never take alcohol.
Fourthly, we should do regular exercise to make our body healthy and strong. We should play healthy games and participate in sports. Overwriting, over-exercise and overwork are also bad for health. So we should avoid such habits. Flawless entertainment is essential for health.
Fifthly, we must maintain cleanliness in everything. We should keep our surroundings neat and clean.
Sixthly, our homes must be high and dry. They should be well ventilated and keep clean. Humid and sick airy houses bring in disease. We must follow the maxim, ‘early to bed and early to rise makes a man perfect and happy’.
Conclusion: Students should take care of their health. Recovering lost health is very difficult. Prevention is better than cure. Without health, students cannot study and cannot expect to do anything good and great. They should be very careful with regard to diet and exercise. They should remember that health is wealth.
Obedience to Parents
Introduction: ‘Obedience’ refers to the behaviour that is respectful and mindful to rules and laws, to authority and to our ever well-wishers. It is a great quality. Without obedience, society cannot exist even for a day. We should be obedient to our well-wishers especially to our parents and teachers.
Our Parents: We owe our existence to our parents in the world. They are living gods and goddesses for us. When we were younger our parents took care of us. They love us very much. They wish our welfare. Our parents feed us and do their best to give us a good education. Our parents love us more than themselves. They know better what is good for us and what is not. They are also ready to give up their lives to make us happy. They are happy if we are great and good. They give up food and do not go to sleep if we are sick. Our parents feel happy when we are happy, and they are sad when we are upset. Their love for us never diminishes. Mother’s affection for us knows no bounds. Without their care, we could not have life even one day when we were very young. God sent them down for us.
Our Duty: Parents are our selfless friends. Therefore, it is our first duty to obey our parents. We should do what they want us to do and avoid those things what they forbid us to do. We should follow them and respect them. It is our duty to make them happy and thankful in every way. Lives of great men teach us that they were good sons of their parents. Displacing parents means displeasing the gods and goddesses. If we follow our parents then we can prosper in life. Likewise, we should also be obedient to our teachers because they are our well-wishers and wants us to be better humans.
Disobedience: Disobeying parents is a major sin. Disobedient children are the most ungrateful creatures on earth. They are base. They remain very sad and die miserably. They can never improve in life.
Conclusion: To make our life meaningful and happy we must obey our parents.
The Value of Labour (Industry)
Introduction: ‘Industry’ (labour) means useful physical or mental work. A proverb says ‘Industry is the mother of good fortune’. This is true to a large extent. If we work hard we make sure to be successful.
Utility: Life becomes meaningful through work. There can be neither health nor wealth without labour. No one can ever become great without industry. Many common people became very great and were famous for the hard-working. A hardworking man can make his own fortune.
God has given us strength and ability and we should practise them. It is a law of nature that humans should work to meet their needs. ‘Eat your bread in the sweat of your face’, says the Bible. Farmers have to work hard for their crops, fishermen for their fishes and students for success in their examinations. A hardworking person benefits not only himself but also his society. The farmers feed us, weavers weave clothes for us. Without industry progress is impossible. All great things on earth are the result of industry. Glorious nations can increase in fame and wealth. Industry brings health, wealth, greatness and makes life happier. The industry has created the civilization of the world. Its success and progress are all due to labour. It enables us to live and enjoy life.
Evils of Idleness: A proverb states, ‘A sleeping fox does not catch any chicken’. This is true to a great extent. There can be no success without labour. There is no fruit without suffering. A man who does not work has no right to enjoy the product to others. He depends on others. Dependence on others is not only a shame but also a curse on one’s personality. It is rightly said that fate favours the brave alone. A passive man can never progress in life. His life is worthless. Many intelligent but worthless individuals spent their lives in misery. Work is life, laziness is death and laziness brings sickness and decline. A passive mind is the Devil’s workshop.
Conclusion: It is our duty to be hardworking. The fruits of the industry are very sweet. We can make ourselves and our society happy by doing hard labour.
Introduction: Perseverance is the habit of working patiently, in spite of some failures until the work is accomplished. We start the work and we fell down doing it once or twice or thrice. But if we are still trying until the work is finished it is called perseverance.
Utility: All properties depend on one attribute of persistence. It never fails to bring us success. This is the secret of success. No great work can be done without perseverance. The world is full of dangers and difficulties. Perseverance can only overcome them. If we get frustrated with failure then we can never achieve success in life. All great actions are the result of perseverance. Perseverance helps us to increase our superiority. All the discoveries and inventions of the world have been done by men of perseverance.
Men of Perseverance: A man of perseverance does not care about failure or difficulties. He never loses heart but completes his work patiently and carefully until it is completed. He fails but tries again. His success is sure. He knows that failure is the basis of success and no great work can be done in a day. His patience is never lost and in the end, he is crowned with success. All the great men of the world were men of perseverance.
Without perseverance, no person can do anything big. He starts the work but leaves it unfinished, for want of patience. He has no strong will and therefore cannot do anything for a long time. He is afraid of the outcome that he cannot do any great work. Men fail because they do not stand firm in overcoming hardship.
Examples: Life of great men show us the value of perseverance. Napoleon came to power on the basis of tenacity. The story of Robert Bruce and Spider for the independence of his country is a popular example of perseverance. His perseverance, after all, brought him grand success. He succeeded in his seventh attempt. Columbus was a man of perseverance and so he could discover America and immortalize his name. The lives of great men show that perseverance was at the core of their success.
Conclusion: No great work can be done without perseverance. If we want to do great things, we must learn to persevere. We should not care about difficulties or failure. If we try we will be successful in the end.
Introduction: ‘Self-help’ means the use of one’s own effort and resources to achieve somethings without relying on others. It is a habit of standing on one’s own feet. Self-help is a great virtue.
Utility: God has given us strength and intelligence. The Bible inculcates us to earn our bread with the sweat of our forehead. It is our duty to do our own work and not depend on others for help. We should try to stand on our own feet. Self-help gives us strength, self-respect and satisfaction. A man who does his work himself can be successful. They are not afraid of difficulties. The lives of great men tell us that they all depend on their abilities. No work is good until we do it ourselves. There is nothing sweeter than what we earn from the sweat of our foreheads.
Want of Self-help: Every man should bear his own burden. Relying on another is a curse. Self-help strengthens our character, while help from outside weakens us. There are some weak-minded people who cannot do any work without the help of others. They do not exercise their power. They depend on others for the tasks they can do themselves. These men can never do a big job. They have no strength of mind. They become dormant and servile. Their lives become useless.
Self-help Student Life: The habit of self-help should be acquired in childhood. Children should learn to do their own work. Without self-help, no man, no nation can be elevated in the world. Students who are always dependent on others suffer for a long time. We feel proud and happy doing our work ourselves. It may be a difficult job, yet at first, we should try to do it ourselves.
If we try our best to do something, the world will help us. Self-help leads to success in life. It makes our mind and character strong. Therefore we should depend on our right hand. ‘Self-help is the best help’.
Conclusion: We should remember always that self-help is the best help and the right key to success in life.
Introduction: ‘Unity’ refers to the state of being united. It is integrity with nothing wanting. Sometimes we cannot do work alone but that can be done with the help of others. Unity is a habit of working together.
Utility: We understand the value of the union. A man cannot bear a heavy burden but if many people try it, they can do it easily. A person cannot protect his country. This can be done when people are united together. It is difficult to break a bundle of sticks, but a single stick can be broken easily. Unity gives us strength. Not every grass is strong, but when the rope is made by them, an elephant can be tied with it. Everything can be done by virtue of unity.
History gives us many examples of the value of unity. By association, many countries have become powerful and prosperous. Again many countries have become weak for being divided among themselves. If the members of a family live together and help each other, they can prosper. But if they do not live together and do not help each other, they become weaker. The English have become the most prosperous nation for their unity. A poor man does not have enough money to start a business, but if one hundred poor men unite their money they can start a business.
Unity is also found among the lower animals. If we look at the honey bees we see that they work in harmony. Likewise, we can learn a lesson of unity from the ants.
Conclusion: The value of unity is great. Unity leads us to prosperity. Hence the proverb says rightly, ‘United we stand and divided we fall.’
Introduction: ‘Truthfulness’ is a trait of character or personality of a person of being honest and reliable to others by means of speaking the truth’. If we speak what is right then we speak the truth. This is a great virtue. A true man will never tell a lie. He does what he says.
Value of Truthfulness: Truthfulness is a virtue and this virtue can be learnt by practice and determination. A man who always speaks the truth is really a man of strong character. His life becomes glorious. A true man never cheats anyone. He keeps his point. So people depend on what he says. A true man may be poor, yet he is respected by all. A true man can achieve success in business, lead a peaceful and happy life. Everyone is happy to help him. Everyone loves to deal with him. A truthful man is also a man of honesty. He dislikes everything which is fake or fraudulent.
Liar: A liar is not liked by anyone. Nobody believes him. He has a weak character. He is dishonest. A dishonest man cannot shine in business. A liar can achieve success for a short time but in the long run, he is out of it. A liar does not lead a beautiful life. He is always afraid of being found outside. We all know the story of the shepherd boy and the wolf. The boy lost his life by lying. The liar is not believed even when telling the truth.
Conclusion: A true man is respected and loved by all, while a liar is insulted and hated by all. Therefore, all of us should try to cultivate the habit of truthfulness.
Introduction: ‘Temperance’ refers to moderation in eating and drinking. This includes habit orientation and especially abstinence from eating and drinking too much. In a broader sense, moderation includes restraint in everything. Temperance is a virtue.
How to Practice: We eat to live, not live to eat. Temperance can be practised at any time without the expense of money. Nature delights in the simple diet. A man should know-how and in what proportion it is best for him to eat and drink. Temptation comes to us but we must fight it with determination to win. Many drunkards improve their lives with sobriety and many regained their lost health by following the rules of temperance.
Usefulness: Moderation makes our mind and body healthy. It gives us a long life. It protects us from many diseases. Medicines are indeed essential to get rid of illnesses but men who live in habitual courses of exercise and abstinence hardly need it. Medicine is, for the most part, nothing but an alternative to abstinence. A man of restraint habit can lead a happy life. He attains peace of mind and progress in life.
Excessive smoking and drinking are various forms of intemperance. Intemperance kills human beings inch by inch. A man of intemperate habit suffers his entire life. He lives a miserable life, he can do nothing great. He cannot live long. An alcoholic is hated by all. He kills himself and brings poverty, misery and ruin to the family. Excess of a good thing is also evil.
Conclusion: Childhood, especially student life is the proper time of learning and practising temperance. If we are accustomed to it once then it can be a life long virtue. The parents and teachers should inculcate this lesson of temperance on children from their childhood.
Introduction: Cleanliness is a habit of keeping the body and things of daily use free from dirt. A proverb says, ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness.’ For this, we have to bathe daily, rub our bodies well and keep our clothes, rooms, utensils, food etc. clean and hygienic.
Benefits: Cleanliness is considered a religious duty. Those who maintain cleanliness in body and things, they are pure in mind also. Cleanliness enhances our moral and spiritual life. Hindus never do any religious work without bathing. Muslims wash their hands and feet before prayer. Men with dirty habits cannot have a pure character.
Cleanliness is a necessary condition for good health. Dirty habits spoil our health, while cleanliness promotes this. Dirty clothes, unclean bodies and unclean foods are very injurious to health. If we wash our body properly, then impurities cannot remain in us. It helps in the free circulation of blood. Our clothes and beds should be clean and tidy. We should keep our rooms free of dirt. When we eat food in a dirty room, dirt and germs of disease fly into our food. When we eat this unclean food, we get sick. So we should keep our house and surroundings clean and hygienic. In dirty places germs of disease flourish. If we are clean and hygienic in our habits, we can be free from disease and lead a happy life. A sound and clean body have a healthy and pure mind.
Cleanliness commands respect also. Everyone likes a man of clean habits. A person who is dirty in his body and dress is intolerable to others. He can spread the germs of disease. Dirty men are hated by all, while clean men are respected and liked everywhere.
Conclusion: Dirty persons suffer from various types of diseases. An epidemic first occurs in the dirty quarters. Therefore, we should practise this habit of cleanliness from our childhood. In this respect, the parents and teacher should motive the children from their initial stage of life. 0 0 0
Introduction: Duty is a task or action that one requires to perform. It may be either a moral or legal responsibility. Life means work. So everyone, as a social being, has certain duties to perform.
Types of Duty: Duties are of many types. We have a duty to our country, to our parents, to our teachers, to God etc. God is the creator of this universe and He has given us life. Therefore, it is our duty to worship Him. In our childhood, parents took care of us. Therefore, it is our duty to respect them and take care of them in their old age. It is the duty of a student to respect his teachers and prepare their daily lessons. It is the duty of a servant to obey his master and be faithful to him. It is a sacred duty of all to love our country, help the poor and the needy. It is our duty to be just and truthful. In this way, every man has his own duty for his neighbours, for his country and for God. Thus life is a bundle of duties.
Characteristics of a Dutiful Person: A dutiful person is not afraid of danger and difficulties. He only knows his duty and fulfils it at all costs. All the great men of the world were dutiful above all things. Many patriots sacrificed themselves to save their country. He worked for the good of the country and had a sense of duty. A country is risen to a higher level by means of its dutiful citizens. They are honest, truthful and noble. A dutiful man is honoured both in life and death. A man’s life is full of duties and he who does his duty can only rise to name and fame.
Conclusion: The performance of duties give pure enjoyment of life. Duty builds our character. God has given each man some duties to perform and he should perform them according to his abilities. To be dutiful, we must cultivate the qualities of honesty, truthfulness, obedience, discipline etc. Life is full of duties and the performance of our duties makes us happy and thus duty makes our life meaningful. 0 0 0
Introduction: Habit is a settled tendency to do or practise certain things regularly which can hardly be given up. Habits are formed by repetition. If a man does the same thing again and again, it becomes a habit with him. If a boy is made to get up early in the morning for a few days, it will gradually become a habit with him and later he will get up early on his own.
Significance of Habit: Habit makes everything easy. Man’s life is a bundle of good or bad habits. We are all slaves of habits and habits determine our character. Habits are easily formed but once they are formed it is difficult to give up. So usually our future life is made according to the habits we have formed in our early years. The habit once formed becomes a part of our nature.
Good Habits: There are good habits and bad habits. If we form good habits, we can become good men. If a boy makes a habit of telling the truth, he will always be truthful and he will never tell a lie. A good man is one who has formed many good habits. He has good conduct and character and is therefore loved and respected by all. He can improve in life. Sometimes we have to resist temptation and face some troubles in order to form good habits. But we should do them if we want to be good men.
Bad habits: Men with bad habits are bad men. Stealing, lying, smoking etc. are bad habits. Bad habits are very difficult to shake off. A man of bad habits talks about all kinds of bad things. He has no strength of mind. He is easily led to temptation, his life is spoiled. Bad habits are formed easily but very hard to shake off. So we did not repeat anything bad.
Conclusion: We should try to make good habits early in life. All bad habits should be abandoned. We usually imitate others. So we should not mix with men of bad habits. Habits build character and without good habits, our lives have no value. The aim of education is to create good habits and take out the bad ones. The parents and teacher should instruct the children to form good habits from early in life. 0 0 0
Introduction: Social service refers to the activities or services for the welfare of a society or community. Man is a social being. He does not live alone. He lives in a society. If a part of his society suffers from some trouble, he may also be affected by the trouble. So sometimes a member of society should do something for every member of society to live a happy social life.
Significance of Social Service: Social service is of great quality. Great men do not live only for themselves or for fame. They are always motivated to work for the good of others. Social service is the best part of education. It makes society better. It instils a sense of universal brotherhood. It removes narrowness from our mind and brings us heavenly bliss. Serving men means serving God. Everyone can serve in their own way. All the great men like Hazrat Muhammad, Guru Nanak, Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Jesus Christ, Florence Nightingale dedicated their lives for the good of human society and they are immortal. Social workers try to bring peace and order in the world and they reduce human suffering. There can be no greater virtue than to liberate humanity from suffering.
For Students: The main duty of a student is to study. But social service is an essential part of education. Along with their studies, they should do some work for the betterment of society. Social service provides scope for creative thinking. Students can help their neighbours in crisis. During the holidays, they can do something to improve the village. Collective illiteracy is the biggest problem in India. Villagers are generally ignorant and pathetic. In collaboration with the villagers, a band of ready workers can open a night school. Every year people suffer from malaria and epidemics and die prematurely. Students can explain the primary rules of public health. A little organized work and eagerness suffice for its purpose. This will provide a good discipline for them.
Conclusion: It is said that as is the society so is its inhabitants. So we should try to render some services for the betterment of our society and this habit of doing good to society should be formed from student life. 0 0 0
Introduction: A person possessing some humane qualities as honesty, humbleness, kindness, generosity, sobriety, courage, self-respect, self-reliance, morality, impartiality etc. is called a gentleman. One does not become a gentleman by birth or wealth. Money and rank have no essential relationship with real gentlemanly qualities. Only he who does gentle deeds can be called a gentleman. A poor man can be a true gentleman in spirit and everyday life.
Essential Qualities: To be a true gentleman, one must be honest, humble, sober, courageous, self-respecting and self-reliant. A true gentleman is never mean and never takes unfair advantage. He has no ear to condemn and makes the best explanation for everything. A gentleman never hurts others. He does not give in derogatory words to anyone. He is liberal-minded. He is kind and also considerate to enemies. He does not insult anyone. He is also kind to animals. He is not distracted by success, he is not depressed by failure. He does not boast of his wealth or his strength. He keeps his promise and never tells a lie. He is never cruel and forgives those who try to harm him. A true gentleman never laughs at the guilt of others. He does not make any rude remarks and respects all religions. He is kind and sympathetic to his subordinate. He is a friend of the poor and the weak. A man possessing these fine qualities is a true gentleman whatever his post maybe.
A man is not just a gentleman because he has a good income, lives in a good style and has a good appearance. A poor man may have a more gentlemanly quality than a rich man.
Conclusion: A true gentleman leads a pure and honest life. He respects everyone and judges everything with wisdom. Everybody should try to be a gentleman in the truest sense. 0 0 0
Introduction: Thrift means the habit of saving something for the future. This is a very good habit. We should save something from our earnings for the future.
Utility: There are many ups and downs in life. We do not know what waits for us in the future. We must live within our means and try to save something for future needs. In our old age, we cannot work and our income decreases. We have to educate our children. We have to give our daughters in marriage, we can fall ill and some accidents can happen. We need money for all these things. If we make provision for them in times of being young and active, we will never be in trouble. It is our duty to lay by something for the rainy days. A wise man saves something from his earnings and he never suffers in bad times.
Extravagance: Some people do not know the right use of money. They spend their money right and left. They spend their money on luxury and pride. They do not think about the future. Consequently, in their old age, they get into great trouble. They spend money on useless things and later, they do not get money to buy useful things. Wastage leads to waste. They later repent for their stupidity. An extraordinary millionaire can also be reduced to a street beggar. The man who spends all that he earns is poorer than the man who earns less but saves some from his small income. Many of millionaire’s wives and children become street beggars.
Conclusion: Everyone should practise the habit of saving. The habit should be formed from an early age. In old age, we become feeble to earn money and there are circumstances over which we have no control. So, a wise person makes provision for the future. 0 0 0
Kindness to Animals
Introduction: God is the creator of all things including the vast universe. All the creatures big g or small are like the children of God. He loves them very much.
Being kind: If we are kind to animals then we definitely please God by loving His children. Animals can feel pleasure and pain as we do it. When beaten or otherwise ill-treated they weep quietly and suffer. We can misbehave with them because we have more power than those dumb creatures. Our action is definitely sinful. To behave badly with an animal is to be more cowardly.
Many of the animals are very useful to us. We cannot do without them. The cow gives us milk. The bull ploughs our fields and enables us to grow our crops. The horse takes us on its back and pulls our carts. The camel takes us across the desert. Some animals are useful in both life and death. They work for us from morning till night. They rarely do us any harm. We should be grateful and kind to them in every way. We should treat them well, give them adequate food and look after them.
Cruelty: There are men who are very cruel towards animals. Some children give pain to small birds and insects. They enjoy these cruel games. They are no better than animals. We are generally cruel towards animals. We sacrifice them in the altar of the gods and goddess. We eat the meat of some of them. Caterers and ploughmen sometimes beat their bulls very brutally. If we are kind to animals, they will love us and if we are cruel to them, they will try to harm us. They can know our kindness and cruelty.
Conclusion: We are the children of the same God. The animal is a dumb creature. They cannot express their feelings in words. So only the cowards and fools mistreat them. Many of the animals are of great use to us. So we should be kind to these useful and animals as beloved creatures of God. 0 0 0
Introduction: Money is a legal medium of exchange in the form of coins, banknotes, cheque etc circulated by the superior authority of a country. Money, besides being a medium of transaction, is a unit of accounting and a store of value. Importance of Money: Money is a very important thing. The whole world runs on the strength of money. It is a means of exchange. It helps to supply our material needs and progress the society. Our peace and happiness depend on the right use of money. Those who have money are called rich. The rich can lead to a fine life. Those who have no money are called poor and they lead a pathetic life. They cannot purchase the necessities of life. The benefit of money gives us happiness and the loss of it breaks our heart. Some lucky individuals can get money from their parents but in fact, the money is earned by labour. People make money through trade, agriculture and other business.
Good Use: Money is a blessing if we can use it properly. Money should be spent on our health, education and other necessities of life. Money must be spent for a high and noble cause. A monk can do much good for his society and thus he can earn a name and fame. With money, we can help the needy, feed the hungry, educate the mass, relieve the sick and help the victims in many ways. All dignitaries spend their money on charity for the upliftment of humanity. They establish schools, hospitals and other useful institutions. Thus they use money properly and they become immortal. Money gives us an opportunity to do good works and earn fame. Religion says that helping the poor is like lending to the Lord.
Abuse: Money is a dangerous weapon in the hands of evil men. It becomes a curse. Bad men use their wealth to persecute the weak and the helpless. Money makes them proud. With the help of money, they kill men, commit great injustice, indulge in luxury and commit all kinds of sins. Thus they misuse the money. They harm others and ruin themselves.
Some people collect money for the love of it. They themselves do not enjoy it nor do they help others. There is no use of that money. This is an abuse of money.
Conclusion: We should earn money by means of honest labour. We should not try to make money in evil ways. Money should be spent only for the essentials of life and not on luxury. The money we save should be spent on good causes. 0 0 0
Introduction: ‘Amusement is a provision of entertainment that makes us forget boredom after labour and makes our body and mind relaxed. Entertainment gives us joy, new strength and health.
Types of Amusement: Everyone wants amusement. There are different types of amusement like sports, cinema, circus, music etc. Amusement like cricket, football, horse riding, swimming gives us happiness and health. Entertainments like cinema, circus, cards bring us joy and relax our minds. Rural entertainment varies from city entertainment.
Importance of Amusement: The world is full of cares and concerns. We have to struggle hard in life. But if we keep working without rest, we cannot work long. Our work will not interest us. Life will become dull. Our work cannot be done properly. We are not machines. Our health will be broken. Entertainment restores our health and gives new strength. So entertainment is equally essential as work. After hard work, we need a rest and some entertainment. Entertainment breaks the monotony of work and we relax our mind and body. Entertainment removes our cares and concerns and gives us new energy and we can work hard again with more interest. So entertainment makes life enjoyable and happy.
Good Amusement and Bad Amusement: There are good amusement and bad amusement. Flawless and healthy entertainment gives us happiness and health. Bad entertainment like alcohol, gambling etc. can give us happiness for the time being but they spoil our health and weaken our character. Good entertainment is necessary for everyone, but bad entertainment should be carefully avoided.
Conclusion: Students should have impeccable and healthy entertainment. Indoor games make us happy and relax our mind. Outdoor sports also make our body strong. Too much entertainment is not good. We must be careful that entertainment cannot harm us. 0 0 0
The Study of Science
Introduction: Science is the systematic study through observation and experiment of the laws behind the working of things. The main business of science is to know the laws and control the forces of Nature. Man is ever trying to control Nature. But she refuses to reveal her secrets to us. The study of science involves careful observation of the things of Nature. Nature is full of beauty and wonder and science has allowed us to delve into its mysteries.
Miracles of Science: Wherever we lay our eyes, we see the victory of science. The history of human civilization is a record of the achievement of science. Science has enabled man to bring the forces of nature under his control and use them for material prosperity. It has brought remote parts of the world closer to each other. It is through those efforts of science that the train runs, an aeroplane flies and a wireless machine operates. Science has explored new ways of health. Miraculous treatment of some acute diseases has become possible due to the discovery of some amazing medicines. The science of engineering has enabled us to build a huge structure. The printing press has changed the character of our lives. Mobile phone has become an integral part of our daily lives along with television and the internet. Water power has served to help agriculture and industrial production. The findings of science are challenging our old beliefs. We no longer see Nature as an arbitrary force. We come to know that nature is governed by a body of well-regulated laws. Modern science has put new weapons at our disposal to fight against poverty, ignorance and superstition.
Utility: The study of science helps to develop our intellectual and moral features. It teaches us to do basic research. It makes us love what is right, just and true. It empowers us to have an accurate observation and precise thinking. Science has done great service to humanity. It has made life easier and more comfortable. Science tries to meet our new needs. The present age is the era of science. Everyday life is connected to science in countless ways.
Conclusion: In this age of science everybody should study science to make our life happier, easier and comfortable. 0 0 0
The Study of Biography
Introduction: Biography is the story of a person’s life and deeds. It is a record of a man’s life, his successes and failures, his smile and tears, his hopes and aspires.
Significance of Biography: The study of the biography of a great man is always a source of inspiration. Biography teaches us many lessons. Great men of the past reach our hearts through biographies. Biographies are not only wonderful works of art, but they are also highly useful human documents. They shape the lives of the future generation.
A man by nature, an exemplary creature. Many people have been inspired to do great works by reading the lives of great men in history and fiction. The life of great heroes like Rana Pratap Singh tells us that no sacrifice is too great, where the honour of one’s country is at stake. The life of a great man tells us about his great qualities that made him famous. When we run into difficulties, examples of them come to our aid and inspire us with hope and courage. An example is better than precept. The study of the life stories of great men leads us to the right path and show how we can make our lives sublime.
It is the work of biography to teach what man can be and what he can do. The examples set by the great men do not die. There were great men like Ram Mohan Ray, a politician like Abraham Lincoln, emperor like Ashoka, heroes like Harish Chandra, revolutionary like Che Guevara, social reformers like Mahatma Gandhi and the religious leaders who have enriched humanity. They all struggled all their life to make the world a better place for humanity.
The study of their life stories can motivate us to do great humanitarian deeds like them.
Conclusion: Biography of a great man is more interesting than history or novel. In the biography, we read about a man who loved people and worked for humanity. If we want to be great or better persons then we should follow the footsteps of the great men. From the lives of great men, we find that they carefully studied the lives of their famous predecessors. The lives of great men tell us how to rise to the top and overcome difficulties.
Conclusion: We should study the biographies of the word personalities to learn great lessons because nothing can motivate and inspire us more intensely and deeply as the life stories of great men can do. 0 0 0
Military Training for Students
Introduction: In ancient time the military training was compulsory in some countries like Greece, Sparta, Rome etc. The Spartans compelled both boys and girls to undergo vigorous military training for some years. Today all civilized countries are trying to train the young boys as soldiers by law.
Benefits: Military training builds the body of the nation. Regular parades and camp life affect new vitality in young men, making them strong and fit. They include a sense of discipline which is an integral part of the character. It develops a sense of self-reliance, self-control and self-respect. A civilized state can remain stable only when it rests on the solid foundation of disciplined people. A country that has given military training to its citizens will not need to bear the cost of maintaining a very large army. In the event of war, civilians would be called upon to join the country’s war forces.
Importance of Military Training: Military training is essential for the students of a country. Without national defence, freedom is always in peril. Therefore, to protect itself from foreign invasion, a country should have a strong land, air and naval forces. Winning freedom is not enough, but preserving it and keeping it working is a difficult task. It is a reasonable demand that the state should provide military training to all able men and women. According to the long tradition, India is peaceful land and opposes all forms of oppression and aggression. Demand of military training overcomes the concern of protecting the country from internal disorders and external aggression. It is the duty of all to protect the honour of their motherland. It is wise to be prepared for all the sad turn of events.
Steps Taken: National Cadet Corps have been started in various provinces to provide military training for boys and girls. Joining the Corps is a voluntary task but here is a great chance for our boys and girls to receive a serious military training.
Conclusion: It is expected that the government is considering the question of including military training within the curriculum. We should welcome this because we need a life of discipline, orderliness and obedience and only compulsory military training can instil these good qualities in students. 0 0 0
Introduction: War is an armed conflict between different countries or different groups within a country. War is a horrible thing. Most wars in history were the outcomes of selfishness and longing for power of some crazy leaders.
Why Wars: There are wars and wars. There are wars to protect a country, its religion and oppression. War to fight against tyranny and oppression. Again wars occur to quench the thirst of some bloody imperialists. In history, we see that some strong nation under crazy leaders waged war with other countries and toppled down innocent humanity. Sometimes war may be necessary but there is nothing great or spectacular about war. War is always the expression of an animal in man.
Evils of it: There have been many wars in the world since ancient times. Ancient warfare was a martial and courtly practice. Citizens in general were not affected. But modern wars have completely fallen apart. It is the father of many evils – political, religious and economic. The battlefield is a ghostly scene of defeat and destruction. Thousands of people die of starvation, disease or sufferance. Thousands of homes and families are clean out of existence. The main business of war is to destroy cities, to burn croplands, to turn fruitful areas into deserts etc. War multiplies widows and orphans. Certainly war is abominable. Every war costs a huge amount of money and lives. After the war, the government imposes all kinds of taxes on the people. The prices of all commodities go up. As a direct effect of the war, trade and commerce get badly affected. Industries are disorganized and the progress of a nation stops suddenly. War is the enemy of culture. In times of war, all schools and colleges remain closed. Such are the evils of war.
Conclusion: The victory of peace is better than the victory of the war. Both warring parties are equally afflicted and have to pay the price for their stupidity. Yet each war only leads to the next. Therefore, the leaders should learn the lesson from history that war bings in no good to humanity but chaos, death and destruction. They should find out the points of contention among nations and solve them by some amicable and peaceful ways and take a vow to avoid war anyway. 0 0 0
Introduction: Technical education means that type of education which teaches us some useful arts. It is training in practical arts and science. Education commonly imparted in schools is called ‘literal education’. Technical education is practical. It enables students to do certain things and makes them qualified to enter a career with some previous practical knowledge. It is opposed to theoretical and literary education. Training in carpentry, agriculture, medicine, engineering etc. have been included in technical education. The purpose of vocational education is to equip men with the necessary training to earn a livelihood.
Usefulness: Technical education is very useful. The current education system cannot afford the job to qualified students. Lack of vocational education is responsible for unemployment and poverty of our country. Technical education enables a person to earn his bread. Technical education imparts training in some specialized branches of industry. It is actually a trade or handicraft teaching. It acts as a bond between school and practical work. It teaches a person the principles and practices of the business in which he is trained. People with technical education are essential for increasing industrial production in the age of competition. It helps in the development of the prosperity of a country.
Conclusion: Agriculture is the mainstay of India. There are few agricultural colleges in India. Mahatma Gandhi’s Wardha Scheme is based on the principle that education should be related to the practical needs of society. In free India, we need more artisans, engineers, miners and more technicians to make our economic fortune. Therefore we want more school, colleges, institutions for technical education. Technical education can be made a part of high school training so that every boy and girl leaving school can embark to some job by himself. 0 0 0
Introduction: A home is the permanent residence of a person and consists of family members to whom he belongs. A house that gives us only shelter cannot be called a home. Home is a lovely place where we live with our parents, brothers, sisters and other nearest relatives.
Love at home: At home, we are born in our childhood in the lap of an affectionate mother and under the care of a loving father. At home, we spend the happy days of our childhood. Many sweet memories or our past lives are associated with it. So home is a big attraction for us. We are naturally attracted to a home. We think that there is no more sacred place than at home. We love everything at home. A man can live in the desert, yet he thinks that it is the best place on earth. When we are away from ‘home’, we remember pleasant memories associated to home. We miss our loving parents and beloved brothers and sisters while away from home. We like to go back there. Home is our earthly paradise.
Its Effects: Home has a great influence on us. A man’s character is formed in his childhood. Home is the place where a child’s future is made. We get instructions in school but we learn many other fundamental things at home. A child is fond of imitating others. Examples of virtue or vice, everything he sees or hears mould his character spontaneously. So if parents are good then children become good. Our mothers can build our character at home. Many have become great only because of their mothers at home. If the people at home are bad then the children become bad. Therefore, parents should lead a pure life and set good and great examples for their children. They should train their children well at home. A good home is a sacred place. A man is lucky if he lives in such a home.
The house is dull without children. For fathers travelling abroad, memories of home are associated with their beloved children. Children also help make the home happy. Good children multiply the blessings of a home. If children are good and obedient then the parents are happy. A home with bad children is as miserable as the hell.
Conclusion: We are naturally fond of home and we should love our home. But we should not be homesick. Some idle and vulnerable people do not like to love their homes. We cannot praise them. Everybody should love his home and try to make it a happier one. 0 0 0
Use of Books
Introduction: Book is a written work either hand-written or printed consisting of pages glued or sewn along one side and bound in a cover. Books contain knowledge and information on various subjects which contribute to the dissemination of knowledge and information from generation to generation.
Significance of Books: Books record what men have seen, heard, thought or discovered. The knowledge and experience of one generation is passed on to future generations through books and thus books help in the progress of civilization. The best books are those from which the reader gathers the most useful knowledge and greatest inspiration. There are books for all time and interest.
The way books are used for us are numerous. Books are the only means to enter into the thoughts of great men of all ages. Books never fail. The books are said to be the best friends who never betray us. The purpose of books is to impart knowledge. While we read a book we forget the cares and concerns of our busy life and live in an elevated environment in the company of great men of the past. The noble thoughts of great men mould our character and personality.
There are various types of books as books of science, history, geography, philosophy, literature, entertainment etc. Science tells us about the discoveries and inventions made by scientists. Medical science tells us about various diseases and their treatment. History is said to be the books of philosophy by examples. Poetry takes us to higher realms.
There are books for entertainment. We need entertainment for the mind as we need physical exercise for the body. There are also books of biography, travel and fiction. Biography acts as a beacon of light in our journey through life. Reading about foreign countries and foreign customs opens the mind. Reading of literature as a novel, story, drama etc. expands our knowledge of humanity. A light novel is the easiest way to spend one’s vacation.
Conclusion: Men read books according to their tastes and interests. It is said that a man is known by the company he keeps. This is true to books also. We can say that a man is known by the type of books he reads. We should form the habit of reading books from our early life. 0 0 0
Introduction: Contentment is a state of being happy and satisfied with what a person have. Contentment enables a person to tolerate the hardships and sorrows faced in life with patience. He is satisfied with his own lot.
A Blessing: Contentment is the source of all happiness. A satisfied mind is a constant feast. Contentment is the best feeling that we can hope for in life. It is better than wealth. Money cannot give us true happiness. Contentment does not bring wealth but eliminates the desire for that which is more valuable. Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial poverty. A man may have health and wealth, yet he cannot be contented with what he has. On the other hand, a poor man who can hardly meet both ends can be a contented man. Such men have no peace. He who is always trying to increase his wealth can not be a happy man.
But contentment does not mean that we should remain idle being satisfied with what we have without trying to improve ourselves. If one does so, it is wrong contentment.
Conclusion: Contentment comes from the mind but it can be developed. If a man compares himself to a man who is less fortunate, he will not feel very dissatisfied with himself. Therefore to be happy in life we must feel contentment with what we have and try to improve ourselves by honest means. 0 0 0
Importance of Sports
Introduction: Sports are physical activities with the entertainment of an individual or team that competes against another individual or a group of individuals. Usually ‘sports’ refers to some outdoor exercises that make us happy.
Types of Sports: There are different types of sports such as: running, racing, athletics, swimming, boxing etc. These are outdoor sports and they provide us with entertainment. These sports entertain both spectators and players. In addition, sports provide an opportunity to show certain talents of the participants.
Importance of Sports: Sports are important for us. Because we do not always like to be confined to our regular lives. Sometimes we get tired. Life then becomes dull and boring. Sports make our body and mind fresh and relaxed. They enable us to forget our busy lives for sometime and encourage us to resume our tasks. Thus, sports provide pleasure with diversion.
The harmonious and balanced development of both body and mind bring happiness to us and we derive them form sports. We know that too much mental exercise without any physical exercise ruins our health. When we exercise our organs along with the exercise of the mind, we become strong and active in both body and mind. Sports carry this practice to our organs. It builds our muscles and gives the energy to work.
All schools, colleges and universities have the provision of various sports for students. These educational institutions arrange annual sports week for the students. Nowadays students also participate in sports like football, volleyball, race, tennis, cricket etc. Rural sports meetings are also held under the patronage of the government to entertain and please the rural people on one hand and to encourage the players interested in various sports on the other.
Sports teach us discipline. It trains and builds our character. Players always listen to the captain and the referee or umpire. Every game has an established set of rules. Players always have to follow those rules. When the games are played with interest and following the rules, the purpose of the games is served. In this way, games teach us to control our nature and temptations.
We have heard of the Olympic Games. These are the games played between the players of different countries of the world. The purpose of the Olympic Games and the Asian Games is to bring together players from all over the world. It creates an international unity and develops a universal brotherhood.
The government has also become aware of the value of sports. Hundreds and thousands of rupees are spent every year in the name of sports and games.
Conclusion: Misbehavior and bad motives are harmful in sports. It spoils the spirit and ideals of the game. The students should be encouraged to participate in games and sports from their initial stages. 0 0 0
Introduction: Swimming is a physical activity of propelling oneself through water using the limbs. Swimming is liked by many of us.
Swimming as an Art: Swimming, in the past, was considered to be a popular art. This art was highly acclaimed in ancient times. Swimming was essential when there was no bridge and no important system of communication. People living beside a river or a sea practised swimming. Most of these people could swim like frogs. But swimming is not an inborn habit. It requires practices. The more we take to swimming the more we become expert in it. To some people, swimming become a passion.
Importance of Swimming: Some people practice swimming out of necessity while some practise it out of joy. Still swimming has been recognized as a good form of exercise. In swimming, limb are to be moved. It provides good exercise to our bodily organs. Any form of systematic and regular exercise is good for health, so also swimming helps us in improving our health.
Everybody should learn how to swim. The important requirements for swimming are good health and muscular strength. Swimming is not only a form of exercise for pleasure, but it is a skill also. On some occasions, good swimmers are necessary for society. During floods, boat-wreck, shop-wreck etc. a healthy and clever swimmer proves to be of immense service to the people.
Science has presented the world with easy and speedy means of communication on the land, sea and in space. In view of such improvements in communication the importance of swimming is lessened. But this art cannot be totally rejected. To move on the sea we have ships, to cross rivers we have motor-boats. Still swimming is essential. Nature is powerful enough to outdo the efficiency of anything and everything made by man. So, ship-wrecks and boat wrecks are there on the sea and river. To rescue the people or to save the victims, we need people who are good swimmers. People working in defence service are trained in acquiring this art of swimming. Swimming had virtue in it. A good swimmer can save a drowning man. Thus he can give life to a dying man. A swimmer realizes the value of swimming. Swimming thus ennobles us and also gives us pleasure. Training and intelligence depend on becoming a good swimmer.
Swimming is practised in many ways. The chief and popular of those is the breast-stroke system. It helps in saving a drowning man. Other strokes help us in gaining speed. The side-stroke is very pleasing but it makes the swimmer feel tired very soon.
For fishermen and anglers, swimming is very important. In the Olympic and Asian Games, there is an event on swimming. In this age of specialization, the art of swimming too has importance as it provides scope to specialize and to prove one’s capability. It is now considered as a part of games and sports. To swim across the English Channel is really a thrilling and exciting event.
Conclusion: Nowadays swimming is a recognised form of sports. We should encourage our children to practise swimming. 0 0 0
‘Obedience’ is the behaviour that is respectful and mindful to rules and laws, to an authority or to our ever well-wishers. Obedience is not servility. It is a virtue to live a happy, disciplined and ordered social life.
Obedience is important in every sphere of our lives: in school, college, army, family, sports etc. We should act according to the rules and orders set by the authorities.
The lesson of obedience begins at home. If the children or members of the family do not follow the rules of the family, there can be no peace and order in the family.
The next stage where we can learn about the value of obedience is the society where we live in. To live in a society we must abide by some rules, convention, rituals etc. Otherwise, our social life would turn into chaos.
After home and society, we learn the lesson of obedience in school and college. Every educational institution has a set of rules and regulations and everybody must follow them. For example, the students must obey the teachers and their instructions. Otherwise, education is impossible.
Similarly, there will always be chaos and if we do not follow the laws of the state. Obedience is the first condition of our happiness.
Obedience builds our character. It trains our brain. It teaches us to control our passions and temptations. It is our social and human duty to obey our parents. They think and work for our good. Controlling our passions and temptations lead us ahead.
We must exercise our discretion and judgment in being obedient. Obedience to foreign domination is not obedience. Lack of obedience in one’s decision becomes tyrannical. So we learn to obey orders with conscience and judgment. Obedience makes social life easier and binds one with the other.
Obedience is most important for students. If they are disobedient, they cannot learn anything and cannot build their character. Disobedient students become violent in nature and behaviour and they cause chaos and indiscipline in classrooms, in meetings, in the examination hall and everywhere. Students are the future leaders and administrators of the country. If they do not make a habit of being obedient, then they may not have the virtue of commanding others. To command others is to learn to obey others. Obeying others is not a matter of shame or humiliation. It is a virtue that contributes to the happiness of our social life. 0 0 0
Utility of Leisure
‘Leisure’ means freedom from compulsory tasks or duties. It also refers to the time when a person is free from regular engagement for some time. In short, it means the amount of time when the mind and body are at rest.
Life means work. Man has to fight hard for his existence. ‘The Theory of Evolution’ says that the most qualified and skilled creatures survive on this earth while others perish. Everybody can not comply with this theory but we can hardly deny the fact.
Vacation is necessary for all beings in this world. Man can be at work without rest. Such life becomes dull and short-lived. A person is reduced to health when he is physically and mentally occupied with worldly concerns all the times. Then life would be a burden. But we cannot get rid of works. Furthermore, the man is not a robot, he cannot work all the time.
Modern life is a busy life. We are in jail for this routine. Relaxation provides an opportunity to break out of this routine. Then the person can breathe free air and the wonders of Nature which provide relaxation to our body and mind. T
But how and when to take leisure? Life is no longer a bed of roses. Surviving becomes a difficult task. There is no system of compulsory slavery, yet we are slaves to ourselves. Therefore, there is difficulty in getting free time. Nevertheless, our work-routine must be so well planned that we can get a few hours of rest. We may get a period of leisure, but if our mind is full of worries then it is not leisure. Leisure is a diversion of our mind and body form our routine work to something that provides with relaxation and entertainment.
In industries, in offices, in educational institutions, in the army, in the navy, etc. – there is a provision of leisure everywhere. Schools and colleges are given holidays to make students happy and refreshed. Sitting six or seven hours in class without a break is really exhausting. Leisure helps in getting rid of this boredom.
We should know how to spend and use our leisure time. For this, we should raise some hobbies. Lovers of books can turn pages of books. People with a poetic mind can enjoy the objects of Nature under the open sky. Some people can play games and sports like football, volleyball, cricket, carom, walking etc. Of course, there are no rules or limits on how we should spend our leisure time. It depends on one’s interest and choice.
But If we can use our leisure time properly then it would be rewarding. All the ways of enjoying leisure time are good if they help us overcome our dullness and worries.
Leisure after our routine work is necessary but we should never try to run away from our important work on the pretext of leisure. It is to remember that they can enjoy leisure in the truest sense who are honest in performing their duties. 0 0 0
The Value of Experience in Life
‘Experience’ is the knowledge of an event or subject gained through involvement in it. In other words, to say, the experience is an impression fallen on someone by an event.
The world is full of wonders and mysteries. But our life is short. During this short time, a man has to know and learn many things. He must know and learn until the end of his life. He learns a great deal from books, from teachers, from elders and from his surroundings. Our memory is not so sharp that we can preserve all the information that we learn from them. But when we learn from our practical life it remains alive for a long time. Every event leaves an impression on our mind which can hardly be swept off. Therefore experience is the best teacher.
Experience makes us aware of the art of living. When we know and learn things and use them in practical life then our knowledge becomes complete in itself. We realize the usefulness of our knowledge. But experience alone cannot teach us mathematics, chemistry, biology and other branches of learning. Knowledge of those subjects learnt from books or from teachers become alive if we apply them in our practical life. We read about hills, mountains, seas, oceans etc. in geography but when we get a chance to see them in our own eyes then our knowledge on them get matured.
Again our life is surrounded by events. We have read about events which are recorded in books. But these cannot come to us in the same way. It depends on time, place and circumstance. Reading about death is quite different from watching it. Experience is the best teacher in teaching us the art of living under different circumstances.
The life experiences of our ancestors are recorded in books and we can go through them. Our seniors and teachers also help us with their learning that they have gained from their experiences. But we do not always act on the advices and warnings of others. If a child is advised not to play with fire, he cares a little until he gets the experience of burning his fingers while playing with fire. Thus the child learns to dread the fire through experience.
Overwork is harmful to health. But an energetic youth does not care about it. When his health reduces for overwork only then he experiences the meaning of that good lesson. Thus our knowledge deeps through practical involvement to events.
Experience is power. It strengthens our will power, determination, patience and courage. When we come over the misfortunes of bad days with patience then we realize the value of patience.
Every experience is a good lesson for our life. An experienced man is not lost in the whirlpools of this world. So we should be mindful to the events that happen in our surroundings and learn lessons from them to make our life more meaningful. 0 0 0
Life is Work
Work is an activity either physical or mental that produces an effect. In other words, to say, work is the act of putting effort on something in order to achieve a result.
Birth and death do not define life. Real-life is the work we do between birth and death. Life is not worth living in the absence of work. So we have to say that it is impossible to think of life without work. It is often said that life is not measured in terms of years, but in terms of accomplishments that we perform during our lifetime.
Every man has to do some work for his survival. He has to work to earn his bread. It is also said that man cannot live by bread alone. He should have a place to stay or he should be protected from sun and rain and should rest after a day’s hard work. He should also have his clothes. He should work to get all these essential things for living a social life. We see that the wild animals, birds, insects etc. lives on the foods found in Nature. They do not have to produce their food, yet they have to move in search of food and shelter.
Men in the primitive era lived mainly on the gifts of Nature. There was little difference in the way of life of humans and other beings. But man is provided with intelligence. As he went through different stages of life, he gained experience and knowledge resulting in advancement and progress in every sphere of life. All these improvements and achievements are possible only for their laborious works. Each person works according to his intelligence and ability to meet his needs. Whatsoever men do, gives rise to progress and prosperity. We know that the tireless works of men contribute to the development of modern civilization. Thus the secret of the success of humanity is nothing but hard labour.
Works are of two types: physical and intellectual. Of course, there is a degree of difference between the two. The intellectual labour of a scientist or a philosopher is much more intense than the intellectual labour of a man engaged in road construction. But work of each type has its own respective importance.
The achievements and success achieved through our works can not be ignored because our works directly or indirectly contribute to the progress of civilization. Scientist like Harvey, Addison, C. V. Raman; Philosophers like Radhakrishnan, Kant, Freud; social workers like Mahatma Gandhi, Jayaprakash, Mother Teresa and so on are remembered because of their works. It makes us realize that life is nothing but work. But our work must be productive and honest. 0 0 0
A Village Fair
Introduction: ‘Village Fair’ refers to the gathering of people to buy and sell necessary goods. Its speciality is that it is held on some days having religious or other social significance. With buying and selling goods there are provisions of entertainment at a village fair. Men, women and children gather at the village fair to purchase their necessary good along with entertainment. It also mobilizes the farmers of a region to sell and buy agricultural products and the things produced in their cottage industries.
In a village fair, various goods and articles are kept for sale and display. Items of entertainment such as magic shows, merry-go-rounds and theatre shows and so on are organized. Exhibitions of various types of machinery are seen at the village fairs. The fair authority puts some volunteers to make the villagers aware of those things.
The site for the village fair is usually selected either on the banks of a river or in an open field or on a public road that is connected to good road communication. Village fairs are generally held after the harvesting season. There is no hard and first rule as to how long the village fair should continue. Sometimes it lasts for a work and sometimes for a fortnight.
Some preparation is necessary to organize a village fair and there are both temporary toilets and urinals for men and women along with the drinking water system. Some rows of temporary stalls are constructed in the village fair. Volunteers are appointed to maintain peace and discipline. Some two or three days before the fair, people start arranging their shops with a variety of things. The shops are beautifully decorated to attract buyers and this brings beauty and grandeur to the village fair. In a village fair, various kinds of items like toys, dolls, balls etc. for children, various ornaments for women and girls and many other items are displayed. Furniture of various designs, fishing nets, pottery, various clothes and many other items are kept for sale. Apart from these, some people are busy in displaying balloons, sweets, toys for children only.
A village fair is busy with a crowd of people and echoes of joy and ecstasy are heard from far and wide. Government departments like fisheries, agriculture, family planning etc. arrange exhibitions in such fairs to make people aware of the facilities offered by these departments. In this way, a modern village fair provides entertainment and facilities for selling and buying local products to the people.
A village fair also helps in the development of cottage industries and handicrafts as it provides a market for their domestic works. A village fair, thus, provides the scope of marketing and entertainment to all categories of people. 0 0 0
The Importance of English in Modern India
Introduction: English is one the most logical, rich and popular languages of the world. It is now used as a medium of international communication. But the English language is a foreign language to the people of India. It came to India with the British who made it the language of administration and transaction. Although, the Indians have achieved independence many years ago, yet they learn English for a variety of reasons.
Each Indian state has its own state language but it is a matter of regret that there is not a common language for internal connectivity with all the states. Though Hindi is said to be the common language of India yet, many Indians do not like to take it as a medium of internal communication. The South Indian people find it hard to learn Hindi. So they are to perform all the transactions through English. However, except Hindi, a common Indian language is still a dream to replace English at all levels of administration, education and country-based competitive examinations.
For the Indians, English is a library language for acquiring knowledge of modern science and technology. India cannot live separately in these fields of knowledge from the rest of the world. So Indian students learn English besides their mother tongue. Students have to supplement their knowledge by reading books and journals in English.
Our country has made a lot of progress in various fields. Yet we cannot be content with what we have achieved. To represent our culture and achievements abroad we need to learn English.
English literature has a huge impact on Indian literature. Some Indian authors wish to get readers internationally of their writings through translation. So, the Indians have to learn English.
Among our young students we look for diplomats, thinkers, scientists interpreters, etc. to participate in international affairs. Therefore, they must study compulsory English.
From all these considerations, it is important for us to learn English.
Learning English is a daunting task for Indian students. However, as they need to learn English, some new methods of learning English should be formulated so that the Indian can learn English easily. 0 0 0
National Integration of India
National integration means bringing together the various units and communities of a nation into a close and homogeneous unity despite the existence of differences in caste, religion and language. Its purpose is to make citizens of different castes and faiths feel that they belong to one nation and they should work unitedly to make the nation stronger and prosperous. India is considered to be the unique model of ‘unity in diversity’ among the world countries.
Every citizen of different communities, castes, beliefs and groups should be ready to work together for the collective good of the nation, forgetting their individual differences and interests. It develops from a sense of national solidarity and integrity. Every citizen of India irrespective of their caste, creed and community should feel as an Indian and do good for the nation. This spirit and belief help in unifying the various communities and groups of people within the land. They must be integrated into one and only then the sovereignty and welfare of the nation can be upheld. The nation becomes stronger and more prosperous when differences of caste and creed are allowed to sink and a sense of unity develops as a nation. This harmonious amalgamation of all castes and communities is a must for national integration. It is a soul that binds everyone as people of one nation. When we unite as a nation, the nation becomes stronger, but when we think more of our communal interests than our national welfare then the nation weakens.
There are some opposing forces in our country which stand on the way to achieve this national integration. Except for countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh, religion is no longer an active force. These religions that oppose nature on the surface often act as disruptive forces and leave behind the development of national integrity. Every Indian should strive to achieve this most essential national integration for our survival as a nation. India is a country where people of different religious faiths live. The constitution of India guarantees religious rights to all. In India, there are Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Muslims etc. and all are expected to work for national unity and integrity. But unfortunately, there are few Indians who seem to be communal and think India to be a Hindu country. As a result, they often strike and sabotage and do all these that prevent concrete action for the larger interests of the nation. This gives rise to political discord.
An unfortunate trend has developed in India where politics often supports religious sentiments. Some selfish politicians have always tried to exploit religious sentiments to gain political power. They pray for national integrity but treacherously they do their politics on religious forces and as a result, the country disintegrates more and more.
Our country is multi-religious, multi-racial and multi-lingual and each state of our country has its own regional language. But differences are not a hindrance to the integration of India as most of the Indians think each other to be brothers and sisters under one flag.
It should be the endeavour of every Indian to find ways and means to overcome differences so that we can stand as a nation. First and foremost of all problems is the problem of language. It has taken a sharp dimension so far. Hindi-speaking people want to apply Hindi to other Indians, while non-Hindi-speaking people are determined to oppose the move at all costs. This conflict arises from our inability to distinguish between the state language and the medium of education. The medium of instruction should be the state language and to reject this step means disintegration among us. The language of the state should be given to the concerned state. At the national level, a national language which is Hindi should be allowed to function. Within a state, the regional language that must be indisputably predetermined. But it is understood from various corners of the country that a state that practices the national language gains more weight and privilege. It becomes a source of jealousy for many people. To counter this fear and jealousy, in competitive examinations, candidates should be given a chance to show their proficiency in two Indian languages. Language should not be allowed to serve as a force to disintegrate Indians.
The inter-state relations of the country can be put to shame if economic imbalances are allowed to prevail. But this will be a passing phenomenon and will disappear with the growth and expansion of the socialist economy. Every effort should be made for equal distribution of national wealth among the states of the country. A sense of national unity and integrity will follow its path when every Indian realizes that no state or part of the country enjoys special benefits and privileges.
National unity and integrity is a very subtle force. It works on emotion. Forces that destroy national integrity must be nipped in the bud. A national spirit should be cultivated by all Indians. We should be tolerant to each other, and respect every religion and language prevalent in the country. Every religion or language should enjoy the freedom to flourish without hurting the other. Thus, the root of achieving national integrity in our country is tolerance.
The Role of Students in Nation Building
Industrial advancement and scientific expansion have brought about a paradigm shift in all areas of our lives. The students find themselves in a drastically changed environment. A student should adjust himself to this changed surroundings and environment.
People differ on the issue of students’ involvement in the affairs of society and country. Whatever is said on this, we must remember that students are also the members of the society and country in which they live. Naturally, they should be aware of the affairs of their society. Furthermore, today’s students are the citizens, leaders and administrators of tomorrow. They should develop a sense of responsibility. They should be equipped with the knowledge of those besides doing their studies dedicatedly. Thus students cannot confine themselves to the books only keeping in mind their responsibilities to the nation.
The future citizens of the country bear certain responsibilities for their country. It is not desired that students should raise the affairs of the country at the cost of their valuable academic lives. Nevertheless, they cannot relinquish their responsibilities of the nation under the pretext of the academic career.
Students are more or less free from bias and prejudice. They can help build societies that will contribute strongly to the welfare of the nation. They can do this by offering social services, especially during their holidays .
Our society is now in a crisis of class struggle, poverty, illiteracy – and all these give rise to many other evils. Most of our people in remote villages live in unhygienic surroundings. Their children are illiterate. Unscrupulous middlemen exploit them mercilessly for their ignorance. Students can help overcome these social evils by providing social services during their holidays. They can enable uneducated villagers to read and write. They can educate them on the importance of clean living, the need for family planning and many other unavoidable issues. It can thus turn the students to responsible citizens of the country. Students also get a double benefit from such social work. They learn about the feelings and sufferings of the people. Such activities of the students provide scope for getting training for their future life.
The student community is a powerful force of a nation. If they are led properly then the nation will bear fruits to all. But selfish politicians confuse our students to achieve this. At their instigation, the students become violent, take out processions, organize agitations and so on. Again when the students try to seek public support for the right cause, the selfish leaders start agitating to suppress them.
Thus our young students are misguided. But the students are now at a turning point. They have to guard against such evils so that they do not fall prey to those dishonest politicians. To stay away from such evils, students should train themselves by acquiring knowledge on various branches of their studies. They must build good character, must be imbued by democratic and noble ideals.
At present the duties and responsibilities of the students have increased a lot. The students are the protectors and creators of our nation. The nation looks forward to receiving selfless services from the student community. Therefore, students have a definite role in nation-building.
Traveling as a Part of Education
Traveling means going from one place to another by foot or by vehicles of any kind. Man is a traveling being by nature. This instinct of roaming about is rooted in human nature and this leads a man to know the unknown, to see the unseen and to enjoy the unejoyed things of homeland and abroad.
Travelling has great educational value. Nowadays, it is also regarded as a part of education, because–
First, travelling widens our views on life. Besides, travelling brings us joy, mental satisfaction and ecstacy. It is also a way to get rid of the boredome of life.
Secondly, travelling promotes understanding of people of various culture and civilisation. It is an important component in establishing world peace, human integrity and a sense of fellow-feeling.
Thirdly, travelling gives us first-hand knowledge of things. In most cases, theoretical studies have no practical application in our lives. Travel bridges this gap as true education takes place outside the classroom. Thus travelling lead our bookish knowledge into perfection.
Fourthlt, travelling takes us into contact with nature. The magnificence and varied beauty of nature leaves a wonderful impression on us. When a man is at the top of a mountain, he realizes his own littleness and realizes the frivolity of human quarrels and conflicts.
Fifthly, travelling impresses our mind with the magnificence, grandeur, glory and wonder of God’s creation. Travelling helps the traveller to know how the earth is full of natural beauty. We have read from books the majesty of the Himalayas, the vastness of the sea and the beauty of Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Great Wall of China etc. But we know a lot of them if we see them with our eyes.
Both travelling and education are connected with each other. Therefore, educational institutions should give more and more facilities to the students for doing tours to various places of importance at home and abroad. Thus, travelling should be made an essential part of education. 0 0 0
Pollution and Its Remedy
Introduction: Pollution refers to the addition of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. It is anything that makes the earth dirty and unhealthy. Environmental pollution occurs when pollutants contaminate the natural environment. Pollution disturbs the balance of our ecosystem, affects our normal lifestyles and leads to human diseases and global warming. Due to development and modernization in our life, pollution has reached its summit. With the development of science and technology, human capacity has increased drastically.
There are different types of pollution, as: Air Pollution, Soil Pollution, Water Pollution, Light Pollution and Noise Pollution. Let us discuss them in brief as under:
Air Pollution: Air pollution is one of the most fatal forms of pollution. A biological, chemical and physical change of air occurs when smoke, dust and any harmful gases enter the air. Air pollution is caused by burning of fossil fuels, activities related to agriculture, mining operations, exhaust from industries and factories and household cleaning products. People release huge amounts of chemical substances into the air every day. The effects of air pollution are deadly to flora and fauna of the earth. It causes global warming, acid rain, respiratory, heart etc. Many wildlife species are forced to change their habitat in order to survive.
Land Pollution: Land pollution occurs when the presence of pollutants, contaminants and toxic chemicals in the soil is in high concentrations, which has a negative effect on wildlife, plants, humans and groundwater. Industrial activity, waste disposal, agricultural activities, acid rain and accidental oil spills are the main causes of soil pollution. This type of contamination affects the health of humans, affects plant growth, reduces soil fertility and alters soil structure.
Water Pollution: Water pollution is capable of taking our world on the path of destruction. Water is the largest natural resource of the entire humanity. Nothing will remain without water. However, we do not appreciate this gift of nature and pollute it without thinking. The major causes of water pollution are: industrial waste, mining activities, sewage and wastewater, accidental oil spills, marine dumping, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, animal waste, urban development, global warming, radioactive waste and sewer lines.
Light Pollution: In some areas, light pollution occurs due to major additional illumination. Artificial lights disrupt the world’s ecosystem. They have deadly effects on many creatures including mammals, plants, amphibians, insects and birds. Every year many species of bird die after unnecessarily colliding with illuminated buildings.
Noise Pollution: Noise and unpleasant sounds cause temporary disruption of natural balance. This is usually due to industrialization, social events, poor urban planning, household chores, transportation and construction activities. Noise pollution causes hearing problems, health problems, heart problems, sleepiness and communication difficulties. In addition, it greatly affects wildlife. Some animals may suffer from hearing loss, while others become incapacitated in hunting. Understanding noise pollution is very important to reduce its impact on the environment.
Radioactive pollution is the presence of radioactive materials in the environment. This is when it is very dangerous. Radioactive contamination can be caused by violations in nuclear power plants or improper transport of radioactive chemicals. Radioactive material must be handled with great care as radiation destroys cells in living organisms that can result in disease or death.
Remedies of Pollution: Pollution of any kind negatively affects the lives of both animals and humans. The only way to control environmental issues is to implement conservation methods and create a sustainable development strategy. We must find some effective measures to restore our ecological balance.
First, we should take advantage of public transport, walking or riding bikes whenever possible, strengthen our trips, and consider purchasing electric cars.
Secondly, it is very important to make a permanent food choice. We should choose local food whenever possible; buy organically grown vegetables and fruits or grow our own.
Thirdly, we should conserve energy. We should turn off the electric equipments when we are not in the room. We know that small changes can lead to large energy savings. Use energy-efficient appliances. Whenever possible, we should try to buy used items and should choose products with minimal packaging. We should remember that almost everything we buy can be recycled.
Fourthly, to minimize water pollution we should conserve water as much as possible. People should avoid using herbicides and pesticides and should take to use environmental-friendly chemicals for their everyday work.
Conclusion: Pollution prevention is a major concern nowadays because of harmful effects on our health and on our environment. Everybody can contribute to the prevention of it by taking the some necessary steps against it. 0 0 0
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OUTLINES FOR SOME ESSAYS
1. OUR NATIONAL FLAG: 1. Introduction—a symbol of national unity 2. Origin of National Flags— primitive people beginning to live together in groups used something as a symbol of unity. 3. Our National Flag—its history. 4. Its description. 5. Significance: not a mere piece of clothes—every colour has a meaning: saffron suggests selflessness and sacrifice; white: purity; green- creative energy; wheel signifies progress on the way of liberty, justice and brotherhood. 6. Conclusion: we should keep its honour.
2. A VISIT TO A PLACE OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE: 1. Introduction—the name of the place. 2. Preparation— gathering knowledge about the place from books and companions. 3. Description of the Journey. 4. Description of the Place. 5. Conclusion—return journey.
3. A MOVIE I HAVE ENJOYED: 1. Introduction— at times one feels dull and tired and needs some relaxation in amusement— cinema a cheap means of entertainment. 2. The story of the Show Visited. 3. Opinion on the story, scenes and actions. 4. Conclusion.
4. DRESS: 1. Introduction— dressing for comforts— the difference in dress according to climate. 2. Dress according to a man’s occupation— the dress of a worker and that of a priest. 3. Fashion in dress. 4. Usefulness of Dress. 5. Conclusion.
5. THE GUWAHATI ZOO: 1. Introduction— now a world- famous institution. 2. Situation. 3. Valuable collections. 4. Usefulness. 5. Its special Attraction 6. Conclusion.
6. OUR ANNUAL SPORTS: 1. Introduction— sports a yearly event. 2. Time and Place. 3. Organization and decoration. 4. The Invitees. 5. Prize Distribution. 6. Speeches. 7. Conclusion.
7. A VISIT TO A CALCUTTA MUSEUM: 1. Introduction— Museum a Greek word—literally a place sacred to the Muses— now it means a collection of ancient and curious things. 2. Situation and History of Calcutta Museum. 3. Description of things seen. 4. Its Value and Significance. 5. Conclusion.
8. DEBATING SOCIETIES: 1. Introduction— what is a debate and how is a debating society formed? 2. How are debates conducted? 3. How to be a good debater? 4. Conclusion— usefulness of debating societies.
9. OUTDOOR GAMES: 1. Introduction— what are outdoor games? 2. Its Usefulness— benefit of the body and mind. 3. Develop Team- spirit, leadership and other manly qualities. 4. Evil Effects— abuses and excesses. 5. Conclusion.
10. A VILLAGE FAIR: 1. Introduction— occasion and place of its being held. 2. Description of goods most in demand. 3. Its Value and Benefits: commercial, educational, social. 3. Conclusion— overcrowded, amusements and other attractions.
11. CLEANLINESS: 1. Introduction— cleanliness is essential to health— it is not a luxury— personal habit. 2. Its usefulness. 3. Conclusion— cleanliness of body causes purity of mind.
12. CHOICE OF A CAREER: 1. Introduction— importance of the choice. 2. Bad effects of a wrong choice— advice of elder person is necessary. 3. Choice according to once interest and ability. 4. Choice once made should be followed with tenacity. 5. Conclusion.
13. TOWN-LIFE VERSUS VILLAGE LIFE: 1. Introduction— villages are units of society. 2. Town Life— its advantages: education, medical, business etc. 3. Village Life: its advantages and disadvantages. 3. Comparison between the two. 4. Conclusion.
14. HEALTH IS WEALTH: 1. Introduction. 2. How to maintain health— six essential conditions: (i) pure air, (ii) wholesome food, (iii) cleanliness, (iv) Punctuality in working, eating, sleeping, (v) cheerfulness of mind, (vi) regular exercise. 3. Conclusion— care of health is necessary from early age.
15. BROADCASTING: 1. Introduction— its meaning. 2. A source of information. 3. Its educative value. 4. Its abuses 5. Conclusion.
16. RADIO: 1. Introduction—its meaning— an instrument of both instruction and entertainment. 3. Its usefulness— in education, in entertainment, in forming public opinion etc. 4. It’s bad effects. 5. Conclusion.
17. THE POSTMAN: 1. Introduction—most necessary public servant. 2. Description of his uniform and duties. 3. His importance— a link between man and man. 4. Conclusion—not a carrier of good news only but of bad news also.
18. THE CINEMA: 1. Introduction— cheap means of amusement. 2. Its popularity. 3. A means of propaganda 4. Documentary films. 5. A good source of knowledge and information. 6. Its good effects. 7. Its abuses. 8. Conclusion.
19. PUNCTUALITY: 1. its meaning. 2. The value of being punctual. 3. Punctuality in studies, business, in personal life, in public life. 4. Evils of unpunctual habits. 5. Conclusion.
20. FRIENDSHIP: 1. Introduction— meaning, how formed? 2. Friend in need is a friend in deed— explanation. 3. Good friend and bad friend— guard against false friends. 4. Some examples of true friendships. 4. Conclusion—true friend is a blessing.
21. SELF-HELP: 1. Introduction— self-help is the best help. 2. God helps those who help themselves. 3. Benefits of self-help. 4. Conclusion.
22. DIGNITY OF LABOUR: 1. Introduction— here the term ‘Labour’ implies physical labour. 2. Manual labour is good exercise. 3. Profitable labour builds sound economic status of a country. 4. Progress of the world due to labour— some examples. 5. Conclusion— no substitute of physical labour.
23. CHARACTER: 1. Introduction— what is character— 2. Character as wealth— the proverb: when money is lost nothing is lost, when health is lost something is lost, when character is lost everything is lost. 3. Some examples of reputed men of character. 4. Conclusion—importance in every sphere of life.
24. TECHNICAL EDUCATION: 1. Introduction— what it means. 2. Its Needs. 3. Its Progress in India— under British rule, in free India. 4. Conclusion— government policies.
25. CITIZENSHIP- ITS RIGHTS AND DUTIES: 1. Introduction— what it means. 2. Its rights- civil, social, political and moral. 3. Its duties— rights imply duties. 4. Conclusion— good citizens assets and wealth of a nation.
26. FOOD PROBLEM IN INDIA: 1. Introduction— India is not self dependent in food. 2. Causes. 3. Measures taken to meet shortage. 4. Measures to be taken for permanent solution of the problem. 5. Conclusion.
27. VISIT TO AN INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION: 1. Introduction— what is an industrial exhibition? 2. Time and place. 3. Different sections of exhibition. 4. Educative and commercial value. 5. Conclusion— a useful source of knowledge of industrial progress.
28. VILLAGE RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA: 1. Introduction— India, a village based country. 2. Conditions of villages— past and present. 3. Programmes of reconstruction— mass education, night schools for adults. 4. Improvements— in sanitation, medical aid and treatment in cheaper cost— communication. 5. Small industries— measures to be taken for development. 6. Conclusion— village life must be made more advantageous.
29. EXAMINATION DAY: 1. Introduction. 2. Preparation 3. Description of your feeling before going to the examination hall 4. Experiences in the hall 5. Conclusion.
30. THE SEASON YOU LIKE MOST: 1. Introduction—name of the season you like. 2. Reasons for liking it. 3. Description of its weather 4. Conclusion.
31. HOSPITAL FOR ANIMALS: 1. Introduction. 2. Hospitals for animals in the ancient world—in ancient India: the Buddhist hospitals 3. The reasons for having animal hospitals in modern times— kindness to animals, desire to preserve. 4. Veterinary doctors and hospitals. 5. Conclusion.
32. YOUR FAVORITE RECREATION: 1. Introduction— your particular hobby. 2. Reasons why you chose it. 3. Its effects on your body and mind. 4. Conclusion.
33. EXAMINATION: 1. Introduction—the existing system. 2. Advantages 3. Disadvantages. 4. Conclusion— your suggestions for improvement.
34. A RIVERSIDE SCENE: 1. Introduction. 2. Description of both the banks. 3. River as a means of communication, trade and commerce. 4. Conclusion— the charming scenes at sunrise and sunset.
35. ADVERTISING: 1. Introduction—meaning. 2. Different kinds. 3. Usefulness. 4. Abuses. 5. Conclusion— it is an art.
36. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF SCIENCE: 1. Introduction— benefits of science to the modern world. 2. Science and superstitions— science is experimental. 3. Modern age is scientific— how? 4. Facilities of science for students. 5. Conclusion.
37. DILIGENCE: 1. Introduction—law of Nature— examples from life of lower animals and insects. 2. Man’s achievements due to diligence. 3. Evil effects of laziness—mental and physical. 4. Conclusion— a habit should be formed early in life. 5. Conclusion— diligence the mother of good luck.
38.TOWN LIFE: 1. Introduction— a brief account of your town. 2. Advantages: a variety of tastes, amusement, newspaper, libraries, museum, schools, colleges, a variety of occupations. 3. Disadvantages: crowds, noise, bustle, smoke, dust and dirt. 4. Conclusion— advantages and disadvantages compared.
39. THE VILLAGE MARKET: 1. Introduction—days of the week on which it is held. 2. A brief description of the site. 3. Kinds of goods displayed for sale. 4. Its importance in the life of village people. 5. Conclusion— your suggestions to improve the facilities of the market.
40. THE PROFESSION YOU LIKE TO TAKE UP: 1. Introduction. 2. Preparation. 3. The professions open to you. 4. What your parents like you to be? 5. Conclusion.
41. RECOLLECTION OF YOUR CHILDHOOD: 1. Introduction— home— your parents— circumstances. 3. Place visited. 4. Events: painful and pleasant. 5. Conclusion— would you like to be a child again.
Some Books of Composition by Menonim Menonimus:
- The Art of Poster Writing
- Paragraph Writing
- The Art of Letter Writing
- Advertisement Writing
- Story Writing
- Note Making
- Substance Writing
- Passage Comprehension Test
- Report Writing
- Notice Writing
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- School Essays: College Essay
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- Asomiya Rachana Shikha
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- Basic Guide to Essays Writing
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