Note Making ‘by Menonim Menonimus, Published by www.menonimus.com
D.T.P. by A. Shahriar
With whom I spent my entire student life.
(Tips of Note Making)
Note Making is an advanced technique of comprehension, learning, memorizing and remembering any narrative passage, topic, essay etc. The main objectives of Note-making are to grip the contents of a passage more and more comprehensively, easily and effectively.
There is some Significance of Note Making, as-
First, Note-making enhances our comprehensive power.
Secondly, it increases our attention and concentration to reading.
Thirdly, it increases our creative power as well as morale in reading and writing.
Fourthly, it strengthens our thinking and imaginative power.
Fifthly, it develops our word power.
Sixthly, it develops our confidence in gripping the contents of a piece of passage.
Seventhly, Note Making makes our reading enjoyable and interesting.
Eighthly, Note-making is much helpful while making a summary of a passage.
There are Two Main Steps of Note Making, as-
First Step: This step includes reading with the sole objective of grasping a passage that a learner goes on to read. He should give his attention in learning and bearing in mind what he reads. While reading, he should underline the important words, phrases, sentences etc. If a learner finds a new word while reading, the meaning of which he does not know, then he should find its meaning in a dictionary. If he fails to grip the contents in his first reading, he should take to reading the passage for the second time. In the second time, he will find (if he understands the language) that he has comprehended the passage.
Second Step: After completing the first step of reading, the learner should take to the second step – i.e. Note-making.
In this step, the student should divide the contents into some logical headings as- Title, Main Sections, Subsections and Sub-sub Sections.
The Title should be given on what the passage about. If the given passage bears a Title of its own, then that title should be retained. The Title should be written in the middle of the page at the top. The Title may be written in capital letters. Otherwise, the first letter of every word in the title should be capitalized. The Title should be relevant and consistent to the main theme or idea of the passage.
After Titling, comes the contents of the passage. The contents should be divided into some headings. One idea generally gets one heading. If there is more than one idea, then there may be more headings.
Again, every Main Heading may be divided into some Sub-headings. The Heading should be begun keeping half inches indent from the left margin.
The Sub-heading should follow the Main Heading. It should be begun leaving half-inch indent from where the Main Heading begins. Logical indenting gives a visual character to any Note-making.
While making Notes, it should bear in mind that it is only the logical arrangement of the subject matter in brief. The Note-making should follow the following instructions:
i. In Note-making, full-sentence should not be written. The Note-maker should write in phrases.
ii. He should use commas, abbreviations as-U. N. O. for United Nations Organization, W. H. O. for the World Health Organization.
iii. A Note-maker can make his own abbreviations. But the abbreviations should be logical, comprehensible as- ‘Edu.’ For ‘Education’, ‘P. Sc. For ‘Political Science’,’Beng.’ for ‘Bengali’. A note-maker should never be crazy for using or creating many abbreviations of his own. One or two abbreviations in a sentence is enough. If he uses suffix or prefix, then the first two letters of a Suffix should be written as ‘agrical’ for ‘agricultural’, ‘predest.’ for ‘predestined’.
Note-making from a practical point of view is a very important task because making notes for once is equal to reading ten times.
There are differences between Note-making and Note-taking. Note-making is done from a given or printed passage after reading.
On the other hand, Note-taking is done while listening to a lecture either in a class or in a seminar. In Note-taking the Note-maker should make two copies as- first, a Rough Copy and then the Fair Copy.
In Rough Copy he needs not to be crazy about Heading and Indenting. He should write down the main points in continuous lines.
After making the Rough Copy he should make the Fair Copy out of the Rough Copy in accordance with the Note-making Methods.
Some Specimens of Note-making are given below. The students should practise them.
Despite all the research, every one of us catches a cold and most of us catch frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest ailments sometimes seems ridiculous.
Medieval Science regularly practices transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such killing diseases as Typhoid and Plague. But the problem of the common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet to be done to solve it.
It is known that a cold is caused by one of a member of viral infection that affects the lining of the nose and other passages leading to the lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one of the other of a family of viruses known as Rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has yet been isolated.
There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections. Viruses can not be seen with ordinary microscopes. Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animals or plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture in which bits of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even unsuspected.
Title: The Discovery of Viruses
1.Cold as a common ailment:
i.failure to control.
ii.people catch it frequently.
2.Practices of Medical Science:
i.practices transplant surgery.
ii.rid of typhus and plague.
iii. common cold yet a problem
3.Cold- viral infection
i.it affects noses, lungs.
ii.confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy difficult.
i.causes many typical colds.
ii.for many colds no virus isolated yet.
iii. they are much smaller-unseen by microscopes.
iv. they cannot be cultivated in lab.
v.they grow in living cells of animals and plants.
ii.animal tissues multiplied independent of the body.
iii.it led to the discovery of a large number of viruses.
Poetry is an art. As a matter of fact, it is one of the oldest arts in the world. Poetry came to the world before prose. How it occupied the most precious place in the literary field. Everybody knows that the two great epics of India- The Ramayana and The Mahabharata are poems. To the west, the great epics- The Iliad and The Odyssey were written in verse. Chaucer, who is the father of English Poetry, described his paint-like experiences with the help of verse. Therefore, it may be concluded, that the sense of beauty, the emotion and the intelligence were with men from the long past.
Poetry is an art of a rare kind. It has something in it that can attract anyone. It is a blend of music and melody created by the use of words. It does not express anything directly, but express something with the help of imagination. Poetry is the language of the heart critically expressed with the help of the mind. So it is a rare blend of emotion and intellect.
1.Poetry – the oldest form of art.
i.two Indian epics: The Ramayana and The Mahabharata.
ii.two western epics: The Iliad and The Odyssey.
iii.Chaucer- the Father of Eng. Poetry.
2.Salient features of poetry:
One of the great defects of our civilization is that we do not know what to do with our knowledge. Science has given us a power fit for the gods, yet we use them like small children. For example, we do not know how to manage our machines. Machines were made to be the man’s servants, yet he has grown so dependent on them that they are in a fair way to become his masters. Already most men spend most of their lives looking after and waiting upon machines. And the machines are very stern masters. They must be fed with coal and given petrol to drink and oil to wash with and they must be kept at the right temperature. And if they do not get their meals when they expect them, they grow sulky and refuse to work or burst with rage, and blow up and spread ruin and destruction all around them. So we have to wait upon them very attentively and do all we can to keep them in a good temper. Already we find it difficult either to work or play without, and a time may come when they will rule altogether, just as we rule the animals.
Title: Too much Dependence on Machines
1. Misuse of knowledge is great defects of our civilization.
i. Science has given us immense power.
2. Machines are like servants for man.
3. Machines are fed with –
4.over dependence on machines- an ill sign for mankind.
There was once an ugly man whose name was Socrates. He was undersized and he had a flat nose and bulging eyes, and he was always rather shabbily dressed. His father was only a poor stone cutter, who helped the sculptors with their least important work.
Socrates lived about four hundred years before Jesus Christ was born. Like other boys of his age, he went to school where the most important lessons were music and gymnastics. He also learnt some Science and Mathematics and a little about the stars, but not nearly so much history and geography as children learn today. This strange little creature with a short neck and plain face was a thoughtful child. He allowed very few things to escape his notice and watched his companions with the closest attention.
Socrates grew to manhood in a small house. He was too poor to own fine furniture. Indeed he never seemed to want either wealth or beautiful things. As he grew older he began to think very little of bodily comfort and pleasure and to give his mind to all that was noble, honourable and just.
As time passed Socrates seemed to grow shabbier, uglier and more thoughtful. People began to look for his familiar face in the streets and to say their friends, “Yes that is Socrates come along and talk to him.’’ The stone- cutter’s son was becoming well-known as a teacher. He used to wander about the roads or stand in the market place all day long and talked to anyone who cared to greet him. Sometimes he left his listeners in a very confused state of mind. He seemed to be questioning, doubting or trying to change things about which people had never really thought, but had taken for granted. Socrates believed that everyone should learn to think for himself, so that by using his reason he would have the power to see what was right, just, true and beautiful and so shape his own conduct. He wanted Athens to be a perfect state. He told his pupils and all who talked to him that this could only happen if every citizen educated his own mind to see what was right and noble. He believed that questioning and discussing thing would help them to do this and so he was forever talking to them in the open streets.
Title: Socrates the Philosopher
2.Father-a stone cutter.
i.music, gymnastics, science, mathematics and little about the stars, not history, geography.
4.Too poor-no furniture, no beautiful things.
5.When he grew up-
i. became more and more thoughtful.
ii. shabbier, uglier.
6. Wandered in open streets, market places gathered his listeners.
i.to think for himself,
iii.to questions, doubt things to change things.
8.Objectives of Education:
i.acquire the power to see- what was right, just, true, beautiful.
Grace Darling was the daughter of the keeper of one of the Light Houses on the Fern Island. She was awakened towards the morning of the 6th of September, 1838 by shrieks of distress. When down came, she saw the remains of a wreck upon Longstone Island.
Grace awoke her father and begged him to launch his boat and go to the rescue of anyone who might still alive on the wrecked vessel. The light was rising and the sea was wild and the old man hung back. Grace, however, was sure that she saw a movement on the wreck, as though people were still there. Seizing on the oar, she placed herself on the boat, which she was well able to manage. Her father could not let her go alone and they rowed off together in a tremendous sea. They were encouraged by seeing that nine persons were still clinging to the forepart of the ship. The father after many vain attempts succeeded in landing on the rock and making his way to the wreck. All this time, Grace had been rowing among the breakers, skillfully guiding her little boat.
With the utmost care and skill, the nine survivors were placed in the boat and carried to the Light House. There Grace nursed them for two whole days before the storm abated.
The vessel was the Forfarshire. Her boiler had been out of order and their leakage had rendered the engine useless. When the storm arose, the ship was unmanageable without her stream and was driven helplessly upon the Fern Island. There the only boat had been lowered by eight of the sailors. They were passing off in her when one gentleman rushed on deck seized a rope and swung him after them. The nine men were picked up and saved. Of the others, the whole members had either been drowned in the births or washed off the wreck, except four of the crew and five passengers whom Grace Darling’s valour had rescued.
Title: Bravery of Grace Darling
i.daughter of a keeper of a Light House, Fern Island.
ii.awakened one morning on Sep 6, 1838, by shrieks of distress.
iii. saw a wreck upon Longstone Island.
2. She awoke her father-
i.they went there by rowing.
ii.rescued nine persons
iii.nursed them for two days.
3.Cause of the wreck:
i.boilers had out of order.
ii.storm arose and caused the shipwreck.
Reference of snakes is found both in the Bible and in the Hindu Mythologies from the beginning of the universe connected with culture and religion. Nag Panchami and Ananta Chaturdashi remind us of the aspects of Nagas, Manasa, the sister of Vasuki is connected with the sages Jaratkaru and Astika, being the husband and the son. Lord Krishna is connected with the Shesh Naga, Kailya Naga etc. Janmejaya became famous for his Sarpajagna. Vasuki became the coiled rope while Lord Shiva wears a garland of snakes and even what is most important in Yoga Shastra is Kundalini Yoga, which is a coiled Cobra gradually ascends the spiral column.
Title: Snakes in Hindu Mythology
1.snake—connected with Indian Mythology.
2.Ritual aspects of Nagas:
i.sister of Vasuki
ii. Manasa connected with Jaratkaru
4. Krishna- connected with”
5.Janmejaya famous for ‘Sarpajagna’
6.Vasuki- coiled rope
7. Lord Shiva- a garland of snakes
8.Yoga Shastra- Kundalini Yoga- coiled cobra.
On the 14th August, the last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten went to Karachi, the capital of Pakistan, where amidst a wonderful scene of rejoicing, he inaugurated the new dominion of Quid-e- Ajam. Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the Governor-General of Pakistan and Mr Liyakat Ali Khan, the Prime Minister. Lord Mountbatten wearing the Admiral’s uniform delivered an inspiring speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan in simple and moving words. All the members of the Assembly were present and the galleries were packed with the high personages, diplomats, prominent citizens and newspaper men from all over the world.
Lord Mountbatten left the capital of Pakistan for Delhi, the capital of the union of India. As the day dawned, it was heralded by the sounding of conch cells and the assembled statesmen exchanged mutual congratulations. This red-letter day ushered in the political freedom of thirty cores people, one-fifth of the human race. At the request of the Constituent Assembly, Lord Mountbatten accepted the post of Governor-General. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the great patriot became the Prime Minister of India amid the blowing of conch- shells.
Buildings in the Old and New Delhi were illuminated, meals were given to the poor and many political prisoners were set free. The spirit of friendship and happiness prevailed everywhere. The people of all communities were promised fair and just treatment, in fact, all citizens of the new dominion would enjoy equal rights and privileges from now onwards and all should work for the peace and prosperity of India.
Title: The Celebration of First Independence Day in Karachi and Delhi
i.Mountbatten to Karachi, 14th Aug.
ii.Mohd. Ali Jinnah- governor General
iii.Liyakat Ali Khan- Prime Minister
iv. Diplomats, high personages were present.
i.Mountbatten to Delhi from Karachi, 15th Aug.
ii. Mr Batten – the post of Governor Genrl.
iii. J. Nehru- Prime Minister.
3. Buildings illuminated
i.people were promised fair and just treatment,
ii.political prisoners set free
iii. promises of equal rights and privileges.
1. How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world, there are high-quality programmes that help us understand many fields of study such as science, medicine, the arts and so on. Moreover, television benefits very old people who cannot often leave the house as well as parents in hospitals. It also offers non-native speakers the advantage of daily informal language practice. They can increase our vocabulary.
2. On the other hand, there are several serious disadvantages of television. Of course, it provides us with a pleasant way to relax and spend our free time, but in some countries, people watch the “bob-tube” for an average of six hours or more a day. Many children stare at a television screen for more hours each than they do anything else, including studying and sleeping. It’s clear that the tube has a powerful influence on their lives and that its influence is often negative.
3. Recent studies show that after only thirty seconds of television watching, a person’s brain ‘relaxes’ the same way that it does just before the person falls asleep. Another effect of television on the human brain is that it seems to cause poor concentration. Children who view a lot of television can concentrate on a subject for only 15 to 20 minutes.
4. Another disadvantage is that television often causes people to become dissatisfied with their own lives. Real-life does not seem as exciting to these people as the lives of actors on the screen. To many people, television becomes more real than reality and their own lives seem boring. Also, many people get upset or depressed when they cannot solve problems in real life as quickly as television actors seem to.
5. Before a child is 14 years old, he or she views eleven thousand murders on the tube. He or she begins to believe that there is nothing strange about fights, killings and other kinds of violence. Many studies show that people become more violent after certain programmes. They may even do things that they have seen in a violent show.
6. The most negative effect of the ‘boob tube’ might be people’s addiction to it. People often feel a strange and powerful need to watch television even when they do not enjoy it. Addiction to the television screen is similar to drug or alcohol addiction. People almost never believe they are addicted.
The Effects of TV.
(i) increase our knowl.
(ii) enables us to understnd sci, medi, arts
(iii) helps patnts in hospital.
(iv) increase our lingu knowl.
(v) a means of entertmnt, relax.
(i) makes pple dissatisfied with actual life.
(ii) prmt violence.
(iii) waste of time.
(iv) childrn lose concentn in the study.
3. Abbvn used:
(i) TV —————— Television.
(ii) pple—————— people.
(iii) knowl ————— knowledge.
(iv) Abbvn ————— Abbreviation.
(v) childn —————— children.
(vi) concentrn —————— concentration.
(vii)prmt ———————— promote
(viii) patnt ———— patients.
(ix) lingu ———— linguistic.
(x) entern —————— entertainment.
(xi) sci —————— science
(xii) medi —————— medicine
(xiii) Advants ————— advantages
(xiv) Disadvants ———— disadvantages.
There are two problems that cause great worry to our educationists — the problem of religious and moral education in the land of many faiths and the problems arising out of the large variety of language.
Taking up the education of the children we see that they should be trained to live one another, to be kind and helpful to all, to be tender to the lower animals and to observe and think right, The task of teaching them how to read and write and to count and to calculate is important but it should not make us lose sight of the primary aim of moulding personality in the right way.
For this, it is necessary to call into aid culture, tradition and religion, But in our country we have, in the same school, to look after boys and girls born in different faiths and belonging to families that live diverse ways of life, easy path of evading the difficulty by attending solely to physical culture and intellectual education. We have to evolve a suitable technique and method for serving the spiritual needs of school children professing different faiths. We should thereby promote an atmosphere of mutual respect, a fuller understanding and helpful co-operation among the different communities in our society. Again we must remain one people and we have, therefore, to give basic training to our schools to speak and understand more languages than one and to appreciate and respect the different religions prevailing in India.
Any attempt to do away with a stream of roll the differences through governmental coercion and indirect pressure would be as futile as it would be unwise. Any imposition of a single way of life and form of a workshop on all children or neglect of a section of the pupils in this respect, or barren secularization will lead to conflict between school and home life which is harmful. On the other hand, if we give due recognition to the different prevailing faiths in the educational institutions by organizing suitable facilities for religious teaching for boys and girls of all communities our problem will be solved to a larger extent. This may itself serve as a broadening influence of great national value.
The Problems of Education
1. Worries of the Educationalists of our time:
(i) Problem of Relign and moral Edun.
(ii) Diverse faiths and variety of langs.
2. The task of teaching:
(i) moulding right personality.
(ii) loving other another.
(iii) bing kind and helpful to all.
(iv) be tender to lower animals.
(v) observing and thinking right.
3. Spiritual needs of children:
(i) teaching mutual respect.
(ii) Co-operation among diff. communities.
(iii) learning and understanding more than one langs.
(i)education ——————— edun
(ii)languages ——————— langs
(iii) and ——————— &
(iv) different ——————— diff.
(v) religious ——————— relign
Much before medical science discovered it, Reader’s Digest came out with the prescription — ‘Laughter is the Best Medicine’. Newspapers and magazines which regularly run humour columns are, therefore, doing their bit to keep the readers in good health, reading light articles, whether they are satirical, comic or just humourous, relieves the tedium of work-a-day world. Some pieces may even tickle one’s grey matter.
It is said that if you laugh for ten minutes you will be in a better position to put up with pain for two hours. According to US researchers, laughter deepens breathing, improves blood circulation, speeds up the process of tissue healing and stabilises many body functions. In short, it acts as a powerful drug with no side effects. Researchers state that laughter stimulates the production of beta-endorphins, natural pain killers in the body and improves digestion. Those who laugh are less prone to digestive disorders and ulcers.
Some people in France have made it a career. You can hire a ‘jovalist’ who cracks jokes and laughs and promises to make you dissolve in helpless laughter.
A word of caution. Although laughing is a good exercise for toning up the facial muscles, laughing at others expense, particularly at their disabilities, is in bad taste and is to be avoided. Secondly, laughing with food in the mouth is dangerous as the food-stuff can get into the windpipe and choke the digestive system.
Title: Laughter- the Best Medicine
Benefits of Laughter:
(i) deepens breathing,
(ii) improves blood circulation,
(iii) speeds up the process of tissue healing
(iv) stabilises many body functions.
Researchers’ on Laughter:
(i) stimulates the production of a beta-endorphins,
(ii) improves digestion.
Functions of a Jovalist (in France):
cracks joke to produce laughter
Laughing to be avoided
(i) at disabling people
(ii) laughing with food in the mouth
Lghtr : laughter
Some Books of Composition by Menonim Menonimus:
- School Essays
- The Art of Poster Writing
- Paragraph Writing
- The Art of Letter Writing
- Advertisement Writing
- Story Writing
- Note Making
- Substance Writing
- Passage Comprehension Test
- Report Writing
- Notice Writing