PASSAGE

COMPREHENSION TEST

 

Passage Comprehension Test

 

  

Menonim Menonimus

 

 

 

 

Internet Edition 

www.menonimus.com

 

Passage Comprehension Test ‘by Menonim Menonimus, Published by www.menonimus.com

 

 

 

Internet Edition

Website:www.menonimus.com

Email: menonimus@menonimus.com

 

 

D.T.P. by A. Shahriar

 

 

 

DEDICATION

To

M. Jamir

My Cousin

Who keeps always with me in Times of Needs. 

 Menonim Menonimus

 

 

PASSAGE COMPREHENSION TEST

 Introduction

(Tips of Passage Comprehension)

Comprehension means ‘understanding’. In the syllabi of school and college, the task of Comprehension Test has been prescribed to test the power of comprehension of the students. In Comprehension, a passage – either of prose or poetry – is given (often quoted) and then some questions are asked upon the passage. The students have to read the passage carefully and then they should answer the questions. It is not a mere easy task. It needs some constant practising. However, the students should bear in mind the following points while comprehending a passage, as-

First, the students should read the given passage very carefully to grasp the general idea of the passage. 

Secondly, they should read it again so as to know the details. In this second time reading, they should underline the key sentences. If they do not understand the meanings of some words, they should not worry. The passage should be read as a whole.

Thirdly, the students should study the questions which are asked below the passage thoroughly. After this, they should read the questions one by one and then try to write out the answers to the questions one by one. In writing out the answers to the questions the students should maintain the following points:

(i) Write out the answers to the questions in your own words as far as possible. The words and phrases from the passage may be used. 

(ii) Answers should be brief, precise and to the point.

(iii) In writing out the answers they should use indirect speech.

(iv) The students should be very careful to the grammatical correctness of the sentences they write. 

(v) If the students are asked to give the meaning of any word or phrase they should express the idea as clearly as possible.

(vi) After writing out the answers to the questions, the students should revise them so as to find out if there is any kind of errors.

Some Specimens of Comprehension Test have been given below. The students should practice them as much as they can because practice makes a man perfect. It will enhance their understanding power, thinking power, logical power and linguistic power.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-1

”There is a unique game in India called Mallakhamb. The word ‘Mallakhamb’ is derived from two words. ‘Malla’ means gymnast and ‘Khamb’ means a pole. The game’s origin can be traced as far back as the 12th century. The gymnast has to perform twisting, turning and stretching apart from balancing on the pole. The Mallakhamb events are held at the national level in which over fourteen states take part. Though the game is not very popular, there are people who are keeping it alive with their perseverance and love for the sport.”

Questions:

a. What is the meaning of the word ‘Mallakhamb’?

b. How old is the game?

c. What does the player do in this game?

d. Who is keeping the game alive?

Answers:

(a) The word ‘Mallakhamb’ is derived from two words. ‘Malla’ means gymnast and ‘Khamb’ means a pole.

(b) The game’s origin can be traced as far back as the 12th century.

(c) The player has to perform twisting, turning and stretching apart from balancing on the pole.

(d) Though the game is not very popular, there are people who are keeping it alive with their perseverance and love for the sport.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-2

”St. Mother Teresa was born in Macedonia. At the age of twelve, she became a missionary to spread the love of Christ. She came to India and took her initial vows as a nun. For seventeen years she taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata. But the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls made a deep impression on her. So she left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poorest of the poor in the slums of Kolkata. She started an open-air school for slum children. Soon she was joined by voluntary helpers. She started getting financial support too. She set up a home in Kolkata for destitute and unwanted children called ‘Nirmal Hriday’. She received a number of awards and distinctions, including the Nobel Prize, the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize and the Nehru Prize for promotion and international peace and understanding.”

Questions: 

a. Where was Mother Teresa born?

b. What was she doing in Kolkata initially?

c. What moved her to work for the poor people of the Kolkata slums?

d. Name some awards she received.

e. What is ‘Nirmal Hriday’?

Answers:

(a) Mother Teresa was born in  Macedonia.

(b) Initially, she taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata. 

(c) The suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls made a deep impression on her. So she left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poorest of the poor in the slums of Kolkata. She started an open-air school for slum children. 

(d) She received a number of awards and distinctions, including the Nobel Prize, the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize and the Nehru Prize for promotion and international peace and understanding.

(e) The home set up by Mother Teresa in Kolkata for the destitute and unwanted children is called ‘Nirmal Hriday.’

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-3

 ”In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, there lived a famous Englishman named Sir Walter Raleigh. He was a gentleman of birth and a favourite with the queen. He was a scholar, a poet, and a brave and daring soldier. He sailed to the New World which we call America, and had many adventures there. He did two useful things: he brought back from America two plants which became very popular with the Europeans. One was tobacco, the other was the potato. Before his time the potato was unknown in Europe, but it is now one of the commonest foods all over the world. Raleigh first planted potatoes in Ireland, and the potato became to the Irish what wheat is to the Punjabi, and rice is to Bengalee and the Madrasi – their chief food.”

Questions:

(a)  who was Sir Walter Raleigh?

(b)  What is the New World?

(c)  What were the two useful things Raleigh did?

(d)  What is the importance of the potato?

Answers:  

a.   Sir Walter Raleigh was an English scholar, poet and a brave and daring soldier in the reign of  Queen Elizabeth.

(b)  The New World referred to is America.

(c)  Raleigh did two useful things: he brought back from America two plants — one was tobacco and the other was a potato. 

(d)  The importance of the potato is great. It is to the Irish what wheat is to the Punjabi, and rice is to the Bengalee and the Madrasi.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-4

”Children should learn to be honest, sincere and open-hearted to their parents. You should have no secrets which you are unwilling to disclose to your parents. If you have done wrong, you should openly confess it and ask that forgiveness which a parent’s heart is ready to bestow. If you wish to undertake anything, ask their consent. Never begin anything in the hope that you can conceal your design. If you once try to cheat your parents, you will be led on, from the step to another to event falsehoods, to practise artifice, till you will become contemptible and hateful. You will soon be detested, and then none will trust you. Sincerity in a child makes up for many faults. Of children he is the worst who watches the eyes of his parents, pretends to obey as long as they see him, but as soon as they turned away, does what have forbidden.”

Questions: 

(a)  What should be the conduct of children to their parents?

(b)  What happens to a child who cheats his parents?

(c)   Who is the worst child?

Answers:

(a) The conduct of children to their parents should be honest, sincere and open-hearted.

(b) A child who cheats his parents he will become contemptible and hateful. He will soon be detested and than none will trust him.

(c) The worst child is he who watches the eyes of his parents, pretends to obey as long as they see him, but they turned away soon and does what have been forbidden.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-5

”Vikings were the courageous warriors of 800 A.D. to 1050 A.D. They belonged to the area that is present-day Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The Nordic people or the Vikings sailed up the rivers of France and Spain, conquered most of Ireland and large sections of areas skirting rivers in Russia and the Baltic coast and made their entrance into Europe. Vikings were way ahead in shipbuilding than the rest of the Europeans. They used to sail in boats called Drakkars, which were extremely seaworthy vessels. In many areas along the Oslofjord, treasures in the Vikings graves and in the form of weapons and handicraft were found, which can be seen at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo.”

Questions:

a. Who were the Vikings?

b. Which present-day area or country did they belong to?

c. What were the Vikings particularly skilled at?

d. What was Drakkars?

e. Where can you see the Viking Ship Museum at present?

Answers:

(a) The Vikings were courageous warriors.

(b) They belonged to the area that is present-day Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

(c)  The Vikings were particularly skilled in shipbuilding.

(d) The Drakkas were extremely seaworthy vessels made by the Vikings.

(c)  At present we can see the Viking Museum in Oslo.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-6

 ”In the central parts of Africa, there is a class of strange people called the Pygmies. None of them is above four feet tall. They are neither white nor black but are of chocolate colour. They have a flat face with a largemouth. Their teeth are very strong. The Pygmies live by hunting and fishing. They have great skill with the bow and the arrows. They live in the midst of forests. As these forests are full of wild beasts, they do not think it safe to live on the ground. So they make their huts on poles ten to twelve feet high. the people get into them with the help of ladders. These huts are mostly made of  leaves and branches of trees.”

Questions:

a. Where do the pygmies live?

b. Describe the appearance of the pygmies.

c. How do the Pygmies get their food?

d. How and where do the pygmies make their huts?

Answers: 

(a)  The Pigmies live in the central parts of Africa.

(b) The Pygmies are short. None of them is above four feet tall. They are neither white nor black but are of chocolate colour. They have a flat face with a largemouth. Their teeth are very strong.

(c) The Pygmies get their food by hunting and fishing. They have great skill with the bow and the arrows. 

(d) They live in the midst of forests. As these forests are full of wild beasts, they do not think it safe to live on the ground. So they make their huts on poles ten to twelve feet high. These huts are mostly made of leaves and branches of trees.

(e) The people get into their huts with the help of ladders.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-7

”It is a good habit to be punctual. People respect those who value time. Punctuality helps everything to happen smoothly. Just as you always comb your hair before going out, just as you always tell the truth, it is equally important that you are always punctual. We must all learn to respect time. If we do not value time, we will never be able to finish our work, and  half-done work is of no use to anyone.”

Questions:

a. Who do people respect?

b. How does punctuality help us? 

c. What will happen if we do not value time?

Answers: 

(a) People respect those who value time.

(b) Punctuality helps everything happen smoothly. 

(c)  If we do not value time, we will never be able to finish our work and then success will not come to us.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-8

”Beethoven was one of the world’s greatest composers. He started learning the piano and the violin when he was just four years old. His father, a singer, was his first teacher. But he was not a good teacher. He beat his son and even locked him in the basement to make him practise. When Beethoven was ten years old, he had a new teacher named Christian Neefe. Neefe was very patient with him and Beethoven began to do well. He wrote his first composition when he was only eleven.  By the time he was twelve, his teacher let him direct the orchestra part of the time.”

Questions:

a. What was Beethoven?

b. Who was Beethoven’s first teacher?

c. Why should you say that Neefe was a better teacher than Beethoven’s father?

d. When did Beethoven write his first composition

Answers: 

a. Beethoven was one of the world’s greatest composers. 

b. Beethoven’s first teacher was his father.

c. Neefe was a better teacher than Beethoven’s father. He was very patient with Beethoven and Beethoven too began to do well. But Beethoven’s father used to beat Beethoven and even lock him in the basement.

d. Beethoven wrote his first composition when he was only eleven.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-9

”The Owl and the pigeon were friends. One morning. the owl boasted to the pigeon, “I think there are more owls than pigeons.” “No”, said the pigeon. “That ‘s not right. There are a lot more pigeons than owls.” “There is one way we can find out”, hooted the owl, fluffing up his feathers. “I challenge you to counting!” “Agreed”, cooed the pigeon. “Where and when should we do this? We’ll need lots of perching space.” The owl scratched his wing with his beak as he thought for a moment. Then he said, “The big woods will do. It’s a nice place, with plenty of trees for everyone to land.”

Questions: 

a. Who challenged whom? 

b. What was the challenge about?

c. What did the birds need to fulfil the challenge?

d. Which place was decided for facing the challenge?

Answers:

(a) The Owl challenged the Pigeon.

(b) The challenge was there are more owls than the pigeons and the Owl wanted to gather the owls by hooting.

(c) The birds need a lot of perching space to fulfil the challenge.

(d)  The big woods with plenty of trees was decided for facing the challenge.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-10

”In India, every boy and every girl now reading in schools is the future citizen of the country. Although he or she is not immediately called upon to vote or to make laws, he or she will have to do this in the near future. As the citizen of tomorrow, every young man should, therefore, prepare himself for this great task from now on. The young citizen’s first duty is to learn how not to play unfairly in the playing field, and not to speak a word which may give pain to anyone, not to make fun of others, or say things behind one’s back. He should not waste or through away a grain of food, considering that there are many poor people in India who do not have enough to eat. Lastly, he should get training on the use of leisure.”

Questions:

a. What is the great task of a citizen?

b. Who are the future citizens of the country?

c. How are they to prepare themselves for their task?

d. Why should they be careful about the waste of food?

Answers:

a. The great task of a citizen is to vote or to make laws.

b. All the boys and girls now reading in schools are for the future citizens of the country?

c. The young boys and girls should first learn how not to hurt others, to be careful not to paly unfairly in the playing field, and not to speak a word which may give pain to anyone. They should learn not to make fun of others or say things behind one’s back.

d. The young boys and girls should be careful about the waste of food. It is because there are many poor people in India who do not have enough to eat.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-11

We live on the earth. Our earth is a round planet revolving around the sun. It seems flat to us because we see only a very small part of it. A globe is the model of the earth. It shows us the shape of the earth and the places on it.”

Questions:

a. What is the shape of the earth?

b. Why does it look flat to us?

c. What is the model of the earth called?

Answers:

a. The shape of the earth is round.

b. The earth looks flat to us because we see only a very small part of it.

c. The model of the earth is called a globe.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-12

”Perhaps you will feel insulted if anybody tells you that you have come from an ape. But that is what learned men say. It took thousands of years for the ape to change into a man. He was quite different at first from what he is now. He did not know the use of clothes; he could not build houses; he could not make fires and cook his food. He lived in caves and bushes and ate fruits and roots and the flesh of animals he killed with stones. In fact, the early man was no better than a beast. But he had one thing which no other creature had – the power to think. As thought grew in him he becomes cleverer and wiser. He found out how to make fire, how to grow food, and how to build houses and make clothes. He learned to make arms to fight against and kill animals much bigger and stronger. Still, man was not satisfied. He went on finding out more and more ways of making life enjoyable. In this way, he becomes the lord of creation. And the secret of his power is that he can think that he has intellect.”

Questions:

(a)What did man come from?

(b)What was the condition of the early man?

(c)What was the difference between man and other creature?

(d)How has man become the lord of creature?

(e)Pick out the correct alternative and complete the sentence. 

(I)The ape changed into man in:

(i) One hundred years.

(ii) One thousand years.

(iii) Several thousand years.

(II)The early man lived in :

(i) Built houses.

(ii) Open land.

(iii) Caves and bushes.

(III)Man’s nature has been to:

(i) Somehow pass the years.

(ii) Try for better ways of life.

(iii) Kill other animals.

(IV)Man’s main power of the source is:

(i) His physical strength

(ii) His power to grow food.

(iii) His intellect.

Answers:

(a)   Man came from ape.

(b)   The early condition of man was no better than a beast. He did not know the use of clothes. He could not build houses. He lived in caves and bushes. He ate fruits and roots and the flesh of animals.

(c) The difference between man and other creatures was that man had power to think which no other creature had.

(d) As thought grew in man he became cleverer and wiser. He found out how to make fire, grow food, build houses and make clothes. Besides these, he went on finding out the ways of making life more and more enjoyable. Thus man becomes the lord of creations.

(e) (I) The ape changed into man in several thousand years.

(II) The early man lived in caves and bushes.

(III) Man’s nature had been trying for better ways of life.

(IV) Man’s main source of power is his intellect.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-13

”Mother Teresa, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, was a special kind of person – special in sense of someone who wholly identified herself with the suffering of the poor, the very poorest of the poor. She was the founder of the order called the Missionaries of Charity. The Missionaries had their houses in Calcutta and in other Indian towns; also in Australia, Shri Lanka, Jordan and Tanzania. They are springing up all the time all the world over. 

Mother Teresa is the inspiration and driving force behind the work the Missionaries do. She was born in Skopje in Yugoslavia, where she spent her early years. At the age of twelve, when she was still a schoolgirl, she felt she had a vocation to the poor. She did not, however, decided to become a nun until she was eighteen. It was not an easy decision for her to make. Her home had been an exceptionally happy one and she did not want to leave that. However, her vocation to the poor won in the end and she left home to become a Roman Catholic nun.

At that time some Missionaries had gone to India. They told her of the good work the Loreto Nuns were doing in Calcutta and other places. She offered to join them and was sent to India in 1929, to teach at the Loreto Convent School in Calcutta. It was while she was teaching at the Loreto Convent School that the second change in Mother Teresa’s life took place. She had occasion to go into some of the poorest streets of Calcutta and suddenly realized that she belonged there, not in the Loreto Convent with its pleasant gardens, eager school- girls and rewarding work. She came to look upon her life as a teacher as unduly easy in contrast with the lives of the very poor in Calcutta. She applied for permission to leave the convent.  When finally it came, she stepped out of the convent with a few rupees in her pocket, made her way to the poorest quarter of the city, found lodging there, gathered together a few orphan children and began to work.”

Questions:

(a)Why is Mother Teresa a special kind of person?

(b)Why did she become a Nun?

(c)Why was her decision to become a nun?

(d)Why did she leave Loreto Convent?

(e)How did she begin her work for the poor after she had left her school job?

(f)What is the name of the new Religious order founded by Mother Teresa?

(g)What religion did she belong to?

Answers:

(a)  Mother Teresa was a special kind of person in the sense of someone who identified herself with the sufferance of the poorest of the poor. 

(b)  Mother Teresa felt that she had a vocation to the poor. So at the age of eighteen, she left home and became a Roman Catholic nun.

(c)   Mother Teresa at the age of twelve felt that she had a vocation to the poor. But at the age of eighteen, she decided to become a nun to serve the poor, sick and forlorn person.

(d)   When she was at the Loreto Convent in Calcutta, she had occasion to go into some of the poorest streets of Calcutta and then she realized that she belonged there. So she left Loreto Convent School and made her way to the poorest quarter of the city to serve the poorest of the poor and the orphan children.

(e)   When Teresa was at the Loreto Convent, she had occasion to go to the poorest streets of Calcutta and suddenly realized that she belonged there. So she stepped out of the Convent with a few rupees in her pocket and went to the poorest quarter of the city. There she found a lodge; gathered few orphan children and began her work of serving the poor. 

(f)   The name of the new religious order founded by Mother Teresa was Missionaries of Charity. 

(g)   She belonged to the religion called Roman Catholic.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-14

”It is disturbing fact that today many different kinds of wild animals throughout the world are in danger of existence. The reasons for this are many and varied; but we must blame pollution, pestilence, the disturbance of the animals, natural environment and man’s greed and thoughtlessness.

The industry has grown enormously and it has become common practice for factories to dispose of waste matters in stream and rivers causing great loss of river life. Modern agricultural methods include the use of pesticides which effectively insect classified as pests, but which also destroy many that are not. An increase in population has more building and with it the destruction of much of the countryside that provides habitat for wild animals. To satisfy man’s selfish desire the polar bear in North America is under threat, hunted by sportsman in Borneo and Sumatra the Orang-Utan has become part of a smuggling racket, in South America the Chinchilla is almost extinct, because its far is in demand; whales are massacred worldwide for the oil and food they yield. These are a few species under threat.

But the problem is receiving world-wide recognition and some action is being taken. To name a few examples- sewage pollution in the river Thames has been greatly reduced; a ban on trading in some furs has been agreed and organization like Friends of the Earth has been rendering  valuable work to this deserving cause.”

Questions:

(a) Give in your own words the reasons why some species of wild animals may become extinct.

(b) What has brought about the destruction of much of the country-side?

(c) Why are polar bears and whales under threat?

(d) Which animal is hunted for its fur? Name the ways in which wildlife is currently helped?

Answers:

(a)  The reasons for the extinction of some wild animals are – pollution of the environment, use of pesticides and above all man’s greed and thoughtlessness. Most animals are being killed to satisfy man’s selfish desire. 

(b) To satisfy man’s selfish desire the polar bear is under threat. The whales are under threat because of the oil and food they yield.

(c) Chinchilla of South America is hunted for its fur. 

(d)  The wildlife is helped in the following ways: People all through the world are becoming aware of the extinction of wild animals. And as a result, they have been adopting various measures to protect wildlife. The problem of wildlife has been receiving international recognition and some positive action is being taken. The government in respective countries have declared a ban on the sale of furs and skin of some wild animals. Some international organization like Friends of the Earth have rendered valuable service in this regards.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-15

”Most penguins build the nest on the ground. They carry up pebbles and plants from the beach and make their nest of these. Often they steal from each other if they get the chance. Penguins usually lay two eggs to keep them warm. The Emperor Penguins lay their eggs in the middle of winter. This is so that the chick will arrive early in spring. An Emperor Penguin lays only one egg. The father takes it in front of its body and rests it against its warm body until it is old enough to stand the cold. Even so, many chicks die of cold before spring comes. Penguins are good parents; where one is looking after the chicks, the other brings food. It brings back food and other small animals and when it has chewed them a little, the chick pushes its head into the parents’ mouth to reach the food. Later when the chicks are older all the parents come out to feed together. All the chicks stay together in one place where they keep warm and safe from other animals. Big birds will attack small penguins but they do not often attack them if they are in a group.” 

Questions:

(a) Where and how do the penguins build their nest?

(b) How can you say that the penguins are good parents?

(c) How many eggs does the Emperor penguin lay?

(d) How are the small penguin fed?

(e) When are the penguins attacked?

Answers:

(a) Penguins build their nest on the ground. They build their nest with pebbles and plants from the beach and make their nests with them. Often they steal from each other if they get the change.

(b) Penguins are good parents as they take good care of their chicks. If one looks after the chicks, the other brings food to feed them.

(c) The Emperor Penguin lay one egg at a time.

(d) The mother or father penguin brings fish or small animals to feed their chicks. At first, the parent penguin chews the food. Then the chick pushes its head into the parents’ mouth to reach the food. 

(e) The big birds attack penguin if they are alone. But they do not often attack them if they are in a group.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-16

”In the old days, king Vikramaditya ruled over the Kingdom of Ujjain. He was a great ruler, well known for his charity and justice. He was a great lover of learning. There were nine great scholars in his Court. Kalidas, the poet of world-fame, was one of them. 

Once a sage came to Ujjain and set up a cottage beside a river that flowed by the Capital. The sage was a great yogi and many people used to see him. He used to perform great miracles and soon began to have a larger number of followers.”

Questions:

(a) Who was Vikramaditya?

(b) Why was he famous?

(c) Who was Kalidas?

(d) Who came to Ujjain and where did he stay?

(e) What did the sage do?

(f) Read the following sentences and write which are true:

(i) Vikramaditya was a tyrant.

(ii) The king was fond of learning.

(iii) The hermit has no disciple.

(iv) The capital was located close by a river.

Answers:

(a) Vikramaditya was a great king who ruled over the Kingdom of Ujjain.

(b) He was famous for his charity and justice.

(c)  Kalidas was a great scholar and poet in the Court of  Vikramaditya.

(d) A sage came to Ujjain. He stayed in a cottage beside the river that flowed by the capital.

(e)   The sage was a great yogi and he used to perform great miracles.

(f)(i) false (ii) true (iii)false (iv) true.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-17

”The men who were governing Athens summoned Socrates to appear before them and to stand trial. His friends and pupils begged him to escape or hide until the storm had blown over. But Socrates was no coward. He knew that he had done nothing wrong and that he had only taught what he believed to be just, true and honourable, and so he went to the court, an undersized, ugly old man, dusty and travel-stained, but with a noble heart beating under the shabby garment which everyone knew well.

He made a powerful, dignified speech answering every question, explaining that although the Athenian knew it not, he was really their friend. He told them that they would gain nothing by taking away the last few years of his life, but that he was willing to die many deaths for what he believed to be right.

The judge listened to him, questioned him and condemned him to death. The old man made no complaint. He leaned on his staff, looking round the crowded court, “No evil can happen to a good man”, he said, “either in his life or after death, so be a good cheer. The hour of my departure has arrived and we go our ways’ I to die and you to live.”

Questions:

(a) Why was Socrates summoned to the court?

(b) What did his friends and pupils advise him to do?

(c) Why did he not follow their advice?

(d) Describe the appearance of Socrates when he went to court.

(e) What did he explain to the court?

(f) What was the judgment?

(g) What are the opposite words of ‘coward’ and ‘wrong’?

Answers:

(a) Some people of Athens said against Socrates that he was leading the young Athenians astray. So Socrates was summoned to the court to appear before them and to stand trial.

(b) Socrates’ friends and pupils begged him to escape or hide until the agitation against him had blown over.

(c) Socrates was really a wise man. So he knew that he had done nothing wrong and that he had only taught what he believed to be true, just and honourable. So he did not follow the advice of his friends and pupils. 

(d) Socrates, when he appeared in the court, seemed undersized, ugly, dirty and travel-strained.  But he had noble heart beating under the shabby garments which everyone knew so well.

(e) Socrates made a dignified, powerful speech, answering every question, explaining that he had done nothing wrong. He had only taught what he believed to be just, true and honourable.

(f) The judgment was that Socrates was condemned to death.

(g) The opposite word of ‘coward’ is ‘brave’ and of ‘wrong’ is ‘right’.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-18

”If we look at wars honestly and carefully, we find that wars do very often give birth to a good result. We must not forget this.

The citizens of every nation engaged in a war develop a strong sense of unity and patriotism. In modern times, wars are not merely fought by soldiers. Each citizen is involved in it one way or the other. The spirit of cooperation with one’s fellow citizens becomes very strong during wartime.  Disputes and jealousies are at least temporarily forgotten. Everyone considers it is his duty to help his country.  All of us remember how united our country was in 1971 when we fought a war against Pakistan over the matter of Bangladesh. Every Indian supported the Government and forgot his personal differences strikes and agitations. Disputes and such other demonstrations of discontents came to stop. Every Indian felt proud of his country and was anxious to help in its victory.”

Questions:

(a) What should we not forget about wars?

(b) Who get involved in a war in modern times? 

(c) Mention two good results of war.

(d) Choose two correct statements in the group.

i. War never has any good result.

ii. War sometimes has good results.

iii. War always has good result.

iv. In 1971 India fought with Pakistan.

v. In 1971 India fought with Bangladesh.

vi. In 1971 India did not fight with any country.

Answers:

(a)  We should not forget the result of wars. If we look at the wars carefully and honestly, we find that it has some good results.

(b) In modern times, wars are not merely fought by soldiers. Each citizen is involved in it one way or the other. 

(c) The two good results of war are- 

First, the citizen of every nation engaged in a war develops a strong sense of unity and patriotism.

Secondly, the spirit of cooperation with one’s fellow citizen becomes very strong during the wartime. (d) During the war of 1971 against Pakistan, the situation of India was that strong sense of unity and patriotism grew in every citizen of India. Every Indian supported the Government and forgot his personal differences during the war. Every Indian felt proud of his country and was anxious about its victory.

(e) The following statements are correct:

i. War sometimes has good results.

ii. In 1971 India fought with Bangladesh.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-19

”Once, a king wanted to appoint an honest man for collecting the taxes of his kingdom. There were many candidates for the post. A day was fixed for selecting the most honest man among them. The candidates arrived; they were seated in a big room where a lot of gold and silver coins were kept. After sometime they were led to the king’s presence and asked to dance. Only one of the candidates obeyed while all other refused to dance. The minister declared the one who danced to be the only honest man. The king wanted to know how dancing could prove him to be honest. The minister compelled the other candidates to show their pockets. Lo! They were filled with the king’s coins. The king now understood why they had refused to dance. So the honest man was chosen and others were jailed as thieves.”

Questions:

(a) What sort of man did the king want?

(b) What was the plan to test the honesty of the candidates?

(c) What were the candidates asked to do?

(d) Why did all but one refuse to dance?

(e)  Where were the candidates sent except the honest man? 

Answers:

(a) The king wanted to appoint an honest man for collecting the taxes of his kingdom.

(b) The minister made a plan to test the honesty of the candidates. When all the candidates arrived, they were seated in a room where a lot of gold and silver coins were kept. After sometime they were led to the presence of the king and asked to dance. Only one candidate obeyed while all others refused to do so. Thus the minister proved the honesty of the candidates.

(c) The candidates were asked to dance. But all except only one candidate refused to dance as they stole the coins.

(d) All the candidates except only one stole the King’s coin and put them in their pockets. So while they were asked to dance all except one refused to dance. 

(e) All the candidates except the honest one were sent to jail.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-20

”In ancient time the good government of a country depended almost entirely on what sort of man was the king. If he was a man who wanted to see his people happy and prosperous, he could do a great deal for them by stopping quarrels and setting disputes justly, by making good roads and having the towns and villages kept clean, by building hospitals and schools, by making wells and tanks and allowing religious freedom. If, on the other hand, he was a selfish, cruel and greedy man he could do a lot of harms by taking his people’s goods, by making harsh laws and appointing bad officers and by not having justice done. But the people usually put up with even a bad king, provided he did not interfere with their ordinary way of earning a livelihood, with their religion and with their family affairs. It was only when the king was very bad, cruel, unjust and oppressive that the people tried to get rid of him.”

Questions:

(a) On what did the good government of a country depend in ancient time?

(b)How could a good king in those days make his people happy?

(c) How could a bad king do a lot of harm to them?

(d) How far did the people bear with a king?

(e) What happened when a king was very bad?

Answers:

(a) In ancient time the good government of a country depended on what sort of man the king was.

(b) In ancient time a good king did a good deal of deeds for the welfare of his people. He tried his best to bury quarrels among his people, made roads, hospitals, schools, wells and allowed religious freedom to his subjects.

(c) If a king was bad he used to do a lot of harms by taking his people’s goods, by making harsh laws, by appointing bad officials and not having justice done to his subjects. 

(e) People usually used to put up even with a bad king, provided that he did not interfere with their ordinary ways of earning a livelihood, with their religion and with their family affairs.

(f) When the king was very bad- cruel, unjust and oppressive then people rebelled against the king and tried to get rid of him.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-21

”The day of Caesar’s funeral came. The crowd of Romans assembled at the Forum to do honour to Caesar and to listen to the speeches. 

First, Brutus came. He went up into the pulpit and spoke to the citizens. His speech was brief, for, he was once given to appeal to men by reason rather than by passion. He said that if there was anyone who asked why Brutus rose against Caesar, this was his answer: “Not that he loved Caesar less, but that he loved Rome more, would you rather”, he went on, “Caesar was living and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead and live all free man! As Caesar loved me, I weep for him. As he was fortunate, I rejoice at it. As he was valiant, I honour him. But as he was ambitious, I slew him. There are tears for his love, joy for his fortune, honour for his valour and death for his ambition. Who is there so base that would be a bondman? If any speak, for him have I offended? Who is there so rude that would not be a Roman? If any speak, for him I have offended. Who is so vile that will not love his country? Speak, for him, I have offended. I pause for a reply.”

They all shouted back, “None Brutus, none.” Then he said, ‘None have I offended. I have done no more to Caesar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of his death is enrolled in the capital; his glory not extended, wherein he was worthy, nor his offences urged for which he suffered death.’

He was still speaking when Antony and others drew near carrying Caesar’s dead body in a bier. They set it down in front of the pulpit. Brutus begged them to give a kindly hearing to Mark Antony’s speech in honour of the dead, then he left the pulpit and went away alone.”

Questions:

(a) Why did the people assemble at the forum?

(b) Who stood first for the funeral speech?

(c) How did Brutus excite the crowd to support his action?

(d) How did Brutus conclude his speech?

(e) How and who was the dead body of Caesar carried by?

Answers:

(a)The crowds of Romans assembled at the Forum to show honour to Caesar and to listen to the speeches of Brutus. 

(b) Brutus stood first for the funeral speeches. 

(c)  It was Brutus who slew Caesar. But he was shrewd enough to excite the crowd in support of his action and gave a brief but fascinating lecture. He said that he loved Caesar, but more he loved his country. Brutus wept for him as Caesar loved him. He rejoiced at Caesar as Caesar was fortunate. He honoured him as Caesar was valiant. But Brutus killed him because he was ambitious.

(d) Brutus’ concluding speech was also very exciting. He said addressing to the crowd whether there was anybody who did not love his country. The reply was negative and then Brutus said that he killed him in favour of their motherland and for the welfare of the people.

(e)Caesar’s dead body was carried on in a bier by Antony and others.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-22

”At 4.30 P. M., Abha brought in the last meal he was ever to eat; it consisted of goat’s milk, cooked and raw vegetables, oranges and concoction of ginger, sour lemons and stained butter with juice of aloe. Sitting on the floor of his room in the rear of Birla House in New Delhi, Gandhi ate and talked with Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Deputy Prime Minister of the new government of Independent India. Maniben, Patel’s daughter and secretary, was also present. The conversation was important. There had been rumours of differences between Patel and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, like so many others, had been dropped into the Mahatma’s lap.

Abha, alone with Gandhi and the Patels, hesitated to interrupt. But she knew Gandhi’s attachment to punctuality. Finally, therefore, she picked up the Mahatma’s nickel-plated watch and showed it to him. ‘I must tear myself away’, Gandhi remarked, and so saying he rose, went to the adjoining bathroom and then started towards the prayer ground in the large park to the left of the house. Abha, the young wife of Kanu Gandhi, the grandson of Mahatma’s cousin, and Manu, the grand-daughter of another cousin, accompanied him; he leaned his forearms on their shoulders. ‘My walking stick’, he called them.

During the daily two minute promenade through the long, red-sandstone colonnade that led to the prayer ground, Gandhi relaxed and joked. Now, he mentioned the carrot juice Abha had given him that morning.

‘So you are serving me cattle fare, ‘he said and laughed.

‘Ba used to call it horse fare’, Abha replied. Ba was Gandhi’s deceased wife.

‘Isn’t it grand of me, Gandhi bantered, to relish what no one else wants?’

‘Bapu (father)’, said Abha, your watch must be feeling neglected. You should not look at it today.’

‘Why should I, since you are my timekeeper?’ Gandhi retorted.

‘But you don’t look at the timekeepers’, Manu noted. Gandhi laughed again.”

Questions:

(a) What did Gandhi eat in his last meal? 2

(b) Who were the persons present when Gandhi ate his last meal? 2

(c) What was the problem that had been dropped at Gandhi’s lap? 

(d) Why did Abha show Gandhi the nickel-plated watch?

(e) Who were the timekeepers of Gandhi? 1

What is the cattle fare referred to? 1

Answers:

(a) In his last meal, Gandhi ate goat’s milk, cooked and raw vegetables, oranges and concoction of ginger, sour lemons and strained butter with juice of aloe.

(b) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel the Deputy Prime Minister of that time and his daughter Maniben were present at the time when Gandhi ate his last meal.

(c) The problem was the rumours of differences between Patel and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was dropped into Mahatma’s lap.

(d) That day Gandhi was some late to attend the congregation prayer and so Abha showed Gandhi the nickel-plated watch.

(e) Abha the wife of Kanu Gandhi and Manu the granddaughter of Gandhi’s cousin were the ‘timekeeper’ of Gandhi. 

(f) Here ‘cattle fare’ refers to ‘carrot juice’ served as an item of food to by Abha to Gandhi.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-23

”So the ships were brought into the dock and the passengers began to go ashore. But Mr Sercombe had sent word to the captain that as the whites were highly enraged against me and my life was in danger, my family and I should be advised to land at dusk when the Port Superintendent Mr Tatum would escort us home. The captain communicated the message to me and I agreed to act accordingly. But scarcely half an hour after this, Mr Laughton came to the captain. He said, ‘I should like to take Gandhi with me, should he have no objection. As the legal adviser of the agent Company, I tell you that you are not bound to carry out the message you have received from Mr Escombe.’ After this, he came to me and said somewhat to this effect: ‘If you are not afraid, I suggest that Mrs Gandhi and the children should drive to Mr Rustomji’s house, whilst you and I follow them on foot. I do not at all like the idea of your entering the city like a thief in the night. I do not think there is any fear of anyone hurting you. Everything is quiet now. The whites have all dispersed. But in any case, I am convinced that you ought not to enter the city stealthily.’ I readily agreed. My wife and children drove safely to Rustomji’s place. With the captain’s permission, I went ashore with Mr Laughton. Mr Rustomji’s house was about two miles from the dock.”

Questions:

(a) Who is the speaker in this passage?

(b) What word and Mr Escombe sent to the captain o f the ship? 2

(c) Why did Mr Laughton come to the captain?

(d) What did Mr Laughton say to the speaker?

(e) The speaker readily agreed to Mr Laughton’s suggestion. What does it tell us about the speaker’s character?

(f) Find a word from the passage that means ‘moving secretly or moving like a thief’.

Answers:

(a) The speaker of this passage is M. K. Gandhi.

(b) Mr Escombe had sent a word to the captain of the ship that Gandhi should be advised to land at dusk because the whites were highly enraged against Gandhi.

(c) Mr Laughton the adviser of the Agent Company came to the captain to tell him that he would like to take Gandhi with him if Gandhi had no objection. He also told Gandhi that he was not bound to carry out the message received from Mr Escombe.

(d) Mr Laughton said to Gandhi that if Gandhi was not afraid then he should send his wife and children to Mr Rustomji’s house and then Mr Laughton and Gandhi would follow them on foot.

(e) Mr Laughton suggested Gandhi go to Mr Rustomji’s house without delay and said that Gandhi should not be bound to carry out the message received from Mr Escombe. Mr Laughton did not like the idea of Gandhi’s entering the city like a thief. Gandhi readily agreed and it showed that he was a man of truthfulness and was afraid of none. 

(f) The word is ‘stealthily’ that means ‘moving secretly or moving like a thief’.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-24

”Trees help to support man’s life by supplying the atmosphere with oxygen which is essential to life. The oxygen in the air is constantly being used up and turned into carbon-di-oxide which is the food that plants eat. The leaves of trees (in fact, of all green plants_ absorb this carbon-du-oxide and with the help of sunlight breaks it down into carbon and oxygen. The carbon is used to make starch and the oxygen is released into the air, so replacing the oxygen used up by animals. 

Starch and other carbon compounds made in the green leaves of trees (and other green plants too) serve as food for animals. The tiny green cells of plants are wonderful laboratories which produce all the starch in the world. But for this service done by plants, all animals would sooner or later die for lack of food.”

Questions:

(i) What is the food that plants eat.? 

(ii) How do the green cells of plants serve the animals? 

(iii) How do leaves of trees break down carbon-di-oxide into carbon and oxygen? 

Answers: 

(i) Carbon-di-oxide is the food that plants eat.

(ii) The green cells of trees produce all the starch in the world in which the animals living on the earth take as food. Thus the green cells of trees serve the animals.

(iii) The leaves of all green plants absorb the carbon-dioxide and with the help of sunlight breaks it down into carbon and oxygen.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-25

”In life, every man has twin obligations: obligation to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children and he has an obligation to his people, his community, his country. In a civil and humane society, each man is able to fulfil those obligations according to his own inclinations and abilities. But in a country like South Africa, it was almost impossible for a man of my birth and colour to fulfil those obligations. In South Africa, a man of colour who attempted to live as a human being was punished and isolated. In South Africa, a man who tried to fulfil his duty to his people was inevitably ripped from his family and home and was forced to live a life apart, a twilight existence of secrecy and rebellion. I did not, in the beginning, choose to place my people above my family, but in attempting to serve my people, I found that I was prevented from fulfilling my obligations as a son, a brother, a father and a husband.”

Questions:

(i) What was done to a man of clour in South Africa who attempted to live as a human being?

(ii) What are the twin obligations that every man has in life?

(iii) What did the speaker find when he attempted to serve his people?

Answers:

(i)  A man of colour in South Africa who attempted to live as a human being was punished and isolated.

(ii) The twin obligations that every man has in life are: first, obligations to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children and secondly,  obligations to his people, to his community and to his country.

(iii) When the speaker attempted to serve his people he found that he was prevented from fulfilling his obligations as a son, a brother, a father and a husband.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-26

”Today’s woman is a highly self-directed person, alive to the sense of her dignity and the importance of her functions in the private domestic domain and the public domain of the world of work. Women are rational in approach, careful in handling situation and want to do things as best as possible. The Fourth World Conference of Women held in Beijing in September 1995 had emphasised that no enduring solution of society’s most threatening social, economic and political problems could be found without participation and empowerment of women. The 1995 World Summit for Social Development had also emphasised the pivotal role of women in eradicating poverty and mending the social fabric.

The constitution of India had conferred on women rights and opportunities – political, social, educational and of employment – with men. Because of oppressive traditions, superstitions, exploitation and corruption, a majority of women are not allowed to enjoy the rights and opportunities, bestowed on them. One of the major reasons for this state of affairs is the lack of literacy and awareness among women. Education is the main instrument through which we can narrow down the prevailing inequality and accelerate the progress of economic and political change in the status of women.

The role of women in a society is very important. Women’s education is the key to a better life in the future. A recent World Bank study says that educating a girl is not charity, it is good economics and if developing nations are to eradicate poverty, they must educate the girls. The report says that the economic and social returns on investment in the education of the girls considerably affect the human development index of the nation, Society would progress only if the status of women is respected and the presence of an educated woman in the family would ensure the education of the family itself. Education and empowerment of women are closely related.”

Questions:

 (a) Mention some of the qualities of today’s women?

(b) Where was the Fourth World Conference of women held and what did it emphasise?  

(c) What factors prevent a majority of women from enjoying their rights and opportunities?  

(d) What can education do for the cause of women?

(e) What is the observation of World Bank on girl education?

Answers:

(a)  Today’s women are self-directed having the sense of dignity. They are rational in approach, careful in handling situation and they want to do things for themselves.

(b) The Fourth World Conference of Women was held in Beijing, China. It emphasised on that no enduring solution of society’s most threatening social, economic and political problems could be found without participation and empowerment of women.

(c) The factors that prevent a majority of women from enjoying their rights are oppressive traditions, superstitions, exploitation and corruption.

(d) Education can narrow down the prevailing inequality and accelerate the process of economic and political change in the status of women.

(e) The World Bank observes that educating girls is not a charity. It is good economics and if developing nations are to eradicate poverty they must educate the girls. The report says more that the economic and social returns on investment in the education of girls considerably affect the human development index of the nation.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-27

”People travelling long distances frequently have to decide whether they would prefer to go by land, sea or air. Hardly anyone can positively enjoy sitting on a train for more than a few hours. Train compartments soon get cramped and stuffy. It is almost impossible to take your mind off the journey. Reading is only a partial solution, for the monotonous rhythm of the wheels clicking on the rails soon lulls you to sleep. During the day sleep comes in snatches. At night, when you really wish to go to sleep, you rarely manage to do so.  If you are lucky enough to get a couchette, you spend half the night staring at the small blue light in the ceiling for fumbling to find your passport when you cross a frontier. Inevitably you arrive at your destination almost exhausted.

Long car journey is even less pleasant, for it is quite impossible even to read. On motorways, you can at least travel fairly safely at high speeds, but more often than not, the greater part of the journey is spent on narrow, bumpy roads which are crowded with traffic. By comparison, trips by the sea offer a great variety of civilized comforts. You can stretch your legs on the spacious decks, play games, swim, meet interesting people and enjoy good food always assuming, of course, that the sea is calm. If it is not, and you are lucky to get sea-sick, no form of transport could be worse, Even if you travel in ideal weather, sea journeys take a long time. Relatively few peoples are prepared to sacrifice up to a third of their holidays for the pleasure of travelling on a ship.

Aeroplanes have the reputation of being dangerous and even hardened travellers are intimidated by them. They also have a disadvantage of being the most expensive form of transport. But nothing can match them for speed and comfort. Travelling at a  height of 30,000 feet, far above the clouds, and at over 500 miles an hour is an exhilarating experience. You do not have to devise ways of taking your mind off the journey, for an aeroplane gets you to your destination rapidly. For a few hours, you settle in a deep armchair to enjoy the flight. The real escapist can watch a free film show and sip a hot or cold drink on some services. But even when such refreshments are not available, there is plenty to keep you occupied. An aeroplane offers you an unusual breathtaking view of the world. You soar effortlessly over high mountains and deep valleys. You really see the shape of the land. If the landscape is hidden from view, you can enjoy the extraordinary sight of unbroken clouds, plains that stretch out for miles before, while the sun shines brilliantly in a clear sky. The journey is so much smooth that there is nothing to prevent you from reading or sleeping. However you decide to spend your time, one thing certain: you will arrive at your destination fresh and uncrumpled. You will not have to spend the next few days recovering from  a long and arduous journey.”

Questions:

A. Train compartments soon get 

(i) comfortable and easy?          

(ii) crowded and inconvenient.

(iii) troublesome. 

(iv) dirty.

Answers:

A. (ii) crowded and inconvenient.

B. When you travel by train you reach your destination  

(i) rather late.    

(ii) quite comfortably

(iii) quite tired.

(iv) quite fresh.

Ans: quite tired.

C. Trip by sea can be

(i) quite pleasant when sea is not calm

(ii) quite risky when the sea is not calm.

(iii) quite exciting when the sea is not calm.

(iv) even worse when the sea is not calm.

Ans: quite risky when the sea is not calm.

D. Nothing can match aeroplanes   

(i) for comfort

(ii) for being costly.

(iii) for speed and comfort.

(iv) for excitement.

Ans: for speed and comfort.

E. Air travel is 

(i) most comfortable form of travelling.

(ii) most dangerous form of travelling.

(iii) most expensive form of travelling.

(iv) most intimidating form of travelling.

Ans: most dangerous form of travelling.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-28

”Mahatma Gandhi has laid great stress on Satyagrah in his thoughts. Satyagrah means pursuance of truth. It means striving for truth even by undergoing physical pain. Gandhi relied on the methods of non-violence to strive for truth. Thus it was agreeable to him to suffer physical hardship for the sake of truth. He used to accept Satyagrah not simply as a means but as a principle by itself. He himself had written that Satyagrah is a spiritual principle based on love for mankind. There is no feeling of hatred towards the opponents in it. He used to regard Satyagrah as the most potent force. In ‘Hindi Swaraj’ he wrote, ‘Passive resistance (Satyagrah) is an all-sided sword, it can be used anyhow. It blesses him who uses it and him against whom it is used without drawing a drop of blood. It produces for reaching results. It never rusts and cannot be stolen.

Gandhi considered four conditions to be necessary for a Satyagrah. He stated, ‘After a great deal of experience it seems to me that those who want to become passive resisters for the service of the country have to (i) observe perfect chastity, (ii) adopt poverty (iii) follow truth and (iv)cultivate fearlessness. Gandhi used to give enough stress on morality. In his view, the truth was the essence of morality.

Gandhi laid great stress on non-violence along with the truth. He used to consider non-violence as a symbol of strength rather than cowardice. On 11 August 1946, he wrote in ‘Young India’, ‘Even if non-violence means taking hardship consciously in a constructive manner, nevertheless this principle does not support surrendering oneself before the tormentor. On the contrary, it encourages one to face a tormentor with full soul force.  Elsewhere he said, ‘I believe that non-violence has the power to solve all problems. At the same time I have this faith that if any country in the world can find a solution to all problems through non-violence, it is only India.”

Questions:

(a) What is Satyagrah?

(b)What did Gandhi write about Satyagrah in ‘Hind Swaraj’? 

(c) What according to Gandhi, are the four conditions necessary for the success of Satyagrah? 

(d) What are the views of Gandhi on nonviolence? 

(e) In which country can one find a solution to all problems through non-violence?

(f) Pick out words from the passage that means:

(i) Powerful.

(ii) fear or lack of courage.

(iii)  A person who causes somebody to suffer.

Answers:

 (a) Satyagrah is the pursuance of truth. It means striving for truth even by undergoing physical pain.  

(b) In Hind Swaraj Gandhi wrote, ‘Passive resistance (Satyagrah) is an all-sided sword. It can be used anyhow. It blesses him who uses it and him against whom it is used without shedding a drop of blood. It produces for reaching results. It never rusts and can not be stolen.

(c) The four conditions, according to Gandhi, for the success of Satyagrah are: (i) observe perfect chastity, (ii) adopt poverty, (iii) follow truth and (iv) cultivate fearlessness. 

(d) Gandhi laid great stress on non-violence. He used to consider non-violence as a symbol of strength rather than cowardice. He said that non-violence means taking hardship consciously in a constructive manner. It does not support surrendering oneself before tormentor. On the contrary, it encourages one to face a tormentor with full soul force. He believed that non-violence has the power to solve all the problems.

(e) India.

(f) (i) potent

(ii) cowardice

(iii) tormentor.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-29

”My father gets a faraway look in his eyes that is unmistakable. As he looks towards the horizon and his eyes seek out the bright flashes of snow-capped peaks, we all know what he is thinking. Mountains tops have always had that magnetic effect on him.

As I grew up I inherited some of my father’s restlessness. I know many people think there must be some compulsion for the son of Edmund Hillary to climb mountains. They assume that I need to compete, or measure up as if there was some strong mark on a stone that says, “ thou shalt climb mountains — and in particular Everest, whether you like it or not. But for me, it is simpler than that. I think families are like factories some manufacture lawyers while others produce landscape gardeners. The Hillary family is limited production mountaineering establishment.

Today at the age of 48, I am a determined mountaineer love to climb them; love, to dream about them. I have been more than 30 mountaineering expeditions, from the Himalayas to the Antarctic. And yes I have climbed Everest— twice. I treasure the same things that drew my father to climbing — great feeling of friendship and trust among people who work together, sense of pleasure and excitement, especially in dangerous places where your life depends upon making the right call, I guess I am luckier than most because I can fall back on all that my father has taught me. One devastating day in 1995 this advice saved my life.

Just below the summit of the mountain known as K2 or the “savage mountain” of the Himalayas — there is steep ice channel called —” The bottleneck” was among a party of eight climbers heading for the summit, with just 400 metres left to climb. Perched there, 8200 metres above sea level and looking cast along the northern edge of the Karakoram Mountains to the Tibetan Plateau, I noticed curls of ominous cloud began to move in sudden and quickly with great force.

As the weather worsened, I became very concerned. I stopped. Something did not feel right. At that moment I clearly heard my father’s voice. ‘’Down. Go down. Stick to your guns, Peter.’’

Then from above me, I heard another voice — a woman’s. “Come on up. Use the red rope.”  Alison Hargreaves, a fellow climber, was encouraging me to join her. Not for you, Peter was that my father’s voice again? The unsettled feeling in me grew stronger. Finally, I told Jeff Lakes, my climbing partner, that I was going down. He too was feeling unsure but decided to go on ahead. As I headed down, I looked back at Jeft a couple of time, until a thick, threatening cloud blocked the view. Soon, the same fast-moving cloud would engulf the summit and plunge me into an isolated world of terror.

‘’Don’t be afraid to make your own decisions. Don’t be afraid to stand alone.’’ That was my father’s voice.

Alone in body but not in spirit I descended. But with fear tapping upon my shoulders, I was caught in the frightening situation of the rising storm. The flanks of the mountain were out of control and so, perhaps, was I.

‘’Fear makes you careful. Fear makes you good, Fear’’, my father told me, ‘’is not something you manage.’’ So I seized on what I could control: a well-clipped descender and a taut rope. For hours I continued to go down a rope.

When I woke in my tent the next morning, it was silent, sunny, still. I alone had successfully descended from the summit pyramid of K2 that night.

The seven above were dead.

Life in a famous family has its advantages and disadvantages. Lunch with Indira Gandhi or a trip to the North Pole with Neil Armstrong is one although a rather extra-ordinary side of the coin. The other can be a battle with identity and independence. When I am 80 years old myself, I know I will more than likely still be greeted with, ‘’Wait a minute, You’re Ed Hillary’s son!” But my father is quite a man and I am proud of him.”

Questions:

(a) Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What does the son read in his father’s eyes?                

(ii) What is the bottleneck?

(iii)What was the fate of the seven companions who climbed the K2 summit?

(iv) In what way does the author consider himself more fortunate than other mountaineers?

(v) State any two qualities that the speaker has inherited from his father.                                                                             

(vi) “The Hillary family is limited production mountaineering establishment.” What does the author mean by this?

(vii) What was the father’s opinion about ‘fear’? How did it help the author?

(b) Pick out words from the passage that mean the following:

(i) Sitting on high and dangerous position 

(ii) Tight and completely stretched 

Answers: 

(a) (i)The son read in his father’s eyes a faraway unmistakable look that seeks out the bright flashes of snow-capped peaks on the horizon.

(ii) ‘The bottleneck’ is a steep ice channel just below the summit of the mountain known as K2 or the ‘savage mountain’ on the Himalayas.

(iii) The seven climbers who climbed above were dead.

(iv) The author considered himself more fortunate than other mountaineers because he could fall back on all that his father had taught him.

(v) The speaker had inherited his father’s restlessness and his love of mountaineering.

(vi) The author means by the quoted expression that the Hillary family is a rare and extra-ordinary family that produced mountaineers. Edmund Hilary, the father of the narrator is the first person who scaled the Mount Everest.

(vii) According to the author’s father, ‘fear’ is not something one can manage. It helped the author to make himself more careful and decided to go down the rope.

(b) The words in the passage are:

(i) perched 

(ii) taut.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-30

”Look at the opposition between the pen and the sword. The sword can only destroy, ideas also can destroy— the ideas of Bolshevism destroyed Czarism, the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau destroyed the French aristocracy. But ideas can also build, whereas the sword can only destroy.

It is in the power of ideas which has brought us out of barbarism into such civilization asks as we have been able to achieve. “In what”, asked Aristotle, “does man differ from the animal? And answered, “It is by virtue of reason.” The greatness of man consists in his thinking. The universe is vast, and man is tiny, but man has one advantage over the universe. He knows it is vast and he is tiny, but the universe does not.

In this sense, that it is to ideas and not to violence, to the pen and not to the sword, that man owes whatever has distinguished him from animals, whatever has enables him to rise above a purely savage condition. For the pen is the vehicle of thought, and it is by the thought that man is enabled to voyage through the infinite in philosophy, to unlock the secrets of the universe, to create beauty and to commune with God.”

Questions:

(a) (i) What destroyed Czarism?

(ii) Who was responsible for the fall of the French aristocracy?

(iii)What has brought humankind out of barbarism into civilization? 

(iv) What does the pen represent here?

(v) How do ideas and the sword differ from each other?

(vi) What, according to Aristotle, makes man different from the animal?

(vii) What is one advantage that man has over the universe?

(b) Pick out words from the passage that mean the following:

(i) People of noble birth or rank.

(ii) Primitive condition.

Answers: 

(a)(i)The ideas of Bolshevism destroyed Czarism.

(ii) Voltaire and Rousseau were responsible for the fall of the French aristocracy.

(iii) The power of ideas brought humankind out of barbarism into civilization.

(iv) The pen represents the vehicle of thought.

(v) Ideas have enabled man to voyage through the infinite in the philosophy whereas the sword is the symbol of violence.

(vi)  According to Aristotle, ‘reason’ makes man different from the animal.

(vii) The one advantage that man has over the universe is that he knows it is vast and he is tiny.

(b)  (i) aristocracy (ii) savage.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-31

”It was a new bus, its outside painted a gleaming white with some green stripes along the sides. Inside, the overhead bars shone like silver. Directly in front of  Valli, above the windshield, there was a beautiful clock. The seats were soft and luxurious.

Valli devoured everything with her eyes. But when she started to look outside,  she found her view cut off by canvas blind that covered the lower part of her window. So she stood up and peered over the blind. The bus was now going along the bank of the canal. The road was very narrow. On one side there was a canal and beyond it, palm trees, grassland, distant mountains,  and the blue sky. On the other side was a deep ditch and then acres and acres of greenfield- green, green, green, as far as the eye could see.

Questions:

(i) What was the inside of the bus like? 

(ii) Why did Valli stand up on the seat?

(iii) What could be seen outside as the bus was going along the bank of a canal? 

Answers: 

(i) The inside of the bus was fine. Its overhead bars shone like silver. The seats were soft and luxurious.

(ii) Valli stood up on the seats because when she started to look outside, she found her view cut off by a canvas blind that covered the lower part of the window.

(iii)  One could see palm trees, grassland, distant mountains and the blue sky on the one side. On the other side, a deep ditch and greenfield could be seen outside as the bus was going along the bank of a canal. 

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-32

”Papers is one of the most important articles that we use in day-to-day life. If there had been no paper, our civilization would not have progressed so fast. Great scientists write their thoughts on papers and then carry out their experiments. Great engineers draw their plans on paper first and then build houses, bridges, dams and so on. Great thoughts are written or printed on paper for everyone to read. If there was no paper, we would not have all the good books that are available in the world. Without paper, it would be difficult for the people of one country to know about the people of another country.”

Questions:

(i) Why is paper the most essential thing for mankind? 

(ii) What would have happened if there were no paper?

(iii) Mention three uses of paper. 

Answers: 

(i) Paper is the most essential thing because the paper has contributed much to the progress of our civilization. All the great books have been written on paper studying which we can know lots of things.

(ii) If there were no paper, we would have not all the books that are available in the world. Without paper, it would be difficult for people of one country to know about the people of another country.

(iii) The uses of paper are – scientist writes their thoughts on paper, great engineers draw their plans on paper and great thoughts are written on paper for everyone to read.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-33

”The fiercely independent people of Coorg are possible of Greek or Arab descent. As one story goes, a part of Alexander’s army moved south along the coast and settled here when return became impractical. These people married amongst the locals and their culture is apparent in the martial traditions, marriage and religious rites, which are distinct from the Hindu mainstream. The theory of Arab origin draws support from the long, black coat with embroidered waist-belt worn by the Kodavus, known as Kuppiya; it resembles the Kuffiya worn by the Arabs and the Kurds.”

Questions:

(i) Of which descent are the people of Coorg?  

(ii) What is the story about the Greek origin of the people of Coorg? 

(iii) What is the theory in support of the Arab origin of the Coorgi people?

Answers: 

(i) The people of Coorg are possibly of Greek or Arab descent.

(ii) The story about the Greek origin of the people of Coorg is that a part of Alexander’s army moved south along the coast and settled there when return became impractical. These people married amongst the locals and their culture is apparent in their martial traditions, marriage and religious rites.

(iii) The theory in support of the Arab origin of the Coorg people is that they wear a long, black coat with embroidered waist-belt which resemble with that of the Arabs and the Kurds.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-34

”The great advantage of early rising is that one can start one’s work long before others. The early riser has done a large amount of hard work before other men have got out of bed. Early in the morning, the mind is fresh and no sound or noises disturb our attention. The work done at that time is generally well done. Also one finds time to take some exercise in the fresh morning air. Exercise supplies him with a good deal of energy that enables him to work until the evening. By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do his work thoroughly. He needs not to have to hurry over any part of his work. He gets to sleep long before midnight. At that time sleep is most refreshing. After a night’s sound rest, he rises early next morning in good health ready for the labour of a new day.”

Questions:

(i) What advantage does an early riser have over things?

(iii) What are the uses of going to sleep long before midnight?

Answers:

(i) An early riser can perform a large amount of work before other men have got out of bed.

(ii) One should take exercise in the morning and begin one’s work so early. It is because in the morning the air is fresh and having exercise in the morning supplies one with a good deal of energy that enables one to work hard until the evening. And by beginning work so early one gets plenty of time to do his work thoroughly.

(iii) The benefits of going to sleep long before midnight is that at that time sleep is most refreshing. After a night’s sound sleep, one rises early next morning in good health ready for the labour of a new day with new vigour.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-35

”Over many days and months, Valli listened carefully to the conversation between her neighbour and people who regularly used the bus and she also asked a few discreet questions here and there. This way she picked up various small details about the bus journey. The town was six miles from her village. The fare was thirty paise one way- ‘which is almost nothing at all’, she heard one well-dressed man say, but to Valli, who scarcely saw that much money from one month to the next, it seemed a fortune. The trip to the town took forty-five minutes. On reaching the town, if she stayed in her seat and paid another thirty paise, she could return home on the same bus. This meant that she could take the one o’clock afternoon bus, reach the town at one forty-five, and be back home by about two forty-five. 

On and on Valli went her thoughts as she calculated and recalculated, planned and replanned.”

Questions:

(i) What did Valli find out about the bus journey? How did she find out these details?               

(ii) What do you think Valli was planning to do?

Answers:

(i) Valli found out about the bus journey from his neighbours. 

Over many days and months, Valli listened carefully to the conversations between her neighbours and people who regularly took the bus journey from the village to the town. She also asked a few questions here and there. In this way, she found out about the bus journey.

(ii) Valli was planning to take a bus journey from her village to the town. She came to know that it took thirty paise to go and another thirty paise to come back by bus. So she saved some sixty paise and planned to take her journey by bus.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-36

”Baldeo, however, was ready. With a marvellously agile leap, he avoided the paw and brought his axe down on the animal’s shoulder. The tiger gave a roar and attempted to close in. Again Baldeo drove his axe which caught the tiger on the shoulder, almost severing the leg. To make matters worse, the axe remained stick in the bone, and Baldeo was left without a weapon.”

Questions:

(i)  What did Baldeo do to avoid the tiger’s attack?

(ii) How did the tiger react?  

(iii) What happened when Baldeo attacked the tiger second time with his axe?  

(iv) What made the situation worse?

(v) Which word in the extract mean ‘able to move quickly and easily’?

Answers: 

(i) Baldeo makes an agile leap to avoid the tiger’s attack.

(ii) The tiger reacted with a roar and attempted to close in.

(iii)In the second time, Baldeo drove his axe which caught the tiger on the shoulder, almost severing the leg.

(iv) The axe that Baldeo drove on the animal remained stuck in the bone and it made the situation worse.

(v) agile.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-37

”The word ‘depressed’ in common usage means sad, frustrated, fed up, bored and pessimistic. The mood of a depressed person is much lower at his best moments than that of a normal person at his or her worst. Depression is a state of mind. It is a mental disorder characterised by a lowering of the individual’s vitality, his/ her mood, desires, hopes, aspirations and of his/ her self-esteem.

Depression arising out of environmental factors is called reactive depression; depression arising out of biological changes in the brain is called endogenous depression. If depression is mild or moderate and if the individual is in touch with his/ her surroundings, it is known as neurotic depression. If the individual is severely disturbed and is not able to comprehend what is happening around, such a state is called psychotic depression.

Old age is one of the stages of human development, where a person is likely to attain wisdom, maturity, social and economic stability with social recognition and emotional fulfilment. Generally, societies show great respect and consideration for the aged. In ancient times old people were considered as the guiding stars in Indian families because they were symbols of tradition, respect, wisdom and experience. In primitive, ancient and medieval culture, old persons had a recognised social role. They were of great value because they could impart knowledge and skill to youngsters. The old people were considered as repositories of wisdom and traditions and were not perceived as a burden on others.

At present, social structures and values are undergoing a transformation from traditional to modern. There is a rapid stride in urbanization and industrialisation leading to the breaking up of joint families and property. This has weakened the social position and status of the aged in the family. Changes in the institutions of marriage and family have diminished the control of parents over their children. Children have come to view the aged as a useless and non-productive entity. The ultimate result is that the very integrity of the family with the elderly forming an integral part of it is being uprooted. Thus the elderly have ended up losing much of their earlier authority, respect and prestige within the Indian family system. These changes generally bring about depression in old people.”

Questions:

(a)  

(i) What does the word ‘depressed’ mean in common usage? 

(ii) What is ‘reactive depression’?

(iii) What is ‘endogenous depression’?

(iv) Why were old people considered to be of great value in earlier societies?

(v) What was the status of old people in ancient India?

(vi) What are the factors responsible for the disintegration of the joint family system?

(vii) Mention two changes in our society that have caused depression in old people. 

(b) Pick out words in the passage that mean the following: 

(i) liveliness and energy.

(ii) a place where things are stored.

Answers:

(A)

(i) In common usage, the word ‘depressed’ means sad, frustrated, fed up, bored and pessimistic.

(ii) Depression arising out of environmental factors is called ‘reactive depression’.

(iii) Depression arising out of biochemical changes in the brain is called ‘endogenous depression’.

(iv) The old people were considered to be of great value in earlier societies because old age is one of the stages of human development where a person is likely to attain wisdom, maturity, social and economic stability with social recognition and emotional fulfilment.

(v) In ancient India, old people were considered as the guiding stars because they were symbols of tradition, respect, wisdom and experience. They were of great value because they would impart knowledge and skill to youngsters.

(vi) The factors responsible for the disintegration of the joint family system are:

First, there is a rapid stride in urbanization and industrialization leading to the breaking up of joint families and property. This has weakened the social position and status of the aged in the family.

Secondly, the changes in the institutions of marriage and family have diminished the control of parents over their children. Children have come to view the aged as a useless and non-productive entity. 

(vii) The two changes in our society that have caused depression in old people are first rapid urbanization and industrialization, secondly changes in the institutions of marriage.

(b)

(i) The word that means liveliness and energy in the passage is ‘vitality’.

(ii) The word that means a place where things are stored is ‘repository’.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-38

”The discovery that fire could be made of service to human beings is certainly of very great antiquity. In our own day, we have much respect and admiration for the great inventors. They are considered to be great men who have conferred priceless benefits on the human race. We should similarly admire the men who first made fire captive and showed how it could be used with safety and to man’s advantage, not only to warmth but to scare away wild beasts.

At first, fire may have been obtained from blazing logs at the edge of a forest which had been set in flames by lightning. In time men learned to keep a small fire burning so as to kindle other fires from it. Some savages in our own time keep smouldering logs in their villages, and when these are suddenly extinguished, they go in search of fire. Early man may have done the same.

After the fire came into use in ancient times, the next great discovery was how to produce it. It may be that busy flint workers sometimes used iron pyrites, striking sparks from flint. Then some men would discover that when he directed showers of sparks into dried grass and leaves, he could blow the smouldering parts into flame.”

Questions:

(a) (i) What should be our attitude towards the discovery of fire compared with our attitude to modern inventors? 2

(ii) How was fire obtained at first?

(iii) How did early men make use of fire? 

(iv)  How was fire produced by them?

(b) Pick out words in the passage that mean the following:

(ii) set (something) on fire.

Answers:

(a) (i) Our attitude towards the discovery of fire should be special if compared with our attitude towards modern inventors.  They who had discovered the use of fire should be considered to be great men. Because, to the true sense, with the use of fire the human civilization began.

(ii) At first, the fire was obtained from blazing logs at the edge of a forest which had been set in flames by lightning. In course of time men learnt to keep fire burning so as to kindle other fires from it.

(iii) The early men keep smouldering logs near their abode and if they got extinguished suddenly, they went in search of fire. The first use it to keep them warm and to frighten away the wild animals.

(iv) The primitive flint workers sometimes used pyrites striking sparks from flint. Then some men would discover that when he directed showers of sparks into dried grass and leaves, he could blow the smouldering parts into flames. Thus they produced fire.

(b) (i) captive (ii) kindle.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-39

India was the home of guru-shishya tradition where the pupils stayed in the house of the guru in ancient times. The guru was like the pupils’ own father and he also treated them as his own sons.

The ‘Kauravas’ and the ‘Pandavas’ were the disciples of guru Drona. Drona taught different skills of warfare. One day while the guru was taking a bath in a river suddenly a crocodile caught hold of Drona’s foot. Seeing his ‘guru’ in trouble Arjuna immediately raised his bow and released an arrow. The arrow hit the crocodile and Arjuna was able to rescue his guru. After this incident, Arjuna became Drona’s favourite disciple.

One night, in Drona’s academy, where the ‘Kauravas’ and the ‘Pandavas’ were taking their lessons, the wind blew and put out all the lamps. In the darkness, Arjun found that his fingers could take food from his plate to his mouth without any difficulty. Suddenly he realized that if he could take food in such a way, surely in the darkness his arrow could find its way to the target. So from the very next day, he started practising archery at night, blindfolded. His guru was amazed at his new skill of shooting arrows at the target without depending on his sight. Thus, Arjuna became the greatest archer in the world because of his possession of all the qualities of a good disciple like persistence, determination, hard work and focus.

Questions:

a. Who was the guru of the ‘Kauravas’ and ‘Pandavas’?

Ans: Drona was the guru of the Kauravas and Pandavas.

b. What is the guru-shishya tradition?

Ans: The guru Shishya is a tradition where the pupils stayed in the house of the guru. The guru was like the pupil’s father and he also treated them as his own sons.

c. What did Drona teach the ‘Kauravas’ and the Pandavas’?

Ans: Drona taught the Kauravas and the Pandavas different skills of warfare.

d. How did Arjuna become a favourite disciple of guru Drona?

Ans: One day while guru Drona was taking a bath in a river suddenly a crocodile caught hold of Drona’s foot. Seeing this, Arjuna immediately raised his bow and released an arrow. The arrow hit the crocodile and Arjuna was able to rescue his guru. After this incident, Arjuna became  Drona’s favourite disciple.

e. What were the qualities possessed by Arjuna which made him the greatest archer of the world?

Ans:  Arjuna had all the qualities of a good disciple like persistence, determination, hard work and focus. All these qualities made Arjuna the greatest archer of the world.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-40

Pigeons are one of the many species that belong to the Columbidae bird family. In this family, larger birds are called pigeons and the smaller birds are called doves. The species most commonly seen all around us is the Feral Rock Pigeon, often referred to as the domestic pigeon. Pigeons are found almost everywhere in the world except the Sahara desert. Antarctica and its surrounding islands and the high Arctic.

Pigeon are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills. They have strong wing muscles which comprise around 45 per cent of their body weight. They are amongst the strongest fliers.

Pigeons are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills. They have strong wing muscles which comprise around 45 per cent of their body weight. They are amongst the strongest fliers.

The homing pigeon or homer is a variety derived from the Rock Pigeon. It is specially bred for its ability to find its way home over extremely long distances. This made these birds great messenger pigeons and so we actually had a ‘pigeon post’ service during wartime.

Pigeon is believed to have originated somewhere in Asia. The first images of pigeons were found in Mesopotamia dating back to 3000 BC. It was in Mesopotamia that the wild pigeons began to be domesticated and bred.

Questions:

a. To which bird family does the pigeon belong to?

Ans: Pigeons belong to the Columbidae bird family.

b. What are the smaller birds called in this family?

Ans: The smaller birds in this family are called doves.

c. In which places are pigeons not found?

Ans: The pigeons are not found in Sahara desert, Antarctica and its surrounding islands and the high Arctic. 

d. How do pigeons look like?

Ans: Pigeon is stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills. They have strong wing muscles which comprise around 45 per cent of their body weight. They are amongst the strongest fliers.

e. What do you mean by frugivorous and granivorous?

Ans: By ‘frugivorous’ we mean a bird feeding on fruits and by ‘granivorous’ we mean a bird feeding on grain.

f. Where have the pigeons originated from? 

Ans: Pigeons are believed to have originated somewhere in Asia.

g. Where do we find the first images of pigeons?

Ans: The first images of pigeons were found in Mesopotamia dating back to 3000 BC.

h. Where did the wild pigeons begin to be domesticated?

Ans: The wild pigeons began to be domesticated and bred in Mesopotamia.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-41

Many years ago there lived a brave king named Robert Bruce in Scotland. He fought many battles and won them. But in one such battle, he was badly defeated. He ran away from the battlefield to save his life. He hid himself in a cave near a mountain range. He was in great despair and he gave up all his hope. 

One day he was sitting mournfully inside the cave. Suddenly he saw a spider. The spider was trying to climb up the roof of the cave. But it was not an easy task for the tiny spider and it failed in its repeated attempts. Bruce was minutely observing the activity of the spider and he noticed that after six attempts, the spider finally succeeded in reaching the roof. Bruce learnt a great lesson from this incident. He got encouragement and gained new strength to face his enemy. With this inspiration and courage in his mind, he decided to gather his army one more time in order to fight his enemy away. This time he fought with new vigour and enthusiasm and was ultimately successful in making his country free.

Questions:

a. What was the name of the king?

Ans: The name of the king was Robert Bruce.

b. Where did he rule?

Ans: He ruled in Scotland.

c. Where did he take shelter?

Ans: He took shelter in a cave near a mountain range.

d. What was the spider trying to do?

Ans: The spider was trying to climb up to the roof of the cave.

e. After how many attempts was the spider successful in reaching the roof?

Ans: After six attempts the spider was successful in reaching the roof.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-42

Sheep have excellent vision. They can even see what is behind them without turning their heads. They also have a good sense of smell and hearing. They do not like noise and darkness. They graze on grass from dawn to dusk. They regurgitate the grass and ‘chew the cud’ to digest it properly. Lambs do not require much parental care from a young age and are quite independent.

Sheep are social animals. They live in herds and get very stressed when they are alone. They willingly follow the flock leader to a new pasture. Their habit of sticking close to the others in a flock helps them to stay protected from predators such as big cats, dogs, bears and eagles. When attacked, they choose to flee, usually to higher slopes. They can also defend themselves butting opponent with their horns. They bleat when alone, snort when aggressive and generally go quiet when very frightened and each individual sheep has a distinctive bleat.

Questions:

a. What can sheep see without turning their head?

Ans: The sheep can see what is behind them without turning their head.

b. What do sheep not like?

Ans: The sheep do not like noise and darkness.

c.  What do they do to digest grass properly?

Ans: They regurgitate the grass and chew the cud to digest it properly.

d. How do we know that sheep are social animals?

Ans: Sheep are social animals. They live in herds and get stressed when they are alone. They willingly follow the flock leader to a new pasture. 

Thus we can know that sheep are social animals.

e. What helps them to stay protected?

Ans: Their habit of sticking close to the others in a flock helps them to stay protected from predators. 

f. How do they defend themselves when attacked?

Ans: When attacked, the sheep choose to flee, usually to higher slopes. They can also defend themselves by butting the opponents with their horns.

g. What is the sound made by a sheep called?

Ans: The sound made by a sheep is called ‘bleat’.

h. How do they react in a different situation?

Ans: In different situations, they react differently. They snort when aggressive, they bleat when alone and become quiet when very frightened.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-43

What is striped like zebra and looks like a horse? … Yes, it’s the Okapi. It resembles a hybrid zebra-cum-horse. But actually it is a close cousin of the giraffe. These mammals live a secretive life in the thick equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa, especially in the Ituri forest.

The okapi’s chocolate brown, velvet coat: black, whitish-grey or tan cheeks, throat and chest, and black and white striped stockinged legs afford it a perfect camouflage in the dim light of the dense forest.

The okapi has large ears and a rather long neck and large hoofs. But is distinctive not only because of its unusual coat but also because of its unusually long black tongue.

Okapis feed on leaves, buds and shoots of more than 100 different species of forest plants.

The male can be identified because it has horns called ‘ossicones’ that grow up to around 15 cm. These horns are absent in the females, which can be spotted by a reddish coat and their height. They are usually somewhat taller than the males.

Questions:

a. How does an okapi look like?

Ans: An okapi looks like a horse. But it is actually a close cousin of the giraffe.

b. Where does an okapi live?

Ans: The okapi lives in the thick equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa.

c. What do the okapis feed on?

Ans: The okapis feed leaves, buds, shoots of more than 100 different species of forest plants.

d. How can we identify a male okapi?

Ans: A male okapi bears horns called ‘ossicones’ that grow up to around 15 cm. Those horns are absent in the females. And thus a male okapi is identified.

e. What are the horns of an okapi called?

Ans: The horns of an okapi is called ‘ossicones’.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

 Specimen-44

Our National Flag is a  horizontal tri-colour of deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The deep saffron represents courage and sacrifice. It reminds us of the patriotism and sacrifice of those who laid down their lives in the freedom struggle of India. The white is the middle is the symbol of purity, peace and truth. The dark green at the bottom represents life, fertility and prosperity. It stands for faith and strength. In the centre of the white strip, there is a wheel in navy blue. The wheel signifies motion, progress and dynamism. It has twenty-four spokes. Our national tri-colour is rectangular in shape and the ratio of its length and breadth is 3:2. We must follow certain rules when the national flag is hoisted.

Questions:

a. What are the colours of our National Flag?

b. How many spokes are there in the wheel of the Flag?

c. What does the deep saffron colour represent?

d. What does the dark green colour at the bottom represent?

e. What is the ratio of the length and breadth of our National Flag?

Ans

a. The colours of our National Flag are deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. 

b. There are twenty-four spokes in the wheel of the Flag?

c. The deep saffron colour represents courage and sacrifice. It reminds us of the patriotism and sacrifice of those who laid down their lives in the freedom struggle of India.

d. The dark green colour at the bottom represents life, fertility and prosperity.

e. The ratio of the length and breadth of our National Flag is 3:2.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

Specimen-45

Satyajit Ray was a writer, filmmaker, musician, artist and one of the finest creative thinkers of India. He grew up in Calcutta and graduated from Presidency College. In 1940, on his mother’s insistence, he left for Shantiniketan (Rabindranath Tagore’s university at Bolpur) to attend their art school. His curriculum and interest exposed him to Indian and other Eastern art forms and he eventually gained a deeper appreciation of both Eastern and Western cultures.

On his return to Calcutta, he joined an advertising agency in 1943. He became its art director and within a few years, he rose to the ranks within the company. He also worked for a publishing house as a commercial illustrator and became a leading Indian typographer and book-jacket designer. In 1949, he was encouraged by the French director Jean Renior, who was then in Bengal to shoot ‘The River’. He was also inspired by the Italian filmmaker Vittorio De Sica to make his first film ‘Pather Panchali’.

Over the years, millions of film lovers worldwide have enjoyed his films through ‘Charulata’ (1964), ‘Teen Kanya’ (1961), ‘Ghare Baire’ (1984), ‘Jalsaghar’ (1958), ‘Devi’ (1960), ‘Sadgati’ (1981), ‘Kanchenjungha’ (1962), ‘Ashani Sanket’ (1973),  and ‘Shatranj ke Khilari’ (1977) among others. Humour is also evident in most of Ray’s films and is particularly marked in the comedy ‘Parsh Pathar’ and in the musical ‘Goopy Gyne  Bagha Byne’. The songs composed by Ray for the latter are among his best-known contributions to Bengali culture.

Questions:

a. Who was Satyajit Ray?

b. When did he leave for Shantiniketan?

c. Who wanted him to go to  Shantiniketan?

d. Where did he graduate from?

e. What is his first film?

f. What was the name of the French director who encouraged him?

g. Write the names of some of Satyajit Rays’ Films?

h. For which film is Satyajit Ray known as a music composer?

Ans:

a. Satyajit Ray was a writer, filmmaker, musician, artist and one of the creative thinkers of India.

b. In 1940 he left for Shantiniketan to attend the art school.

c. His mother wanted him to go to  Shantiniketan.

d. He graduated from Presidency College, Calcutta.

e. The first film of Satyajit Ray was ‘Pather Panchali’.

f. The name of the French director who encouraged him was Jean Renoir.

g. The names of some of Satyajit Ray’s Films are ‘Charulata’ (1964), ‘Teen Kanya’ (1961), ‘Ghare Baire’ (1984), ‘Jalsaghar’ (1958), ‘Devi’ (1960), ‘Sadgati’ (1981), ‘Kanchenjungha’ (1962), ‘Ashani Sanket’ (1973),  and ‘Shatranj ke Khilari’ (1977).

h. For the film, ‘Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne’ Satyajit Ray is known as a music composer.

Passage Comprehension Test

 

The End 

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  142. Pingback: কুকুৰা চৰাইৰ কণীৰ দৰে শস্য ।'The Grain as a Hen's Egg - Growhills Publishing

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  144. Pingback: অভিশাপৰ শক্তি ।'Power of Curse' - Growhills Publishing

  145. Pingback: গাড়ীৰে বোকা-ছিটিকনি ।'Car-Splashing' - Growhills Publishing

  146. Pingback: মেকুৰীৰ স্বৰ্গ ।'Cat's Paradise'. - Growhills Publishing

  147. Pingback: মহানগৰত পক্ষী জীৱন ।'Bird Life in the City' - Growhills Publishing

  148. Pingback: পৰিপূর্ণ খিৰিকীৰ সন্ধানত । Search of a Perfect Window' - Growhills Publishing

  149. Pingback: এটা নতুন ফুল | 'A New Flower' in Assamese - Growhills Publishing

  150. Pingback: এজনী সাহসী ব্রিটিছ স্কুলীয়া ছোৱালী |'A Brave British Girl' - Growhills Publishing

  151. Pingback: লীলাৰ বন্ধু | Leela's Friend in Assamese - Growhills Publishing

  152. Pingback: এজন বীৰ | A Hero in Assamese - Growhills Publishing

  153. Pingback: চাৰি টকা | Four Rupees in Assamese - Growhills Publishing

  154. Pingback: ফণী শৰ্মাৰ ‘চিৰাজ’ নাটকত হাস্যৰস - Growhills Publishing

  155. Pingback: ফণী শৰ্মৰ ‘চিৰাজ’ নাটকত সাম্প্ৰদায়িক সম্প্ৰীতিৰ চিত্ৰ - Growhills Publishing

  156. Pingback: সামাজিক নাটক হিচাপে  ফণী শৰ্মাৰ ‘চিৰাজ’ - Growhills Publishing

  157. Pingback: বন্ধু কেন ফিৰে আসেনা - Growhills Publishing

  158. Pingback: বন্ধু আমাৰ প্ৰাণ কাঢ়িয়া  - Growhills Publishing

  159. Pingback: বন্ধু ছাড়া আমি বাছিনা - Growhills Publishing

  160. Pingback: তুমি নীল আকাশেৰ তাৰা - Growhills Publishing

  161. Pingback: কেন আমি বন্ধুৰ দেখা পাইনা - Growhills Publishing

  162. Pingback: নাৰী জাতি জন্ম থেকেই - Growhills Publishing

  163. Pingback: মেয়ে লোকেৰ স্বভাৱেৰ কথা - Growhills Publishing

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  166. Pingback: দূৰে ৰইলা  প্ৰাণেৰ বন্ধু - Growhills Publishing

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  168. Pingback: তোমাৰ জন্য গাঁথছি বন্ধু - Growhills Publishing

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  170. Pingback: আমি তোমাৰ পিৰিতে - Growhills Publishing

  171. Pingback: তোমাৰ আশায় আছি দয়াল  - Growhills Publishing

  172. Pingback: তুমি যদি হইতা বন্ধু - Growhills Publishing

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  174. Pingback: - Growhills Publishing

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  179. Pingback: আমাৰ সোনা বন্ধু প্ৰাণেৰ বন্ধু - Growhills Publishing

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  226. Pingback: কবিতা মোৰ ।কবিতা মোৰ-ৰাব্বি মছৰুৰ - Growhills Publishing

  227. Pingback: দুটি স্তৱক | দুটি স্তৱক-ৰাব্বি মছৰুৰ - Growhills Publishing

  228. Pingback: প্ৰীতি । প্ৰীতি -ৰাব্বি মছৰুৰ - Growhills Publishing

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  237. Pingback: অনুৰূপ  আৰু  অনুকাৰ  শব্দ - Growhills Publishing

  238. Pingback: বিপৰীত অর্থবোধক শব্দ | Assamese Antonym - Growhills Publishing

  239. Pingback: ষত্ব বিধি - Growhills Publishing

  240. Pingback: অনুসৰ্গ আৰু উপশব্দ - Growhills Publishing

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  242. Pingback: সন্ধি - Growhills Publishing

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  253. Pingback: উচ্চাৰণ অনুযায়ী ব্যঞ্জন বৰ্ণৰ বিভাজন - Growhills Publishing

  254. Pingback: বৰ্ণ বিভাজন । Classification of Assamese Letters - Growhills Publishing

  255. Pingback: ৰাধা-ৰুকুণী - Growhills Publishing

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  258. Pingback: গগন চন্দ্ৰ সোনোৱাল - Growhills Publishing

  259. Pingback: বলাইৰাম সেনাপতি - Growhills Publishing

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